Cataract

Cataract Publications

Kaufman AR, Pineda R. Intraoperative aberrometry: an update on applications and outcomes. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2023;34(1):48-57.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is now a large body of experience with intraoperative aberrometry. This review aims to synthesize available data regarding intraoperative aberrometry applications and outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: The Optiwave Refractive Analysis (ORA) System utilizes Talbot-moiré interferometry and is the only commercially available intraoperative aberrometry device. There are few studies that include all-comers undergoing intraoperative aberrometry-assisted cataract surgery, as most studies examine routine patients only or atypical eyes only. In non-post-refractive cases, studies have consistently shown a small but statistically significant benefit in spherical equivalent refractive outcome for intraoperative aberrometry versus preoperative calculations. In studies examining axial length extremes, most studies have shown intraoperative aberrometry to perform similarly to preoperative calculations. Amongst post-refractive cases, post-myopic ablation cases appear to benefit the most from intraoperative aberrometry. For toric intraocular lenses (IOLs), intraoperative aberrometry may be used for refining IOL power (toricity and spherical equivalent) and alignment, and most studies show intraoperative aberrometry to achieve low postoperative residual astigmatism. SUMMARY: Intraoperative aberrometry can be utilized as an adjunct to preoperative planning and surgeon's judgment to optimize cataract surgery refractive outcomes. Non-post-refractive cases, post-myopic ablation eyes, and toric intraocular lenses may have the greatest demonstrated benefit in intraoperative aberrometry studies to date, but other eyes may also benefit from intraoperative aberrometry use.
Elhusseiny AM, Salim S. Cataract surgery in myopic eyes. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2023;34(1):64-70.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We discuss the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative considerations for cataract surgery in eyes with high myopia. We also reviewed the recent literature on refractive outcomes and complications of cataract surgery in myopic eyes. RECENT FINDINGS: Several novel intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation formulas have recently been developed to optimize refractive outcomes. Haigis formula is the most accurate among the third-generation IOL formulas. Novel formulas such as Barrett Universal II, Kane, and modified Wang-Koch adjustment for Holladay I formula provide a better refractive prediction compared with old formulas. Intraoperatively, the chopping technique is preferred to minimize pressure on weak zonules and reduce the incidence of posterior capsule rupture. Anterior capsular polishing is recommended to reduce the risk of postoperative capsular contraction syndrome (CCS). Postoperatively, complications such as refractive surprises, intraocular pressure spikes, and CCS remain higher in myopic eyes. Only 63% of myopic patients with axial length more than 26 mm achieve a visual acuity at least 20/40 after cataract surgery, mainly because of coexisting ocular comorbidities. SUMMARY: There are multiple preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative considerations when performing cataract surgery in myopic eyes. Further research is needed to optimize the refractive outcomes in these eyes and determine the best IOL formula. Surgeons should be adept and knowledgeable with different techniques to manage intraoperative complications.
Gonzalez-Salinas R, Franco JJ, Reyes-Luis JL, Sánchez-Huerta V, de Wit-Carter G, Hernández-Quintela E, Pineda R. Cataract surgery in patients with underlying keratoconus: focused review. J Cataract Refract Surg 2023;49(1):97-102.Abstract
An underlying diagnosis of keratoconus (KC) can complicate cataract surgery. In this study, the results of a focused review of the literature pertaining to cataract surgery in patients with KC are detailed. Topics essential for the appropriate management of this patient population are discussed. First, the individual and shared epidemiology and pathophysiology of cataract and KC are reviewed. Then, the theory and approach to intraocular lens power calculation are discussed, highlighting particularities and pitfalls of this exercise when performed in patients with KC. Finally, several special-although not uncommon-management scenarios and questions are addressed, such as surgical planning in cases where corneal stabilization or tissue replacement interventions are also necessitated.
