# Cataract

Cataract Publications

Song C, Baharozian CJ, Hatch KM, Talamo JH. Assessment of surgeon experience with femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. Clin Ophthalmol 2018;12:1373-1377.Abstract
Purpose: To evaluate the collective user experience with an image-guided femtosecond laser (FSL) for cataract surgery in a high-volume, multi-surgeon, ambulatory surgical center. Subjects and methods: A detailed online survey was distributed to all surgeons in a single ambulatory surgical center who had performed cataract surgery using a FSL since its acquisition in December 2012. Information collected included the number of cases performed, typical surgical techniques and parameters, satisfaction with individual features of the laser (rated on a scale from 1=completely unsatisfied to 10=extremely satisfied) and commentary on ease of use and suggested improvements. Results: Seventeen of 30 surgeons (56.7%) completed the survey, representing a case volume of 1,967 eyes. Fourteen surgeons (82.4%) felt they required ≤10 cases with the FSL to operate with the same safety and control as in standard phacoemulsification surgery. Satisfaction was highest for capsulotomies, lens fragmentation, lens softening, arcuate incisions and the graphic user interface (mean scores 9.4, 8.7, 8.7, 7.2 and 8.9, respectively). Preferred capsulotomy diameter was 4.8-5.2 mm (64.7% of respondents). About half (52.9%) of respondents centered the capsulotomy on the pupil and the other 47.1% centered the capsulotomy using optical coherence tomography. Most respondents (81.3%) preferred transepithelial arcuate incisions compared to intrastromal incisions. Satisfaction was lowest with FSL-created, main, clear corneal incisions and paracenteses (mean scores 4.4 and 4.2, respectively). Conclusion: Laser-assisted cataract surgery has a short learning curve and a high rate of user satisfaction. Further software and hardware development is warranted to improve user satisfaction with peripheral and clear corneal incisions.
Borboli-Gerogiannis S, Jeng-Miller KW, Koulisis N, Moustafa GA, Chang KK, Chen SH, Gardiner MF, Greenstein SH, Luo Z, Chen TC, Loewenstein JI, Miller JW, Haviland MJ, Kloek CE. A Comprehensive Surgical Curriculum Reduced Intra-operative Complication Rates of Resident-performed Cataract Surgeries. J Surg Educ 2018;Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of a comprehensive cataract surgery curriculum on the incidence of intraoperative complications. DESIGN: We retrospectively compared the total number of cataract surgeries that the residents performed in all of the teaching sites, and the incidences of intraoperative complications (anterior capsule tear, posterior capsule rent, vitreous loss, anterior vitrectomy, zonular dialysis, iris trauma, hemorrhage, dropped lens fragment, corneal wound burn, incorrect intraocular lens) for the surgeries performed at Massachusetts Eye & Ear by residents in the pre-intervention group (residents graduating in 2004 and 2005), before the implementation of a surgical curriculum, and the residents in the post-intervention group (residents graduating in 2014 and 2015). SETTING: Ophthalmology residency program at a major academic institution. PARTICIPANTS: Residents graduating in 2004, 2005, 2014, and 2015. RESULTS: We reviewed 4373 charts. 2086 of those surgeries were performed at Massachusetts Eye & Ear. The incidence of posterior capsule rent/vitreous loss/anterior vitrectomy was lower in the post-intervention group (1.4% versus 7.7%, p < 0.0001). Other complications were also lower in the post-intervention group. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a comprehensive cataract surgery curriculum focusing on pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative interventions, with an emphasis on patient outcomes resulted in a decrease in the rate of intraoperative complications.
Guhan S, Peng S-L, Janbatian H, Saadeh S, Greenstein S, Al Bahrani F, Fadlallah A, Yeh T-C, Melki SA. Surgical adhesives in ophthalmology: history and current trends. Br J Ophthalmol 2018;Abstract
Tissue adhesives are gaining popularity in ophthalmology, as they could potentially reduce the complications associated with current surgical methods. An ideal tissue adhesive should have superior tensile strength, be non-toxic and anti-inflammatory, improve efficiency and be cost-effective. Both synthetic and biological glues are available. The primary synthetic glues include cyanoacrylate and the recently introduced polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives, while most biological glues are composed of fibrin. Cyanoacrylate has a high tensile strength, but rapidly polymerises upon contact with any fluid and has been associated with histotoxicity. Fibrin induces less toxic and inflammatory reactions, and its polymerisation time can be controlled. Tensile strength studies have shown that fibrin is not as strong as cyanoacrylate. While more research is needed, PEG variants currently appear to have the most promise. These glues are non-toxic, strong and time-effective. Through MEDLINE and internet searches, this paper presents a systematic review of the current applications of surgical adhesives to corneal, glaucoma, retinal, cataract and strabismus surgeries. Our review suggests that surgical adhesives have promise to reduce problems in current ophthalmic surgical procedures.
