This study aimed to calculate the dose-response relationship and predictors of visual acuity (VA) improvement following occlusion therapy at the IWK Health Center Eye Clinic and to add to amblyopia therapy dose-response relationship literature. A retrospective chart review was performed, considering patients who reached an occlusion therapy outcome at the IWK Eye Clinic between 2012 and 2019. The treatment outcome was defined as equal VA or stable VA for three consecutive clinical visits despite reported compliance. Subjective patching hours from parental reports, not prescribed hours, were used for statistical analyses. One hundred and thirty-four patients (66 females and 68 males) ages 2-11 years were included. Results showed a dose-response relationship of 224 hours/0.1logMAR increase in VA and total dose of 1344 hours for full-time occlusion and 504 hours for part-time occlusion was required to reach outcome VA. The fastest VA improvement occurred with younger age at treatment initiation, during the first 4 weeks of treatment, and in patients with strabismic and/or severe amblyopia. Classification of amblyopia, age, VA chart, initial distance VA (amblyopic eye), and treatment dose predicted the hour dose-response relationship. Dose-response relationship was faster in younger participants, in participants with strabismic and severe amblyopia, and during the first month of occlusion. Additionally, by creating a GLM model of dose-response relationship, relationship calculations can be performed. Therefore, an estimated timeline can be developed to allow allocation of clinical resources and to prepare patients for the treatment duration required and possibly increase treatment compliance.
This study proposes the use of the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) technique to investigate structural alterations of the cerebral cortex in patients with strabismus and amblyopia (SA). Sixteen patients with SA and sixteen healthy controls (HCs) underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Original whole brain images were analyzed using the VBM method. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between mean gray matter volume (GMV) and clinical manifestations. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was applied to classify the mean GMV values of the SA group and HCs. Compared with the HCs, GMV values in the SA group showed a significant difference in the right superior temporal gyrus, posterior and anterior lobes of the cerebellum, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, and left anterior cingulate cortex. The mean GMV value in the right superior temporal gyrus, posterior and anterior lobes of the cerebellum, and bilateral parahippocampal gyrus were negatively correlated with the angle of strabismus. The ROC curve analysis of each cerebral region confirmed the accuracy of the area under the curve. Patients with SA have reduced GMV values in some brain regions. These findings might help to reveal the potential pathogenesis of SA and its relationship with the atrophy of specific regions of the brain.
PURPOSE: To review the scientific literature that evaluates the effectiveness of adjustable sutures in the management of strabismus for adult and pediatric patients. METHODS: Literature searches were performed in the PubMed database through April 2021 with no date limitations and were restricted to publications in English. The searches identified 551 relevant citations, of which 55 were reviewed in full text. Of these, 17 articles met the inclusion criteria and were assigned a level of evidence rating by the panel methodologist. The search included all randomized controlled studies regardless of study size and cohort studies of 100 or more patients comparing the adjustable versus nonadjustable suture technique, with a focus on motor alignment outcomes or reoperation rates. RESULTS: The literature search yielded no level I studies. Of the 17 articles that met the inclusion criteria, 11 were rated level II and 6 were rated level III. Among the 12 studies that focused on motor alignment outcomes, 4 small randomized clinical trials (RCTs) did not find a statistically significant difference between groups, although they were powered to detect only very large differences. Seven of 8 nonrandomized studies found a statistically significant difference in motor alignment success in favor of the adjustable suture technique, both overall and in certain subgroups of patients. Successful motor alignment was seen in both exotropia (in 3 studies that were not limited to children) and esotropia (in 1 study of adults and 2 of children). The majority of included studies that reported on reoperation rates found the rates to be lower in patients who underwent strabismus surgery with adjustable sutures, but this finding was not uniformly demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: Although there are no level I studies evaluating the effectiveness of adjustable sutures for strabismus surgery, the majority of nonrandomized studies that met the inclusion criteria for this assessment reported an advantage of the adjustable suture technique over the nonadjustable technique with respect to motor alignment outcomes. This finding was not uniformly demonstrated among all studies reviewed and warrants further investigation in the development and analysis of adjustable suture techniques.
