The functional competence of corneal endothelial cells (CEnCs) is critical for survival of corneal allografts, but these cells are often targets of the immune response mediated by graft-attacking effector T cells. Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been studied for their role in regulating the host's alloimmune response towards the graft, the cytoprotective function of these cells on CEnCs has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine whether Tregs suppress effector T cell-mediated and inflammatory cytokine-induced CEnC death, and to elucidate the mechanism by which this cytoprotection occurs. Using 2 well-established models of corneal transplantation (low-risk and high-risk models), we show that Tregs derived from low-risk graft recipients have a superior capacity in protecting CEnCs against effector T cell-mediated and interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α-induced cell death compared to Tregs derived from high-risk hosts. We further demonstrate that the cytoprotective function of Tregs derived from low-risk hosts occurs independently of direct cell-cell contact and is mediated by the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10. Our study is the first to report that Tregs provide cytoprotection for CEnCs through secretion of IL-10, indicating potentially novel therapeutic targets for enhancing CEnC survival following corneal transplantation.