Oke I, Hwang B, Heo H, Nguyen A, Lambert SR. Risk Factors for Retinal Detachment Repair After Pediatric Cataract Surgery in the United States. Ophthalmol Sci 2022;2(4):100203.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the cumulative incidence of retinal detachment (RD) repair following pediatric cataract surgery and identify the associated risk factors. DESIGN: US population-based insurance claims retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients ≤ 18 years old who underwent cataract surgery in 2 large databases: Optum Clinformatics (2003-2021) and IBM MarketScan (2007-2016). METHODS: Individuals with ≥ 6 months of prior enrollment were included, and those with a history of RD, RD repair, traumatic cataract, spherophakia, or ectopia lentis were excluded. The primary outcome was time between initial cataract surgery and RD repair. The risk factors investigated included age, sex, persistent fetal vasculature (PFV), prematurity, intraocular lens (IOL) placement, and pars plana lensectomy approach. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Kaplan-Meier estimated cumulative incidence of RD repair 5 years after cataract surgery and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: Retinal detachment repair was performed on 47 of 3289 children included in this study. The cumulative incidence of RD repair within 5 years of cataract surgery was 2.0% (95% CI, 1.3%-2.6%). Children requiring RD repair were more likely to have a history of prematurity or PFV and less likely to have an IOL placed (all P < 0.001). Factors associated with RD repair in the multivariable analysis included a history of prematurity (HR, 6.89; 95% CI, 3.26-14.56; P < 0.001), PFV diagnosis (HR, 8.20; 95% CI, 4.11-16.37; P < 0.001), and IOL placement (HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.21-0.91; P = 0.03). Age at surgery, sex, and pars plana lensectomy approach were not significantly associated with RD repair after adjusting for all other covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 2% of patients will undergo RD repair within 5 years of pediatric cataract surgery. Children with a history of PFV and prematurity undergoing cataract surgery without IOL placement are at the greatest risk.
Nguyen X-T-A, Thiadens AAHJ, Fiocco M, Tan W, McKibbin M, Klaver CCCW, Meester-Smoor MA, Van Cauwenbergh C, Strubbe I, Vergaro A, Pott J-WR, Hoyng CB, Leroy BP, Zemaitiene R, Khan KN, Boon CJF. Outcome of cataract surgery in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Am J Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess the visual outcome of cataract surgery in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). DESIGN: Retrospective, non-comparative clinical study. METHODS: Preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative data of patients with RP undergoing cataract surgery were collected from several expertise centers across Europe. RESULTS: In total, 295 eyes of 225 patients were included in the study. The mean age at surgery of the first eye was 56.1 ± 17.9 years. Following surgery, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved significantly from 1.03 to 0.81 logMAR (i.e. 20/214 to 20/129 Snellen) in the first treated eye (-0.22 logMAR; 95% CI: -0.31 to -0.13; p < 0.001), and from 0.80 to 0.56 logMAR (i.e. 20/126 to 20/73 Snellen) in the second treated eye (-0.24 logMAR; 95% CI: -0.32 to -0.15; p < 0.001). Marked BCVA improvements (postoperative change in BCVA of ≥ 0.3 logMAR) were observed in 87 out of 226 patients (39%). Greater odds for marked visual improvements were observed in patients with moderate visual impairment or worse. The most common complications were zonular dialysis (n = 15; 5%), and (exacerbation of) cystoid macular edema (n = 14; 5%), respectively. Postoperative posterior capsular opacifications were present in 111 out of 295 (38%) eyes. CONCLUSION: Significant improvements in BCVA are observed in most patients with RP following cataract surgery. Baseline BCVA is a predictor for visual outcome. Preoperative evaluation should include the assessment of potential zonular insufficiency and the presence of CME, as they are relatively common, and may increase the risk for complications.
