Drug Delivery and Medical Devices

Drug Delivery and Medical Devices Publications

Chen L, Kuang L, Ross AE, Farhat W, Boychev N, Sharfi S, Kanu LN, Liu L, Kohane DS, Ciolino JB. Topical Sustained Delivery of Miltefosine Via Drug-Eluting Contact Lenses to Treat Acanthamoeba Keratitis. Pharmaceutics 2022;14(12)Abstract
This study aimed to develop a miltefosine-eluting contact lens (MLF-CL) device that would allow sustained and localized miltefosine release for the treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis. MLF-CLs were produced in three different miltefosine doses by solvent-casting a thin miltefosine-polymer film around the periphery of a methafilcon hydrogel, which was then lathed into a contact lens. During seven days of in vitro testing, all three formulations demonstrated sustained release from the lens at theoretically therapeutic levels. Based on the physicochemical characterization of MLF-CLs, MLF-CL's physical properties are not significantly different from commercial contact lenses in terms of light transmittance, water content and wettability. MLF-CLs possessed a slight reduction in compression modulus that was attributed to the inclusion of polymer-drug films but still remain within the optimal range of soft contact lenses. In cytotoxicity studies, MLF-CL indicated up to 91% viability, which decreased proportionally as miltefosine loading increased. A three-day biocompatibility test on New Zealand White rabbits revealed no impact of MLF-CLs on the corneal tissue. The MLF-CLs provided sustained in vitro release of miltefosine for a week while maintaining comparable physical features to a commercial contact lens. MLF-CL has a promising potential to be used as a successful treatment method for Acanthamoeba keratitis.
Rhee MK, Jacobs DS, Dhaliwal DK, Szczotka-Flynn L, Prescott CR, Jhanji V, Steinemann TL, Koffler BH, Jeng BH. Contact Lens Safety for the Correction of Refractive Error in Healthy Eyes. Eye Contact Lens 2022;48(11):449-454.Abstract
Contact lenses are a safe and effective method for correction of refractive error and worn by an estimated 45 million Americans. Because of the widespread availability and commercial popularity of contact lenses, it is not well appreciated by the public that contact lenses are U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated medical devices. Contact lenses are marketed in numerous hard and soft materials that have been improved over decades, worn in daily or extended wear, and replaced in range of schedules from daily to yearly or longer. Lens materials and wear and care regimens have impact on the risks of contact lens-related corneal inflammatory events and microbial keratitis. This article reviews contact lens safety, with specific focus on the correction of refractive error in healthy eyes.
Gholizadeh S, Chen X, Yung A, Naderi A, Ghovvati M, Liu Y, Farzad A, Mostafavi A, Dana R, Annabi N. Development and optimization of an ocular hydrogel adhesive patch using definitive screening design (DSD). Biomater Sci 2022;Abstract
Adhesive hydrogels based on chemically modified photocrosslinkable polymers with specific physicochemical properties are frequently utilized for sealing wounds or incisions. These adhesive hydrogels offer tunable characteristics such as tailorable tissue adhesion, mechanical properties, swelling ratios, and enzymatic degradability. In this study, we developed and optimized a photocrosslinkable adhesive patch, GelPatch, with high burst pressure, minimal swelling, and specific mechanical properties for application as an ocular (sclera and subconjunctival) tissue adhesive. To achieve this, we formulated a series of hydrogel patches composed of different polymers with various levels of methacrylation, molecular weights, and hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties. A computerized multifactorial definitive screening design (DSD) analysis was performed to identify the most prominent components impacting critical response parameters such as adhesion, swelling ratio, elastic modulus, and second order interactions between applied components. These parameters were mathematically processed to generate a predictive model that identifies the linear and non-linear correlations between these factors. In conclusion, an optimized formulation of GelPatch was selected based on two modified polymers: gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) and glycidyl methacrylated hyaluronic acid (HAGM). The ex vivo results confirmed adhesion and retention of the optimized hydrogel subconjunctivally and on the sclera for up to 4 days. The developed formulation has potential to be used as an ocular sealant for quick repair of laceration type ocular injuries.
