Conjunctival Melanocytic Lesions

Citation:

Bresler SC, Simon C, Shields CL, McHugh JB, Stagner AM, Patel RM. Conjunctival Melanocytic Lesions. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2021;

Date Published:

2021 Aug 23

Abstract:

CONTEXT.—: Conjunctival melanocytic lesions consist of a variety of neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions. These include benign processes such as primary intraepithelial hypermelanosis and melanocytic hyperplasia, secondary forms of intraepithelial hypermelanosis and melanocytic hyperplasia, melanocytic nevi, melanocytic proliferations with malignant potential, and melanoma. OBJECTIVE.—: To provide a concise yet comprehensive resource regarding the histopathologic diagnosis of conjunctival melanocytic lesions. We aim to detail and clarify the numerous classification schemes that exist for junctional melanocytic proliferations of the conjunctiva (known as primary acquired melanosis or PAM; also termed conjunctival melanocytic intraepithelial neoplasia or C-MIN). Although not uniformly adopted, C-MIN is classified by using a numeric system based on a defined set of criteria. A less complex scheme (conjunctival melanocytic intraepithelial lesion or CMIL) has recently been proposed by the World Health Organization. Additionally, we aim to update the reader regarding molecular features and prognostic indicators. DATA SOURCES.—: Peer-reviewed literature and archived cases for illustration. CONCLUSIONS.—: Accurate histologic classification is essential, as PAM/C-MIN/CMILs that have a significant potential to progress to invasive melanoma may be clinically indistinguishable from low-risk lesions. Conjunctival melanoma (CM) more closely resembles cutaneous melanoma in terms of its pathogenesis and molecular features, compared to melanoma arising at other mucosal sites or to uveal melanoma. Depth of invasion and ulceration status, among other factors, have emerged as important prognostic indicators in CM. Sentinel lymph node biopsy may provide further prognostic information. Lastly, integration of pathologic and clinical findings is essential at this anatomically sensitive location to determine appropriate clinical management.

Last updated on 08/31/2021