PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the ophthalmic findings associated with peripapillary hyperreflective ovoid mass-like structures (PHOMS) in both adult and pediatric patients. RECENT FINDINGS: PHOMS have recently been identified in a number of different ophthalmic disease entities ranging from nonpathologic to pathologic, including but not limited to anatomic abnormalities (tilting in myopia), optic nerve head drusen, optic disc edema from inflammation (optic neuritis, white dot syndromes), vascular insults (ischemic optic neuropathy, retinal vascular occlusion), and papilledema. The mechanism underlying the formation of PHOMS has not been fully elucidated although it has been hypothesized that PHOMS occur secondary to axoplasmic stasis from crowding at the optic nerve head. SUMMARY: Although the clinical significance of the presence of PHOMS remains unclear, PHOMS are associated with several disease processes. Understanding the mechanism behind their formation and their impact on optic nerve head structure and visual function may be relevant in patients with optic nerve head pathology. The presence of PHOMS may also correlate with disease severity and duration. Future studies to evaluate whether the formation of PHOMS may be useful as an early indicator of disease or a prognostic tool are warranted.