# Cataract

Cataract Publications

Moustafa GA, Borkar DS, McKay MK, Eton EA, Koulisis N, Lorch AC, Kloek CE, Kloek CE. Outcomes in resident-performed cataract surgeries with iris challenges: Results from the Perioperative Care for Intraocular Lens study. J Cataract Refract Surg 2018;44(12):1469-1477.Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess the outcomes of resident-performed cataract surgeries with iris challenges and to compare these outcomes with similar surgeries performed by attending surgeons. SETTING: Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. METHODS: All cases of cataract extraction by phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation, performed by comprehensive ophthalmologists between January 1 and December 31, 2014, were reviewed. Cases with preoperative or intraoperative miosis, iris prolapse, and intraoperative floppy iris syndrome, were included for analysis. Visual outcomes and the rate of perioperative adverse events were compared between resident and attending surgeon cases. Factors predicting adverse events were also assessed. RESULTS: In total, 1931 eye cases of 1434 patients were reviewed, and 65 resident cases and 168 attending surgeon cases were included. The mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution corrected distance visual acuity was better in the resident group 1 month after surgery (0.051 ± 0.10 [SD] versus 0.132 ± 0.30, P = .03); however, the difference was eliminated when controlling for macular disease. The mean operative time was 43.8 ± 26.5 minutes and 30.9 ± 12.6 minutes for cases performed by resident surgeons and attending surgeons, respectively (P  .0001). Residents utilized supplemental pharmacologic dilation or retraction more frequently than attending surgeons (98% versus 87% of cases, P = .008). The overall rate of adverse events was no different between residents and attending surgeons (P = 0.16). Dense nuclear sclerosis predicted adverse events in cataract cases with iris challenges (adjusted odds ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.94; P = .001). CONCLUSION: Although requiring longer operative times and more surgical manipulation, residents who performed cataract surgeries with iris challenges achieved outcomes comparable to those performed by attending surgeons, and residents should be given the opportunity to operate on these eyes.
Koo EB, VanderVeen DK, Lambert SR. Global Practice Patterns in the Management of Infantile Cataracts. Eye Contact Lens 2018;44 Suppl 2:S292-S296.Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Surveys are an important tool to assess the impact of research on physicians' approach to patient care. This survey was conducted to assess current practice patterns in the management of infantile cataracts in light of the findings of the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. METHODS: Pediatric ophthalmologists were emailed a link to the survey using newsletters from American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, World Society of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, and the Pediatric Listserv. The 17-question survey was anonymous and active during July to August 2016. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-five respondents (North America, 65%; Asia, 12%; Europe, 9%; and other, 14%) reported operating on pediatric cataracts. Most practice in a university setting (55%). There was a strong consensus that unilateral cataract surgery should be performed between ages 4 to 6 weeks and aphakic contact lenses should be used to optically correct their eyes, particularly in children ≤6 months of age. For bilateral cataracts, there was a trend for surgeons to perform cataract surgery at an older age than unilateral cataract surgery. Surgeons who performed less than 5 versus greater than 20 pediatric cataract surgeries/year were more likely to use aphakic contact lenses in children undergoing cataract surgery more than 6 months of age (62% vs. 35%, P=0.04). Most respondents (73%) indicated that the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study had changed how they manage unilateral congenital cataracts. CONCLUSION: Most pediatric cataract surgeons perform congenital cataract surgery between ages 4 to 6 weeks and use aphakic contact lenses for initial optical correction in infants less than 6 months. Surgeons have equal preference for intraocular lenses and contact lenses in infants more than 6 months of age.