Wang Y, Jacobs DS. Role of therapeutic contact lenses in management of corneal disease. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2022;33(4):306-310.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review highlights areas of innovation and research in the use of contact lenses in the treatment of corneal ectasia and ocular surface disease. RECENT FINDINGS: A series of academic reports were published by a committee of experts reviewing evidence-based practice patterns of contact lens use. There continues to be active research in the use of contact lenses in the management of keratoconus, including mini-scleral lenses, custom impression-based scleral lenses and wavefront-guided scleral lenses. Recent reports on contact lenses for ocular surface disease were primarily reviews, retrospective case reports or case series, with publications on contact lens use in corneal epithelial defects, graft-vs.-host disease, limbal stem cell deficiency and neurotrophic keratitis. There are recent publications on advances in drug-eluting contact lenses. SUMMARY: Corneal specialists should be aware of current advances in the field of contact lens expanding their use in corneal ectasia and ocular surface disease.
Peng C, Kuang L, Zhao J, Ross AE, Wang Z, Ciolino JB. Bibliometric and visualized analysis of ocular drug delivery from 2001 to 2020. J Control Release 2022;345:625-645.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To perform a bibliometric analysis in the field of ocular drug delivery research to characterize the current international trends and to present visual representations of the past and emerging trends on ocular drug delivery research over the past decade. METHOD: In this cross-sectional study, a bibliometric analysis of data retrieved and extracted from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) database was performed to analyze evolution and theme trends on ocular drug delivery research from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2020. A total of 4334 articles on ocular drug delivery were evaluated for specific characteristics, such as publication year, journals, authors, institutions, countries/regions, references, and keywords. Co-authorship analysis, co-occurrence analysis, co-citation analysis, and network visualization were constructed by VOSviewer. Some important subtopics identified by bibliometric characterization were further discussed and reviewed. RESULTS: From 2001 to 2020, the annual global publications increased by 746.15%, from 52 to 440. International Journal of Pharmaceutics published the most manuscripts (250 publications) and produced the highest citations (9509 citations), followed by Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (202 publications) and Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics (136 publications). The United States (1289 publications, 31,512 citations), the University of Florida (82 publications, 2986 citations), and Chauhan, Anuj (52 publications, 2354 citations) were the most productive and impactful institution, country, and author respectively. The co-occurrence cluster analysis of the top 100 keywords form five clusters: (1) micro/nano ocular drug delivery systems; (2) the treatment of inflammation and posterior diseases; (3) macroscopic ocular drug delivery systems/devices; (4) the characteristics of drug delivery systems; (5) and the ocular drug delivery for glaucoma treatment. Diabetic macular edema, anti-VEGF, ranibizumab, bevacizumab, micelles and latanoprost, were the latest high-frequency keywords, indicating the emerging frontiers of ocular drug delivery. Further discussions into the subtopics were provided to assist researchers to determine the range of research topics and plan research direction. CONCLUSIONS: Over the last two decades there has been a progressive increase in the number of publications and citations on research related to ocular drug delivery across many countries, institutions, and authors. The present study sheds light on current trends, global collaboration patterns, basic knowledge, research hotspots, and emerging frontiers of ocular drug delivery. Novel solutions for ocular drug delivery and the treatment of inflammation and posterior diseases were the major themes over the last 20 years.
Jumelle C, Yung A, Shirzaei Sani E, Taketani Y, Gantin F, Bourel L, Wang S, Yüksel E, Seneca S, Annabi N, Dana R. Development and characterization of a hydrogel-based adhesive patch for sealing open-globe injuries. Acta Biomater 2022;137:53-63.Abstract
Full-thickness wounds to the eye can lead to serious vision impairment. Current standards of care (from suturing to tissue transplantation) usually require highly skilled surgeons and use of an operating theater. In this study, we report the synthesis, optimization, and in vitro and ex vivo testing of photocrosslinkable hydrogel-based adhesive patches that can easily be applied to globe injuries or corneal incisions. According to the type and concentration of polymers used in the adhesive formulations, we were able to finely tune the physical properties of the bioadhesive including viscosity, elastic modulus, extensibility, ultimate tensile strength, adhesion, transparency, water content, degradation time, and swellability. Our in vitro studies showed no sign of cytotoxicity of the hydrogels. Moreover, the hydrogel patches showed higher adhesion on freshly explanted pig eyeballs compared to a marketed ocular sealant. Finally, ex vivo feasibility studies showed that the hydrogel patches could seal complex open-globe injuries such as large incision, cruciform injury, and injury associated with tissue loss. These results suggest that our photocrosslinkable hydrogel patch could represent a promising solution for the sealing of open-globe injuries or surgical incisions. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Current management of severe ocular injuries require advanced surgical skills and access to an operating theater. To address the need for emergent management of wounds that cannot be handled in the operating room, surgical adhesives have gained popularity, but none of the currently available adhesives have optimal bioavailability, adhesive or mechanical properties. This study describes the development, optimization and testing of a light-sensitive adhesive patch that can easily be applied to the eye. After solidification using visible light, the patch shows no toxicity and is more adherent to the tissue than a marketed sealant. Thus this technology could represent a promising solution to stabilize ocular injuries in emergency settings before definitive surgical repair.