Hwang AD, Tuccar-Burak M, Goldstein R, Peli E. Impact of Oncoming Headlight Glare With Cataracts: A Pilot Study. Front Psychol 2018;9:164.Abstract
Oncoming headlight glare (HLG) reduces the visibility of objects on the road and may affect the safety of nighttime driving. With cataracts, the impact of oncoming HLG is expected to be more severe. We used our custom HLG simulator in a driving simulator to measure the impact of HLG on pedestrian detection by normal vision subjects with simulated mild cataracts and by patients with real cataracts.Five normal vision subjects drove nighttime scenarios under two HLG conditions (with and without HLG: HLGY and HLGN, respectively), and three vision conditions (with plano lens, simulated mild cataract, and optically blurred clip-on). Mild cataract was simulated by applying a 0.8 Bangerter diffusion foil to clip-on plano lenses. The visual acuity with the optically blurred lenses was individually chosen to match the visual acuity with the simulated cataract clip-ons under HLGN. Each nighttime driving scenario contains 24 pedestrian encounters, encompassing four pedestrian types; walking along the left side of the road, walking along the right side of the road, crossing the road from left to right, and crossing the road from right to left. Pedestrian detection performances of five patients with mild real cataracts were measured using the same setup. The cataract patients were tested only in HLGY and HLGN conditions. Participants' visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were also measured in the simulator with and without stationary HLG.For normal vision subjects, both the presence of oncoming HLG and wearing the simulated cataract clip-on reduced pedestrian detection performance. The subjects performed worst in events where the pedestrian crossed from the left, followed by events where the pedestrian crossed from the right. Significant interactions between HLG condition and other factors were also found: (1) the impact of oncoming HLG with the simulated cataract clip-on was larger than with the plano lens clip-on, (2) the impact of oncoming HLG was larger with the optically blurred clip-on than with the plano lens clip-on, but smaller than with the simulated cataract clip-on, and (3) the impact was larger for the pedestrians that crossed from the left than those that crossed from the right, and for the pedestrians walking along the left side of the road than walking along the right side of the road, suggesting that the pedestrian proximity to the glare source contributed to the performance reduction. Under HLGN, almost no pedestrians were missed with the plano lens or the simulated cataract clip-on (0 and 0.5%, respectively), but under HLGY, the rate of pedestrian misses increased to 0.5 and 6%, respectively. With the optically blurred clip-on, the percent of missed pedestrians under HLGN and HLGY did not change much (5% and 6%, respectively). Untimely response rate increased under HLGY with the plano lens and simulated cataract clip-ons, but the increase with the simulated cataract clip-on was significantly larger than with the plano lens clip-on. The contrast sensitivity with the simulated cataract clip-on was significantly degraded under HLGY. The visual acuity with the plano lens clip-on was significantly improved under HLGY, possibly due to pupil myosis. The impact of HLG measured for real cataract patients was similar to the impact on performance of normal vision subjects with simulated cataract clip-ons.Even with mild (simulated or real) cataracts, a substantial negative effect of oncoming HLG was measurable in the detection of crossing and walking-along pedestrians. The lowered pedestrian detection rates and longer response times with HLGY demonstrate a possible risk that oncoming HLG poses to patients driving with cataracts.