Borkar DS, Lains I, Eton EA, Koulisis N, Moustafa GA, van Zyl T, Kloek CE, Kloek CE. Incidence of Management Changes at the Postoperative Week One Visit after Cataract Surgery: Results from the PCIOL Study. Am J Ophthalmol 2018;Abstract
PURPOSE: To ascertain the incidence of unexpected management changes at the postoperative week one visit in asymptomatic patients who have had an uncomplicated cataract surgery and a routine postoperative day one examination. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study METHODS: Retrospective chart review was conducted of all cases of cataract extraction by phacoemulsification with intraocular lens insertion performed by the Comprehensive Ophthalmology Service at Massachusetts Eye and Ear between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2014. The preoperative consultation, operative report, and postoperative day one and week one (postoperative days 5-14) visits were reviewed. Cases with intraoperative complications, as well as clinical findings at postoperative day one requiring close follow up, were excluded. The main outcome measure was incidence of unexpected management changes at the postoperative week one visit after cataract surgery, defined as an unanticipated change in postoperative drops, additional procedures, or urgent referral to a specialty service. RESULTS: Overall, 1938 surgical cases of 1471 patients were reviewed, and 1510 cases (77.9%) underwent uncomplicated phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation with a routine postoperative day one exam. Of these 1510 cases, 238 (15.8%) reported symptoms at the postoperative week one visit, including flashes, floaters, redness, pain, or decreased vision, which warranted an exam. In total, 1272 cases were asymptomatic, and only 11 of these cases (0.9%) had an unexpected management change at postoperative week one. Eight of the 11 patients were asymptomatic steroid responders requiring alteration of their postoperative drops. Two of these patients had an intraocular pressure over 30 mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS: Unexpected management changes at the postoperative week one timepoint after cataract surgery are very rare in asymptomatic patients who have had uncomplicated cataract surgery and a routine postoperative day one examination. Limited data are available to outline an optimal postoperative regimen after cataract surgery. The results of this study suggest that postoperative week one examinations could potentially be done on an as needed basis in the appropriate subgroup of patients after cataract surgery.
Borboli-Gerogiannis S, Jeng-Miller KW, Koulisis N, Moustafa GA, Chang KK, Chen SH, Gardiner MF, Greenstein SH, Luo Z, Chen TC, Loewenstein JI, Miller JW, Haviland MJ, Kloek CE. A Comprehensive Surgical Curriculum Reduced Intra-operative Complication Rates of Resident-performed Cataract Surgeries. J Surg Educ 2018;Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of a comprehensive cataract surgery curriculum on the incidence of intraoperative complications. DESIGN: We retrospectively compared the total number of cataract surgeries that the residents performed in all of the teaching sites, and the incidences of intraoperative complications (anterior capsule tear, posterior capsule rent, vitreous loss, anterior vitrectomy, zonular dialysis, iris trauma, hemorrhage, dropped lens fragment, corneal wound burn, incorrect intraocular lens) for the surgeries performed at Massachusetts Eye & Ear by residents in the pre-intervention group (residents graduating in 2004 and 2005), before the implementation of a surgical curriculum, and the residents in the post-intervention group (residents graduating in 2014 and 2015). SETTING: Ophthalmology residency program at a major academic institution. PARTICIPANTS: Residents graduating in 2004, 2005, 2014, and 2015. RESULTS: We reviewed 4373 charts. 2086 of those surgeries were performed at Massachusetts Eye & Ear. The incidence of posterior capsule rent/vitreous loss/anterior vitrectomy was lower in the post-intervention group (1.4% versus 7.7%, p < 0.0001). Other complications were also lower in the post-intervention group. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a comprehensive cataract surgery curriculum focusing on pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative interventions, with an emphasis on patient outcomes resulted in a decrease in the rate of intraoperative complications.
Song C, Baharozian CJ, Hatch KM, Talamo JH. Assessment of surgeon experience with femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. Clin Ophthalmol 2018;12:1373-1377.Abstract
Purpose: To evaluate the collective user experience with an image-guided femtosecond laser (FSL) for cataract surgery in a high-volume, multi-surgeon, ambulatory surgical center. Subjects and methods: A detailed online survey was distributed to all surgeons in a single ambulatory surgical center who had performed cataract surgery using a FSL since its acquisition in December 2012. Information collected included the number of cases performed, typical surgical techniques and parameters, satisfaction with individual features of the laser (rated on a scale from 1=completely unsatisfied to 10=extremely satisfied) and commentary on ease of use and suggested improvements. Results: Seventeen of 30 surgeons (56.7%) completed the survey, representing a case volume of 1,967 eyes. Fourteen surgeons (82.4%) felt they required ≤10 cases with the FSL to operate with the same safety and control as in standard phacoemulsification surgery. Satisfaction was highest for capsulotomies, lens fragmentation, lens softening, arcuate incisions and the graphic user interface (mean scores 9.4, 8.7, 8.7, 7.2 and 8.9, respectively). Preferred capsulotomy diameter was 4.8-5.2 mm (64.7% of respondents). About half (52.9%) of respondents centered the capsulotomy on the pupil and the other 47.1% centered the capsulotomy using optical coherence tomography. Most respondents (81.3%) preferred transepithelial arcuate incisions compared to intrastromal incisions. Satisfaction was lowest with FSL-created, main, clear corneal incisions and paracenteses (mean scores 4.4 and 4.2, respectively). Conclusion: Laser-assisted cataract surgery has a short learning curve and a high rate of user satisfaction. Further software and hardware development is warranted to improve user satisfaction with peripheral and clear corneal incisions.
