Glaucoma is a frequent and devastating long-term complication following ocular trauma, including corneal surgery, open globe injury, chemical burn, and infection. Postevent inflammation and neuroglial remodeling play a key role in subsequent ganglion cell apoptosis and glaucoma. To this end, this study was designed to investigate the amplifying role of monocyte infiltration into the retina. By using three different ocular injury mouse models (corneal suture, penetrating keratoplasty, and globe injury) and monocyte fate mapping techniques, we show that ocular trauma or surgery can cause robust infiltration of bone marrow-derived monocytes into the retina and subsequent neuroinflammation by up-regulation of Tnf, Il1b, and Il6 mRNA within 24 hours. This is accompanied by ganglion cell apoptosis and neurodegeneration. Prompt inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α or IL-1β markedly suppresses monocyte infiltration and ganglion cell loss. Thus, acute ocular injury (surgical or trauma) can lead to rapid neuroretinal inflammation and subsequent ganglion cell loss, the hallmark of glaucoma. Infiltrating monocytes play a central role in this process, likely amplifying the inflammatory cascade, aiding in the activation of retinal microglia. Prompt administration of cytokine inhibitors after ocular injury prevents this infiltration and ameliorates the damage to the retina-suggesting that it may be used prophylactically for neuroprotection against post-traumatic glaucoma.