Bacterial keratitis continues to be one of the leading causes of corneal blindness in the developed as well as the developing world, despite swift progress since the dawn of the "anti-biotic era". Although, we are expeditiously developing our understanding about the different causative organisms and associated pathology leading to keratitis, extensive gaps in knowledge continue to dampen the efforts for early and accurate diagnosis, and management in these patients, resulting in poor clinical outcomes. The ability of the causative bacteria to subdue the therapeutic challenge stems from their large genome encoding complex regulatory networks, variety of unique virulence factors, and rapid secretion of tissue damaging proteases and toxins. In this review article, we have provided an overview of the established classical diagnostic techniques and therapeutics for keratitis caused by various bacteria. We have extensively reported our recent in-roads through novel tools for accurate diagnosis of mono- and poly-bacterial corneal infections. Furthermore, we outlined the recent progress by our group and others in understanding the sub-cellular genomic changes that lead to antibiotic resistance in these organisms. Finally, we discussed in detail, the novel therapies and drug delivery systems in development for the efficacious management of bacterial keratitis.