Hwang AD, Tuccar-Burak M, Goldstein R, Peli E. Impact of Oncoming Headlight Glare With Cataracts: A Pilot Study. Front Psychol 2018;9:164.Abstract
Oncoming headlight glare (HLG) reduces the visibility of objects on the road and may affect the safety of nighttime driving. With cataracts, the impact of oncoming HLG is expected to be more severe. We used our custom HLG simulator in a driving simulator to measure the impact of HLG on pedestrian detection by normal vision subjects with simulated mild cataracts and by patients with real cataracts.Five normal vision subjects drove nighttime scenarios under two HLG conditions (with and without HLG: HLGY and HLGN, respectively), and three vision conditions (with plano lens, simulated mild cataract, and optically blurred clip-on). Mild cataract was simulated by applying a 0.8 Bangerter diffusion foil to clip-on plano lenses. The visual acuity with the optically blurred lenses was individually chosen to match the visual acuity with the simulated cataract clip-ons under HLGN. Each nighttime driving scenario contains 24 pedestrian encounters, encompassing four pedestrian types; walking along the left side of the road, walking along the right side of the road, crossing the road from left to right, and crossing the road from right to left. Pedestrian detection performances of five patients with mild real cataracts were measured using the same setup. The cataract patients were tested only in HLGY and HLGN conditions. Participants' visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were also measured in the simulator with and without stationary HLG.For normal vision subjects, both the presence of oncoming HLG and wearing the simulated cataract clip-on reduced pedestrian detection performance. The subjects performed worst in events where the pedestrian crossed from the left, followed by events where the pedestrian crossed from the right. Significant interactions between HLG condition and other factors were also found: (1) the impact of oncoming HLG with the simulated cataract clip-on was larger than with the plano lens clip-on, (2) the impact of oncoming HLG was larger with the optically blurred clip-on than with the plano lens clip-on, but smaller than with the simulated cataract clip-on, and (3) the impact was larger for the pedestrians that crossed from the left than those that crossed from the right, and for the pedestrians walking along the left side of the road than walking along the right side of the road, suggesting that the pedestrian proximity to the glare source contributed to the performance reduction. Under HLGN, almost no pedestrians were missed with the plano lens or the simulated cataract clip-on (0 and 0.5%, respectively), but under HLGY, the rate of pedestrian misses increased to 0.5 and 6%, respectively. With the optically blurred clip-on, the percent of missed pedestrians under HLGN and HLGY did not change much (5% and 6%, respectively). Untimely response rate increased under HLGY with the plano lens and simulated cataract clip-ons, but the increase with the simulated cataract clip-on was significantly larger than with the plano lens clip-on. The contrast sensitivity with the simulated cataract clip-on was significantly degraded under HLGY. The visual acuity with the plano lens clip-on was significantly improved under HLGY, possibly due to pupil myosis. The impact of HLG measured for real cataract patients was similar to the impact on performance of normal vision subjects with simulated cataract clip-ons.Even with mild (simulated or real) cataracts, a substantial negative effect of oncoming HLG was measurable in the detection of crossing and walking-along pedestrians. The lowered pedestrian detection rates and longer response times with HLGY demonstrate a possible risk that oncoming HLG poses to patients driving with cataracts.