Gao Q, Ludwig CA, Smith SJ, Schachar IH. Ocular Penetrance and Safety of the Dopaminergic Prodrug Etilevodopa. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021;10(12):5.Abstract
Purpose: Animal models have demonstrated the role of dopamine in regulating axial elongation, the critical feature of myopia. Because frequent delivery of dopaminergic agents via peribulbar, intravitreal, or intraperitoneal injections is not clinically viable, we sought to evaluate ocular penetration and safety of the topically applied dopaminergic prodrug etilevodopa. Methods: The ocular penetration of dopamine and dopaminergic prodrugs (levodopa and etilevodopa) were quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in enucleated porcine eyes after a single topical administration. The pharmacokinetic profile of the etilevodopa was then assessed in rats. A four-week once-daily application of etilevodopa as a topical eye drop was conducted to establish its safety profile. Results: At 24 hours, the studied prodrugs showed increased dopaminergic derivatives in the vitreous of porcine eyes. Dopamine 0.5% (P = 0.0123) and etilevodopa 10% (p = 0.370) achieved significant vitreous concentrations. Etilevodopa 10% was able to enter the posterior segment of the eye after topical administration in rats with an intravitreal half-life of eight hours after single topical administration. Monthly application of topical etilevodopa showed no alterations in retinal ocular coherence tomography, electroretinography, caspase staining, or TUNEL staining. Conclusions: At similar concentrations, no difference in ocular penetration of levodopa and etilevodopa was observed. However, etilevodopa was highly soluble and able to be applied at higher topical concentrations. Dopamine exhibited both high solubility and enhanced penetration into the vitreous as compared to other dopaminergic prodrugs. Translational Relevance: These findings indicate the potential of topical etilevodopa and dopamine for further study as a therapeutic treatment for myopia.
Soeken TA, Ross AE, Kohane DS, Kuang L, Legault GL, Caldwell MC, Brundridge WL, Merkley MB, Ciolino JB, Townley RJ. Dexamethasone-Eluting Contact Lens for the Prevention of Postphotorefractive Keratectomy Scar in a New Zealand White Rabbit Model. Cornea 2021;40(9):1175-1180.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of an experimental dexamethasone-eluting contact lens (DCL) for the prevention of postphotorefractive keratectomy (PRK) corneal haze in a New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit model. METHODS: Both eyes of 29 NZW rabbits underwent PRK. The rabbits were randomized to one of the 5 study arms for 4 weeks: tarsorrhaphy only, tarsorrhaphy and bandage contact lens (BCL) replaced weekly, tarsorrhaphy and BCL for 1 week plus topical 0.1% dexamethasone ophthalmic solution (drops) for 4 weeks, tarsorrhaphy and BCL replaced weekly plus topical dexamethasone for 4 weeks, and tarsorrhaphy and DCL changed weekly for 4 weeks. Each week for 4 consecutive weeks postoperatively, the tarsorrhaphies were opened, the eyes underwent evaluation and imaging, and the tarsorrhaphies were replaced. Contact lenses were cultured on removal. Central corneal haze was assessed weekly with corneal densitometry. After 4 weeks, the animals were killed, and the eyes were enucleated for histopathologic analysis. RESULTS: The tarsorrhaphy only group displayed more haze with a greater change in optical densitometry from pre-op compared with the other treatment groups. There was no difference between the DCL group and the groups receiving a BCL and dexamethasone drops in densitometry or histopathology. No NZW rabbits developed clinical signs of infection, and cultures from DCLs and BCLs grew similar organisms. CONCLUSIONS: In the post-PRK rabbit model, DCLs worn weekly for 4 weeks were safe and as effective at preventing corneal haze as 0.1% dexamethasone drops applied 4 times a day for 4 weeks.