Chen CL, Clay TH, McLeod S, Peggy Chang H-Y, Gelb AW, Dudley AR. A Revised Estimate of Costs Associated With Routine Preoperative Testing in Medicare Cataract Patients With a Procedure-Specific Indicator. JAMA Ophthalmol 2018;136(3):231-238.Abstract
Importance: Routine preoperative medical testing is not recommended for patients undergoing low-risk surgery, but testing is common before surgery. A 30-day preoperative testing window is conventionally used for study purposes; however, the extent of routine testing that occurs prior to that point is unknown. Objective: To improve on existing cost estimates by identifying all routine preoperative testing that takes place after the decision is made to perform cataract surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study assessed preoperative care in a 50% sample of Medicare beneficiaries older than 66 years who underwent ambulatory cataract surgery in 2011. Data analysis was completed from March 2016 to October 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Using ocular biometry as a procedure-specific indicator to mark the start of the routine preoperative testing window, we measured testing rates in the interval between ocular biometry and cataract surgery and compared this with testing rates in the 6 months preceding biometry. We estimated the total cost of testing that occurred between biometry and cataract surgery. Results: A total of 440 857 patients underwent cataract surgery. A total of 423 710 (96.1%) had an ocular biometry claim before index surgery, of whom 264 514 (60.0%) were female; the mean (SD) age of the cohort was 76.1 (6.2) years. A total of 111 998 (25.4%) underwent surgery more than 30 days after biometry. Among patients with a biometry claim, the mean number of tests/patient/month increased from 1.1 in the baseline period to 1.7 in the interval between biometry and cataract surgery. Although preoperative testing peaked in all patients in the 30 days preceding surgery (1.8 tests/patient/month), the subset of patients with no overlap between postbiometry and presurgery periods experienced increased testing rates to 1.8 tests per patient per month in the 30 days after biometry, regardless of the elapsed time between biometry and surgery. The total estimated cost of routine preoperative testing in the full cohort was $22.7 million; we estimate that routine preoperative testing costs Medicare up to$45.4 million annually. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of Medicare beneficiaries, routine preoperative medical testing occurs more often and is costlier than has been reported previously. Extra costs are attributable to testing that occurs prior to the 30-day window preceding surgery. As a cost-cutting measure, routine preoperative medical testing should be avoided in patients with cataracts throughout the interval between ocular biometry and cataract surgery.
Roberto SA, Bayes J, Karner PE, Morley MG, Nanji KC. Patient Harm in Cataract Surgery: A Series of Adverse Events in Massachusetts. Anesth Analg 2018;126(5):1548-1550.Abstract
Massachusetts state agencies received reports of 37 adverse events (AEs) involving cataract surgery from 2011 to 2015. Fifteen were anesthesia related, including 5 wrong eye blocks, 3 cases of hemodynamic instability, 2 retrobulbar hematoma/hemorrhages, and 5 globe perforations resulting in permanent loss of vision. While Massachusetts' reported AEs likely underrepresent the true number of AEs that occur during cataract surgery, they do offer useful signal data to indicate the types of patient harm occurring during these procedures.
Nanji KC, Roberto SA, Morley MG, Bayes J. Preventing Adverse Events in Cataract Surgery: Recommendations From a Massachusetts Expert Panel. Anesth Analg 2018;126(5):1537-1547.Abstract
Sanguansak T, Morley KE, Morley MG, Thinkhamrop K, Thuanman J, Agarwal I. Two-Way Social Media Messaging in Postoperative Cataract Surgical Patients: Prospective Interventional Study. J Med Internet Res 2017;19(12):e413.Abstract
Indaram M, VanderVeen DK. Postoperative Refractive Errors Following Pediatric Cataract Extraction with Intraocular Lens Implantation. Semin Ophthalmol 2017;:1-8.Abstract
PURPOSE: Advances in surgical techniques allow implantation of intraocular lenses (IOL) with cataract extraction, even in young children. However, there are several challenges unique to the pediatric population that result in greater degrees of postoperative refractive error compared to adults. METHODS: Literature review of the techniques and outcomes of pediatric cataract surgery with IOL implantation. RESULTS: Pediatric cataract surgery is associated with several sources of postoperative refractive error. These include planned refractive error based on age or fellow eye status, loss of accommodation, and unexpected refractive errors due to inaccuracies in biometry technique, use of IOL power formulas based on adult normative values, and late refractive changes due to unpredictable eye growth. CONCLUSIONS: Several factors can preclude the achievement of optimal refractive status following pediatric cataract extraction with IOL implantation. There is a need for new technology to reduce postoperative refractive surprises and address refractive adjustment in a growing eye.