Guhan S, Peng S-L, Janbatian H, Saadeh S, Greenstein S, Al Bahrani F, Fadlallah A, Yeh T-C, Melki SA. Surgical adhesives in ophthalmology: history and current trends. Br J Ophthalmol 2018;Abstract
Tissue adhesives are gaining popularity in ophthalmology, as they could potentially reduce the complications associated with current surgical methods. An ideal tissue adhesive should have superior tensile strength, be non-toxic and anti-inflammatory, improve efficiency and be cost-effective. Both synthetic and biological glues are available. The primary synthetic glues include cyanoacrylate and the recently introduced polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives, while most biological glues are composed of fibrin. Cyanoacrylate has a high tensile strength, but rapidly polymerises upon contact with any fluid and has been associated with histotoxicity. Fibrin induces less toxic and inflammatory reactions, and its polymerisation time can be controlled. Tensile strength studies have shown that fibrin is not as strong as cyanoacrylate. While more research is needed, PEG variants currently appear to have the most promise. These glues are non-toxic, strong and time-effective. Through MEDLINE and internet searches, this paper presents a systematic review of the current applications of surgical adhesives to corneal, glaucoma, retinal, cataract and strabismus surgeries. Our review suggests that surgical adhesives have promise to reduce problems in current ophthalmic surgical procedures.
Chen CL, Clay TH, McLeod S, Peggy Chang H-Y, Gelb AW, Dudley AR. A Revised Estimate of Costs Associated With Routine Preoperative Testing in Medicare Cataract Patients With a Procedure-Specific Indicator. JAMA Ophthalmol 2018;136(3):231-238.Abstract
Importance: Routine preoperative medical testing is not recommended for patients undergoing low-risk surgery, but testing is common before surgery. A 30-day preoperative testing window is conventionally used for study purposes; however, the extent of routine testing that occurs prior to that point is unknown. Objective: To improve on existing cost estimates by identifying all routine preoperative testing that takes place after the decision is made to perform cataract surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study assessed preoperative care in a 50% sample of Medicare beneficiaries older than 66 years who underwent ambulatory cataract surgery in 2011. Data analysis was completed from March 2016 to October 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Using ocular biometry as a procedure-specific indicator to mark the start of the routine preoperative testing window, we measured testing rates in the interval between ocular biometry and cataract surgery and compared this with testing rates in the 6 months preceding biometry. We estimated the total cost of testing that occurred between biometry and cataract surgery. Results: A total of 440 857 patients underwent cataract surgery. A total of 423 710 (96.1%) had an ocular biometry claim before index surgery, of whom 264 514 (60.0%) were female; the mean (SD) age of the cohort was 76.1 (6.2) years. A total of 111 998 (25.4%) underwent surgery more than 30 days after biometry. Among patients with a biometry claim, the mean number of tests/patient/month increased from 1.1 in the baseline period to 1.7 in the interval between biometry and cataract surgery. Although preoperative testing peaked in all patients in the 30 days preceding surgery (1.8 tests/patient/month), the subset of patients with no overlap between postbiometry and presurgery periods experienced increased testing rates to 1.8 tests per patient per month in the 30 days after biometry, regardless of the elapsed time between biometry and surgery. The total estimated cost of routine preoperative testing in the full cohort was $22.7 million; we estimate that routine preoperative testing costs Medicare up to$45.4 million annually. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of Medicare beneficiaries, routine preoperative medical testing occurs more often and is costlier than has been reported previously. Extra costs are attributable to testing that occurs prior to the 30-day window preceding surgery. As a cost-cutting measure, routine preoperative medical testing should be avoided in patients with cataracts throughout the interval between ocular biometry and cataract surgery.
Nanji KC, Roberto SA, Morley MG, Bayes J. Preventing Adverse Events in Cataract Surgery: Recommendations From a Massachusetts Expert Panel. Anesth Analg 2018;126(5):1537-1547.Abstract
Roberto SA, Bayes J, Karner PE, Morley MG, Nanji KC. Patient Harm in Cataract Surgery: A Series of Adverse Events in Massachusetts. Anesth Analg 2018;126(5):1548-1550.Abstract
Massachusetts state agencies received reports of 37 adverse events (AEs) involving cataract surgery from 2011 to 2015. Fifteen were anesthesia related, including 5 wrong eye blocks, 3 cases of hemodynamic instability, 2 retrobulbar hematoma/hemorrhages, and 5 globe perforations resulting in permanent loss of vision. While Massachusetts' reported AEs likely underrepresent the true number of AEs that occur during cataract surgery, they do offer useful signal data to indicate the types of patient harm occurring during these procedures.
Sanguansak T, Morley KE, Morley MG, Thinkhamrop K, Thuanman J, Agarwal I. Two-Way Social Media Messaging in Postoperative Cataract Surgical Patients: Prospective Interventional Study. J Med Internet Res 2017;19(12):e413.Abstract