Vingopoulos F, Kasetty M, Garg I, Silverman RF, Katz R, Vasan RA, Lorch AC, Luo ZK, Miller JB. Active Learning to Characterize the Full Contrast Sensitivity Function in Cataracts. Clin Ophthalmol 2022;16:3109-3118.Abstract
Background: To characterize contrast sensitivity function (CSF) in cataractous and pseudophakic eyes compared to healthy control eyes using a novel quantitative CSF test with active learning algorithms. Methods: This is a prospective observational study at an academic medical center. CSF was measured in eyes with visually significant cataract, at least 2+ nuclear sclerosis (NS) and visual acuity (VA) ≥ 20/50, in pseudophakic eyes and in healthy controls with no more than 1+ NS and no visual complaints, using the Manifold Contrast Vision Meter. Outcomes included Area under the Log CSF (AULCSF) and CS thresholds at 1, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree (cpd). A subgroup analysis as performed on cataract eyes with VA ≥ 20/25. Results: A total of 167 eyes were included, 58 eyes in the cataract group, 77 controls, and 32 pseudophakic eyes with respective median AULCSF of 1.053 (0.352) vs 1.228 (0.318) vs 1.256 (0.360). In our multivariate regression model, cataract was associated with significantly reduced AULCSF (P= 0.04, β= -0.11) and contrast threshold at 6 cpd (P= 0.01, β= -0.16) compared to controls. Contrast threshold at 6 cpd was significantly reduced even in the subgroup of cataractous eyes with VA ≥ 20/25 (P=0.02, β=-0.16). Conclusion: The novel qCSF test detected disproportionate significant contrast deficits at 6 cpd in cataract eyes; this remained significant even in the cataractous eyes with VA ≥ 20/25. CSF testing may enhance cataract evaluation and surgical decision-making, particularly in patients with subjective visual complaints despite good VA.
Bothun ED, Shainberg MJ, Christiansen SP, VanderVeen DK, Neely DE, Kruger SJ, Cotsonis G, Lambert SR, Lambert SR. Long-term strabismus outcomes after unilateral infantile cataract surgery in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. J AAPOS 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To characterize long-term strabismus outcomes in children in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS). METHODS: This study was a secondary data analysis of long-term ocular alignment characteristics of children aged 10.5 years who had previously been enrolled in a randomized clinical trial evaluating aphakic management after unilateral cataract surgery between 1 and 6 months of age. RESULTS: In the IATS study, 96 of 109 children (88%) developed strabismus through age 10.5 years. Half of the 20 children who were orthophoric at distance through age 5 years maintained orthophoria at distance fixation at 10.5 years. Esotropia was the most common type of strabismus prior to age 5 years (56/109 [51%]), whereas exotropia (49/109 [45%]) was the most common type of strabismus at 10.5 years (esotropia, 21%; isolated hypertropia, 17%). Strabismus surgery had been performed on 52 children (48%), with 18 of these (35%) achieving microtropia <10Δ. Strabismus was equally prevalent in children randomized to contact lens care compared with those randomized to primary intraocular lens implantation (45/54 [83%] vs 45/55 [82%]; P = 0.8). Median visual acuity in the study eye was 0.56 logMAR (20/72) for children with orthotropia or microtropia <10Δ versus 1.30 logMAR (20/400) for strabismus ≥10Δ (P = 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: Strabismus-in particular, exotropia-is common irrespective of aphakia management 10 years following infant monocular cataract surgery. The delayed emergence of exotropia with longer follow-up indicates a need for caution in managing early esotropia in these children. Children with better visual acuity at 10 years of age are more likely to have better ocular alignment.