Bouffard MA, Cestari DM. Diplopia after Cataract Extraction. Semin Ophthalmol 2017;:1-6.Abstract
Diplopia after cataract extraction is an unexpected outcome for the patient and often a source of confusion for the physician, owing to its relative infrequency. This article reviews the pertinent literature on the subject. Mechanisms include anesthetic myotoxicity, surgical trauma, optical aberrations, cortical disorders in patients with congenital strabismus, and the unmasking of previously unnoticed ocular misalignment. As the population continues to age and cataract extraction is performed in increasing volume, familiarity with this uncommon but important outcome may help to clarify and effectively treat post-cataract-extraction diplopia.
Roohipoor R, Yaseri M, Teymourpour A, Kloek C, Miller JB, Loewenstein JI. Early Performance on an Eye Surgery Simulator Predicts Subsequent Resident Surgical Performance. J Surg Educ 2017;Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To examine early performance on an eye surgery simulator and its relationship to subsequent live surgical performance in a single large residency program. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School, Department of Ophthalmology. METHODS: In a retrospective study, we compared performance of 30 first-year ophthalmology residents on an eye surgery simulator to their surgical skills as third-year residents. Variables collected from the eye surgery simulator included scores on the following modules of the simulator (Eyesi, VRmagic, Mannheim, Germany): antitremor training level 1, bimanual training level 1, capsulorhexis level 1 (configured), forceps training level 1, and navigation training level 1. Subsequent surgical performance was assessed using the total number of phacoemulsification cataract surgery cases for each resident, as well as the number performed as surgeon during residency and scores on global rating assessment of skills in intraocular surgery (GRASIS) scales during the third year of residency. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between each of the simulator performance and subsequent surgical performance variables. We also compared variables in a small group of residents who needed extra help in learning cataract surgery to the other residents in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relationships between Eyesi scores early in residency and surgical performance measures in the final year of residency. RESULTS: A total of 30 residents had Eyesi data from their first year of residency and had already graduated so that all subsequent surgical performance data were available. There was a significant correlation between capsulorhexis task score on the simulator and total surgeries (r = 0.745, p = 0.008). There was a significant correlation between antitremor training level 1 (r = 0.554, p = 0.040), and forceps training level 1 (r = 0.622, p = 0.023) with primary surgery numbers. There was a significant correlation between forceps training level 1 (r = 0.811, p = 0.002), and navigation training level 1 (r = 0.692, p =0.013) with total GRASIS score. There was a significant inverse correlation between total GRASIS score and residents in need of extra help (r = -0.358, p =0.003). CONCLUSION: Module scores on an eye surgery simulator early in residency may predict a resident׳s future performance in the operating room. These scores may allow early identification of residents in need of supplemental training in cataract surgery.

Turalba A, Cakiner-Egilmez T, Payal AR, Gonzalez-Gonzalez LA, Chomsky AS, Vollman DE, Baze EF, Lawrence MG, Daly MK. Outcomes after cataract surgery in eyes with pseudoexfoliation: Results from the Veterans Affairs Ophthalmic Surgery Outcomes Data Project. Can J Ophthalmol 2017;52(1):61-68.Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical outcomes of cataract surgery in eyes with and without pseudoexfoliation (PXF). DESIGN: Retrospective deidentified data analysis. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 123 PXF and 4776 non-PXF eyes of patients who underwent cataract surgery. METHODS: We compared data on visual acuity, Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ)-based quality of life, and complications in PXF and non-PXF eyes from the Veterans Affairs (VA) Ophthalmic Surgery Outcomes Data Project across 5 VA medical centres. RESULTS: Pupillary expansion devices were used in 31 (25.2%) PXF cases and 398 (8.4%) non-PXF cases (p < 0.0001). Capsular tension rings were used in 6 (4.9%) PXF cases and 55 (1.2%) non-PXF cases (p < 0.004). The following complications occurred more frequently in PXF cases: zonular dehiscence without vitrectomy (4 [3.3%] PXF cases vs 40 [0.8%] non-PXF cases p = 0.02), persistent inflammation (28 [24.1%] vs 668 [14.5%]; p = 0.007), and persistent intraocular pressure elevation (5 [4.3%] vs 68 [1.5%]; p = 0.03). Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved in both groups after 1 month, but 87 (83.7%) PXF cases achieved postoperative BCVA better than or equal to 20/40 compared to 3991 (93.8%) non-PXF cases (p = 0.0003). There was no significant difference in the postoperative composite VFQ scores between PXF (82.1 ± 16.9) and non-PXF cases (84.2 ± 16.8, p = 0.09). CONCLUSIONS: Several complications occurred more frequently in the PXF group compared to the non-PXF group, and fewer PXF cases achieved BCVA better than or equal to 20/40. Despite this, both groups experienced similar improvement in vision-related quality of life after cataract surgery.

