The presence of optic nerve swelling in pediatric patients is a frequent cause for referral to pediatric ophthalmologists and neuro-ophthalmologists because this finding can be the harbinger of serious neurologic disease including brain tumor, demyelinating disease, infiltrative disease of the optic nerve, or idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) are common and can be particularly difficult to distinguish from true optic nerve swelling in pediatric patients because the ONHD are typically buried beneath the substance of the optic nerve. Correct identification of ONHD is relevant because of the visual morbidity associated with this condition and because of the need to distinguish pseudopapilledema secondary to ONHD from true optic nerve swelling. A variety of imaging modalities may be employed to evaluate for the presence of ONHD, including ultrasound, optical coherence tomography (OCT), enhanced depth imaging-OCT, fluorescein angiography, fundus autofluorescence, and optical coherence tomography angiography. To date, there is no consensus as to which of these techniques is most accurate and which should be part of a standardized evaluation for children suspected of ONHD. This review examines the recent literature analyzing these diagnostic tools and summarizes data regarding best practices for identifying ONHD.