Moussa O, Frank T, Valenzuela IA, Aliancy J, Gong D, De Rojas JO, Dagi Glass LR, Winn BJ, Cioffi GA, Chen RWS. Efficacy of Preoperative Risk Stratification on Resident Phacoemulsification Surgeries. Clin Ophthalmol 2022;16:2137-2144.Abstract
Purpose: To evaluate efficacy of a novel risk stratification system in minimizing resident surgical complications and to evaluate whether the system could be used to safely introduce cataract surgery to earlier levels of training. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study on 530 non-consecutive cataract cases performed by residents at Columbia University. Risk scores, preoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraoperative complications, postoperative day 1 (POD1), and month 1 (POM1) exam findings were tabulated. The relationship between risk scores and POD1 and POM1 BCVA was modeled using linear regression. The relationship between risk scores and complication rates was modeled using logistic regression. Logistic regression was used to model the rates of complications across different levels of training. Rates of complications were compared between diabetic versus non-diabetic patients using t-tests. Results: Risk scores did not have significant association with intraoperative complications. Risk scores were predictive of corneal edema (OR = 1.36, p = 0.0032) and having any POM1 complication (OR = 1.20, p = 0.034). Risk scores were predictive of POD1 (β = 0.13, p < 0.0001) and POM1 (β = 0.057, p = 0.00048) visual acuity. There was no significant association between level of training and rates of intraoperative (p = 0.9) or postoperative complications (p = 0.06). Rates of intraoperative complication trended higher among diabetic patients but was not statistically significant (p = 0.2). Conclusion: Higher risk scores were predictive of prolonged corneal edema but not risk of intraoperative complications. Our risk stratification system allowed us to safely introduce earlier phacoemulsification surgery.
Chang DS-T, Jiang Y, Kim JA, Huang S, Munoz B, Aung T, He M, Foster PJ, Friedman D. Cataract progression after Nd:YAG laser iridotomy in primary angle-closure suspect eyes. Br J Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Prophylactic laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) is performed in primary angle-closure suspect (PACS) eyes to prevent acute angle-closure attacks. However, accelerated cataractogenesis is a potential risk of the procedure that may result in decreased visual acuity. We aimed to assess the long-term impact of LPI on cataract formation in Chinese PACS. METHODS: In the Zhongshan Angle Closure Prevention Trial, eligible bilateral PACS participants received LPI in one randomly selected eye, while the fellow eye remained untreated. Cataract was graded using the Lens Opacity Classification System III, and progression was defined as an increase in grade by at least two units in any category or cataract surgery. RESULTS: In total, 889 participants were randomly assigned to LPI in one eye only (mean age 59±5 years, 83% female). At 72 months, treated eyes had slightly higher average nuclear grades (p<0.001). However, there were no differences between eyes for predefined cataract progression (cumulative probability at 72 months: 21.2% in LPI vs 19.4% in control, p=0.401) or cataract surgery (1% for both). While LPI-treated eyes had a 10% higher risk of progression over 6 years (HR=1.10 (95% CI 0.88 to 1.36)), this was not statistically significant. Visual acuity at 72 months was similar in treated and untreated eyes (p=0.43). CONCLUSION: Although lenses were graded on average as slightly more opaque in laser-treated eyes, prophylactic neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet LPI did not cause significant cataract progression. Our results suggest that LPI treatment of asymptomatic narrow angles does not increase the risk of developing clinically meaningful cataract worsening over time. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN45213099.
VanderVeen DK, Oke I, Nihalani BR. Deviations From Age-Adjusted Normative Biometry Measures in Children Undergoing Cataract Surgery: Implications for Postoperative Target Refraction and IOL Power Selection. Am J Ophthalmol 2022;239:190-201.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether pediatric eyes that deviate from age-adjusted normative biometry parameters predict variation in myopic shift after cataract surgery. METHODS: This is a single institution longitudinal cohort study combining prospectively collected biometry data from normal eyes of children <10 years old with biometry data from eyes undergoing cataract surgery. Refractive data from patients with a minimum of 5 visits over ≥5 years of follow-up were used to calculate myopic shift and rate of refractive growth. Cataractous eyes that deviated from the middle quartiles of the age-adjusted normative values for axial length and keratometry were studied for variation in myopic shift and rate of refractive growth to 5 years and last follow-up visit. Multivariable analysis was performed to determine the association between myopic shift and rate of refractive growth and factors of age, sex, laterality, keratometry, axial length, intraocular lens power, and follow-up length. RESULTS: Normative values were derived from 100 eyes; there were 162 eyes in the cataract group with a median follow-up of 9.6 years (interquartile range: 7.3-12.2 years). The mean myopic shift ranged from 5.5 D (interquartile range: 6.3-3.5 D) for 0- to 2-year-olds to 1.0 D (interquartile range: 1.5-0.6 D) for 8- to 10-year-olds. Multivariable analysis showed that more myopic shift was associated with younger age (P < .001), lower keratometry (P = .01), and male gender (P = .027); greater rate of refractive growth was only associated with lower keratometry measures (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Age-based tables for intraocular lens power selection are useful, and modest adjustments can be considered for eyes with lower keratometry values than expected for age.
