BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is highly comorbid with Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet its role is not entirely understood. Nailfold video capillaroscopy (NVC) is a noninvasive method of live imaging the capillaries near the fingernail's cuticle and may help to describe further vascular contributions to AD. OBJECTIVE: To examine finger nailfold capillary morphology using NVC in subjects with AD dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and normal cognition (NC). METHODS: We evaluated nailfold capillary hemorrhages, avascular zones ≥100 microns, and degree of tortuosity in 28 NC, 15 MCI, and 18 AD dementia subjects using NVC. Tortuosity was measured with a semi-quantitative rating scale. To assess the relation between nailfold capillary morphological features and diagnostic grouping, univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were fit to the data. RESULTS: 56% of subjects with AD dementia compared to 14% with NC and 13% with MCI displayed moderate to severe tortuosity. Greater severity of tortuosity was associated with 10.6-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.4, 46.2; p = 0.0018) and 7.4-fold (95% CI: 1.3, 41.3; p = 0.023) increased odds of AD dementia relative to NC and MCI, respectively, after adjusting for multiple covariates. CONCLUSION: Greater nailfold capillary tortuosity was found in participants with AD dementia compared to those with MCI or NC. These data provide preliminary evidence of a systemic microvasculopathy in AD that may be noninvasively and inexpensively evaluated through NVC.