Purpose: To determine if extraocular muscles (EOMs) from mice with nystagmus show abnormalities in myofiber composition and innervation, as seen in EOMs from human nystagmus patients, and to determine when in development those changes occur. Methods: Balb/c albino mice were crossed to pigmented mice to generate heterozygous mice, which were mated to create experimental litters containing albinos and wild-type controls. Orbits were harvested from adult animals (12 weeks old); on postnatal day (P)0, P10, P14, and P21; and from 6-week-old animals. EOM sections were collected from the intraorbital portion of the muscles. Sections were immunostained for slow and fast myosin and for neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The proportion of each myofiber subtype and the density and size of NMJs were quantified. Initial innervation patterns were assessed using whole-mount immunostaining of embryonic day (E)13.5 embryos expressing IslMN:GFP. Results: Adult albino EOMs display an increased proportion of slow myofibers, larger slow myofibers, and a decreased density of NMJs-similar to human nystagmus patients. The percentage of NMJs on slow myofibers is also lower in albino animals. The initial innervation pattern of the incoming ocular motor neurons is normal in E13.5 albino embryos. Differences in the proportion of slow and fast myofiber subtypes are present as early as P14, and a lower percentage of NMJs on slow myofibers is present by P21. There is a lower density of NMJs on albino EOMs as early as P10, prior to eye opening. Conclusions: Changes in NMJ development observed before eye opening indicate that nystagmus is not solely secondary to poor vision.