Nihalani BR, VanderVeen DK. Benchmarks for outcome indicators in pediatric cataract surgery. Eye (Lond) 2017;31(3):417-421.Abstract

PurposeThe purpose of this study was to establish benchmarks for outcome indicators that may help ascertain the quality of pediatric cataract surgery with primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation.Patients and methodsA retrospective chart review of patients older than 2 years undergoing cataract surgery with primary IOL implantation, by multiple surgeons in a tertiary-care center, from November 2005 to February 2016 was conducted. Patients with ocular comorbidities that would affect the outcomes were excluded. The outcome measures chosen were as follows: (1) final best corrected Snellen visual acuity (BCVA) in patients who had bilateral cataract surgery analyzed at the last clinic visit; (2) prediction error (PE)=expected refraction-actual refraction. Mean PE and mean absolute PE were assessed 1 month postoperatively, irrespective of age or laterality.ResultsMean age at surgery was 8.3±4.6 years and mean follow-up duration was 3.7±2.7 years. The results of outcome measures were as follows: (1) BCVA was 20/40 or better in 96% (n=124 eyes, mean patient age: 8.3±4.6 years). Remaining five eyes had amblyopia with two eyes having BCVA worse than 20/100 that did not respond to amblyopia treatment. (2) Mean PE was 0.3±1.1 D and mean absolute PE was 0.9±0.7 D. PE was within ±0.5 D in 43.0%, ±1.0 D in 66%, and ±2.0 D in 95% (n=235 eyes).ConclusionGood visual acuity after cataract surgery should be expected for children with bilateral cataracts, setting a high benchmark similar to that recommended in adult cataract surgery. Prediction error is greater in pediatric eyes than in adult eyes, setting a lower benchmark. This study establishes benchmark for outcome indicators in pediatric patients older than 2 years undergoing cataract surgery with primary IOL implantation.

Finn AP, Borboli-Gerogiannis S, Brauner S, Peggy Chang H-Y, Chen S, Gardiner M, Greenstein SH, Kloek C, Miller JW, Chen TC. Assessing Resident Cataract Surgery Outcomes Using Medicare Physician Quality Reporting System Measures. J Surg Educ 2016;73(5):774-9.Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To assess resident cataract surgery outcomes at an academic teaching institution using 2 Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) cataract measures, which are intended to serve as a proxy for quality of surgical care. DESIGN: A retrospective review comparing cataract surgery outcomes of resident and attending surgeries using 2 PQRS measures: (1) 20/40 or better best-corrected visual acuity following cataract surgery and (2) complications within 30 days following cataract surgery requiring additional surgical procedures. SETTING: An academic ophthalmology center. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2487 surgeries performed at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2012 were included in this study. RESULTS: Of all 2487 cataract surgeries, 98.95% achieved a vision of at least 20/40 at or before 90 days, and only 0.64% required a return to the operating room for postoperative complications. Of resident surgeries, 98.9% (1370 of 1385) achieved 20/40 vision at or before 90 days follow-up. Of attending surgeries, 99.0% (1091 of 1102) achieved 20/40 vision at or before 90 days (p = 1.00). There were no statistically significant differences between resident and attending cases regarding postoperative complications needing a return to the operating room (i.e., 0.65%, or 9 of 1385 resident cases vs 0.64%, or 7 of 1102 attending cases; p = 1.00). CONCLUSIONS: Using PQRS Medicare cataract surgery criteria, this study establishes new benchmarks for cataract surgery outcomes at a teaching institution and supplemental measure for assessing resident surgical performance. Excellent cataract outcomes were achieved at an academic teaching institution, with results exceeding Medicare thresholds of 50%. There appears to be no significant difference in supervised trainee and attending cataract surgeon outcomes using 2 PQRS measures currently used by Medicare to determine physician reimbursement and quality of care.