Than T, Morettin CE, Harthan JS, Hartwick ATE, Huecker JB, Johnson SD, Migneco MK, Shorter E, Whiteside M, Margolis MS, Olson CK, Alferez CS, van Zyl T, Rodic-Polic B, Storch GA, Gordon MO. Efficacy of a Single Administration of 5% Povidone-Iodine in the Treatment of Adenoviral Conjunctivitis. Am J Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single, in-office administration of 5% povidone-iodine (PVP-I) compared to artificial tears (AT) for adenoviral conjunctivitis (Ad-Cs). DESIGN: Double-masked pilot randomized trial METHODS: Patients presenting with presumed adenoviral conjunctivitis were screened at 9 U.S. clinics. INCLUSION CRITERIA: ≥ 18 years of age, symptoms ≤ 4 days and a positive AdenoPlus® test. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: thyroid disease, iodine allergy, recent ocular surgery, and ocular findings inconsistent with early-stage Ad-Cs. Randomization was to a single administration of 5% PVP-I or AT in one eye and examinations on days 1-2, 4, 7, 14 and 21 with conjunctival swabs taken each visit for quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Primary outcome was percent reduction from peak viral load. Secondary outcomes were improvement in clinical signs and symptoms. RESULTS: Of 56 patients randomized, 28 had detectable viral titers at baseline. Day 4 post-treatment, viral titers in the 5% PVP-I and AT groups were 2.5% ± 2.7% and 14.4% ± 10.5% of peak respectively (p=0.020). Severity of participant-reported tearing, lid swelling and redness as well as clinician-graded mucoid discharge, bulbar redness and bulbar edema were lower in the 5% PVP-I group than AT group on Day 4 (p< 0.05). After Day 4, viral titers, severity of signs and symptoms decreased markedly in both groups and no differences between groups were detected. CONCLUSIONS: Pilot data suggest a single, in-office administration of 5% PVP-I could reduce viral load and hasten improvement of clinical signs and symptoms in patients with Ad-Cs.
Joseph S, Varadaraj V, Dave SR, Lage E, Lim D, Aziz K, Dudgeon S, Ravilla TD, Friedman DS. Investigation of the Accuracy of a Low-Cost, Portable Autorefractor to Provide Well-Tolerated Eyeglass Prescriptions: A Randomized Crossover Trial. Ophthalmology 2021;128(12):1672-1680.Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare patient preferences for eyeglasses prescribed using a low-cost, portable wavefront autorefractor versus standard subjective refraction (SR). DESIGN: Randomized, cross-over clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 18 to 40 years presenting with refractive errors (REs) to a tertiary eye hospital in Southern India. METHODS: Participants underwent SR followed by autorefraction (AR) using the monocular version of the QuickSee device (PlenOptika Inc). An independent optician, masked to the refraction approach, prepared eyeglasses based on each refraction approach. Participants (masked to refraction source) were randomly assigned to use SR- or AR-based eyeglasses first, followed by the other pair, for 1 week each. At the end of each week, participants had their vision checked and were interviewed about their experience with the eyeglasses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients preferring eyeglasses were chosen using AR and SR. RESULTS: The 400 participants enrolled between March 26, 2018, and August 2, 2019, had a mean (standard deviation) age of 28.4 (6.6) years, and 68.8% were women. There was a strong correlation between spherical equivalents using SR and AR (r = 0.97, P < 0.001) with a mean difference of -0.07 diopters (D) (95% limits of agreement [LoA], -0.68 to 0.83). Of the 301 patients (75.2%) who completed both follow-up visits, 50.5% (n = 152) and 49.5% (n = 149) preferred glasses prescribed using SR and AR, respectively (95% CI, 45.7-56.3; P = 0.86). There were no differences in demographic or vision characteristics between participants with different preferences (P > 0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a strong agreement between the prescriptions from SR and AR, and eyeglasses prescribed using SR and AR were equally preferred by patients. Wider use of prescribing based on AR alone in resource-limited settings is supported by these findings.