Engelhard SB, Haripriya A, Namburar S, Pistilli M, Daniel E, Kempen JH. Dropped Nucleus during Cataract Surgery in South India: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2022;29(3):271-278.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine incidence, risk factors for, and outcomes of dropped nucleus (DN) during cataract surgery. METHODS: This is a matched case-control study at the Aravind Eye Hospital in Madurai, India. Out of 184 consecutive DN cases, 171 were included. The case immediately preceding the DN case by the same surgeon served as matched concurrent control. The proportion of cataract surgeries with DN was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Conditional logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios for potential risk factors. RESULTS: Among 415,487 consecutive cataract surgeries, incidence risk of DN was 0.044% [95% CI 0.038%, 0.051%], or 0.44 per 1,000 surgeries in 52 months. Significant preoperative risk factors were posterior polar cataract (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 21.73, p = .003); suspected loose zonules (aOR 8.85, p < .001); older age (aOR 1.57, p = .001); and presence of diabetes mellitus (aOR 1.79, p = .03). Associated intraoperative complications included zonular dialysis (OR 34.49, p < .001), vitreous disturbance (OR 193.36, p < .001), and posterior capsule rent (OR 384.39, p < .001). Phacoemulsification and manual small incision cataract surgery did not significantly differ in DN incidence. DN most commonly occurred during nucleus removal (35.1%) or during/immediately following hydrodissection (24.0%). Visual outcomes of DN were worse than controls on average, but 51.9% achieved visual acuity 20/40 or better at 1 month. CONCLUSIONS: DN occurred rarely, with low absolute risk even when a strong risk factor was present. Nearly all cases followed posterior capsular rent or zonular dialysis, usually with observed vitreous loss. In spite of increased risk of postoperative complications in the DN group, the majority achieved favorable results.
Böhm M, Müller M, Paul J, Hemkeppler E, Kohnen T. Intraoperative OCT versus Scheimpflug and Swept-Source OCT measurements for anterior eye parameters. J Cataract Refract Surg 2021;Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare agreement of anterior segment parameter measurements using an intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) of a femtosecond laser (LenSx) during interface docking to the eye to preoperative Scheimpflug-tomography (Pentacam AXL) and swept-source optical coherence tomography (IOL Master 700). SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany. DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHODS: Ninty-five eyes of 66 patients who had planned OCT-guided femtosecond laser-assisted lens surgery were included. Anterior segment measurements were performed in mydriasis prior to surgery using Scheimpflug-tomography and swept-source optical coherence tomography. After surgery iOCT images were analysed using a modification of the FIJI image processing program. Outcome measures included external anterior chamber depth (ACD), central corneal thickness (CCT) and central lens thickness (LT). RESULTS: The ACD measured with the iOCT was -0.011±0.126mm smaller (p=0.389) than with theswept-source OCT and -0.059±0.185mm than with the Scheimpflug-tomography (p=0.003). The swept-source OCT measures a -0.047±0.146mm smaller ACD than the Scheimpflug-tomography (p=0.002). The measurements of CCT using the iOCT and the Scheimpflug-tomography (-0.705±20.837μm, p=0.742) and the LT measurements of swept-source OCT and iOCT (-0.050±0.089mm, p<0.001) show no clinically relevant difference. Just the ACD between the iOCT and the Scheimpflug-tomography shows a clinically relevant difference. CONCLUSION: The comparison of the anterior segment parameters of intraoperative optical coherence tomography with swept-source optical coherence tomography showed no clinically relevant differences regarding the ACD and the lens thickness. However, Scheimpflug-tomography versus intraoperative optical coherence tomography measures a small clinically relevant difference for ACD.

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