Gholizadeh S, Wang Z, Chen X, Dana R, Annabi N. Advanced nanodelivery platforms for topical ophthalmic drug delivery. Drug Discov Today 2021;26(6):1437-1449.Abstract
Conventional eye drops have several limitations, including the need for multiple applications per dose, hourly based dosage regiments, and suboptimal ocular bioavailability (<5%). The efficacy of topical ophthalmic medications can be significantly improved by controlling their contact time with the adherent mucin layer and by inducing sustained release properties, thus allowing for a prolonged contact time of the drug with the ocular tissues, which eventually will lead to improved drug bioavailability and a significant decrease in the frequency of eyedrop instillation. In this review, we critically highlight recent and innovative nanodrug delivery platforms, with a primary focus on the integration of nanotechnology, biomaterials, and polymer chemistry to facilitate precise spatial and temporal control over sustained drug release to the cornea.
Jacobs DS, Carrasquillo KG, Cottrell PD, Fernández-Velázquez FJ, Gil-Cazorla R, Jalbert I, Pucker AD, Riccobono K, Robertson DM, Szczotka-Flynn L, Speedwell L, Stapleton F. CLEAR - Medical use of contact lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2021;44(2):289-329.Abstract
The medical use of contact lenses is a solution for many complex ocular conditions, including high refractive error, irregular astigmatism, primary and secondary corneal ectasia, disfiguring disease, and ocular surface disease. The development of highly oxygen permeable soft and rigid materials has extended the suitability of contact lenses for such applications. There is consistent evidence that bandage soft contact lenses, particularly silicone hydrogel lenses, improve epithelial healing and reduce pain in persistent epithelial defects, after trauma or surgery, and in corneal dystrophies. Drug delivery applications of contact lens hold promise for improving topical therapy. Modern scleral lens practice has achieved great success for both visual rehabilitation and therapeutic applications, including those requiring retention of a tear reservoir or protection from an adverse environment. This report offers a practical and relevant summary of the current evidence for the medical use of contact lenses for all eye care professionals including optometrists, ophthalmologists, opticians, and orthoptists. Topics covered include indications for use in both acute and chronic conditions, lens selection, patient selection, wear and care regimens, and recommended aftercare schedules. Prevention, presentation, and management of complications of medical use are reviewed.
Jones L, Hui A, Phan C-M, Read ML, Azar D, Buch J, Ciolino JB, Naroo SA, Pall B, Romond K, Sankaridurg P, Schnider CM, Terry L, Willcox M. CLEAR - Contact lens technologies of the future. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2021;44(2):398-430.Abstract
Contact lenses in the future will likely have functions other than correction of refractive error. Lenses designed to control the development of myopia are already commercially available. Contact lenses as drug delivery devices and powered through advancements in nanotechnology will open up further opportunities for unique uses of contact lenses. This review examines the use, or potential use, of contact lenses aside from their role to correct refractive error. Contact lenses can be used to detect systemic and ocular surface diseases, treat and manage various ocular conditions and as devices that can correct presbyopia, control the development of myopia or be used for augmented vision. There is also discussion of new developments in contact lens packaging and storage cases. The use of contact lenses as devices to detect systemic disease has mostly focussed on detecting changes to glucose levels in tears for monitoring diabetic control. Glucose can be detected using changes in colour, fluorescence or generation of electric signals by embedded sensors such as boronic acid, concanavalin A or glucose oxidase. Contact lenses that have gained regulatory approval can measure changes in intraocular pressure to monitor glaucoma by measuring small changes in corneal shape. Challenges include integrating sensors into contact lenses and detecting the signals generated. Various techniques are used to optimise uptake and release of the drugs to the ocular surface to treat diseases such as dry eye, glaucoma, infection and allergy. Contact lenses that either mechanically or electronically change their shape are being investigated for the management of presbyopia. Contact lenses that slow the development of myopia are based upon incorporating concentric rings of plus power, peripheral optical zone(s) with add power or non-monotonic variations in power. Various forms of these lenses have shown a reduction in myopia in clinical trials and are available in various markets.
Ghaffarieh A, Ciolino JB. Potential of Application of Iron Chelating Agents in Ophthalmic Diseases. Semin Ophthalmol 2021;36(4):157-161.Abstract
The investigations discussed in this review indicate that iron may exacerbate different eye diseases. Therefore, it is plausible that reducing cellular or body iron stores could influence disease pathogenesis, so it is logical to consider the iron chelators' potential protective role in the various ophthalmic diseases in the form of topical eye drops or slow releasing injectable compounds as an adjuvant treatment.