PURPOSE: To evaluate outcomes of botulinum toxin (BTX) injection of the inferior oblique (IO) muscle. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Setting: Single center, ophthalmology department at Boston Children's Hospital. STUDY POPULATION: All patients treated with IO muscle injection of BTX (onabotulinumtoxinA) between 2010 and 2020. OBSERVATION PROCEDURE: Sensorimotor evaluations at short-term (<2 months), medium-term (2-4 months), and long-term (≥4 months) intervals. OUTCOME MEASURE: Primary outcomes included median improvement in V-pattern strabismus and primary position hypertropia. Secondary outcomes included IO muscle overaction. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed to identify differences before and after injection. RESULTS: Record review identified 20 patients with a median age of 4.5 (range, 1-69) years. Median BTX dose injected (31 IO muscles) was 5.0 (range, 3.0-7.0) units. Indications included V-pattern strabismus (N = 8), hypertropia (N = 7), or both (N = 5). Median long-term interval was 6.4 (range, 4.1-26.6) months. Injections were concurrent with treatment of horizontal strabismus in all but 3 cases. Median V-pattern magnitude changed from 10 prism diopters (PD) preoperatively to 0 PD short-term (P = .006) and 3.5 PD long-term (P = .34). Median hypertropia changed from 8.5 PD preoperatively to 1.5 PD short-term (P = .01) and 8 PD long-term (P = .87). Median IO muscle overaction grade improved significantly at short-term (P < .001) and long-term (P = .007) intervals. There were no complications associated with the IO muscle injections. CONCLUSIONS: BTX injection of the IO muscles can be a useful adjunct to the management of V-pattern strabismus. Intervention for primary position hypertropia may be helpful for short-term relief with no expectation of long-term benefit.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the surgical success and need for adjustment due to overcorrection in patients who undergo inferior oblique myectomy (IOM) combined with lateral rectus recession (LRc) for intermittent exotropia in the setting of inferior oblique overaction. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients with intermittent exotropia who underwent LRc using adjustable sutures alone versus LRc combined with IOM between January 2010 and July 2018 at our institution. Binocular alignment was recorded before and within one week of surgery. Evaluation measures noted were surgical success (defined as distance alignment of ⩽10 prism diopters) and need for postoperative adjustment due to overcorrection. RESULTS: Of 48 patients, 24 underwent LRc alone and 24 underwent LRc combined with IOM; all 48 patients had adjustable sutures. Surgical success was significantly higher in the LRc alone group (91.6%) compared with the LRc with IOM group (62.5%) (p = 0.036). The need for postoperative adjustment due to overcorrection was also significantly higher in the LRc with IOM group (20.8%) compared with the LRc alone group (0%) (p = 0.049). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, more patients needed adjustment for overcorrection after undergoing LRc combined with IOM versus LRc alone. Since the tertiary action of the inferior oblique is abduction it is possible that, in patients with inferior oblique overaction, surgically weakening the inferior oblique causes more esodeviation and overcorrection. Thus, surgical correction of exotropia and inferior oblique overaction using LRc combined with IOM may lead to overcorrection and increased need for postoperative adjustment.
Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is a leading cause of orbital and strabismus symptoms in adults. Over the last decade, new treatments have greatly changed available options to alleviate symptoms and improve outcomes. This article discusses the pathophysiology and natural disease course of TAO, including when to pursue urgent treatment and when to consider other diagnoses. This article highlights the interventions that may alter the disease course and offers a comprehensive review on evidence-based interventions for both supportive therapy and systemic agents. The surgical strategies and principles for the treatment of TAO are discussed, including indications for combined surgical interventions and varying surgical techniques.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine success rate and complications associated with nasal transposition of the split lateral rectus muscle (NTSLR) for treating strabismus from 3rd-nerve palsy. METHODS: An international, multicentre, registry of patients with unilateral 3rd-nerve palsy treated with NTSLR was created. Patients with concurrent surgery on the contralateral eye were excluded. Primary outcome was horizontal alignment within 15 prism dioptres (PD) of orthotropia. Incidence of technical difficulties and vision-threatening complications by 6 months post-procedure were reported. RESULTS: Ninety-eight patients met inclusion criteria. Median age was 33.5 years (IQR 10.75-46). Aetiologies included congenital (31%), neoplastic (16%) and traumatic (15%). Twenty-five per cent of patients had prior ipsilateral strabismus surgery. Median exotropia decreased from 70PD preoperatively (IQR 50-90) to 1PD postoperatively (IQR 0-15.5), with a success rate of 69%. Performing concurrent superior oblique muscle tenotomy (SOT) was independently associated with success (p=0.001). Technical challenges occurred in 30% of cases, independently associated with a history of ipsilateral strabismus surgery (p=0.01). Eleven per cent of patients had vision-threatening complications, independently associated with more posterior placement of the split lateral rectus (LR) muscle (p<0.001), and most commonly transient serous choroidal effusion. Surgical placement of the split LR muscle within 4.25 mm of the medial rectus (MR) muscle insertion reduced this risk. CONCLUSION: NTSLR significantly improved primary position alignment altered by 3rd-nerve palsy. Concurrent SOT and placement of the split LR muscle ≤4.25 mm posterior to the MR muscle insertion optimised outcomes. NTSLR proved technically challenging when prior ipsilateral strabismus surgery had been performed.
PURPOSE: To report the results of a clinical study designed to evaluate the accuracy of the blinq pediatric vision scanner, which detects amblyopia and strabismus directly by means of retinal polarization scanning, unlike other vision screening devices, which infer possible disease based on detection of refractive risk factors. METHODS: Subjects 1-20 years of age were prospectively enrolled in this cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study with planned enrollment of 200. All enrolled subjects were tested by individuals masked to the diagnosis, followed by complete ophthalmologic examination by pediatric ophthalmologists masked to the screening result. Patients previously treated for amblyopia or strabismus were analyzed separately. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 193 subjects, 53 of whom had been previously treated, leaving 140 treatment-naïve subjects, including 65 (46%) with amblyopia or strabismus, 11 (8%) with risk factors/suspected binocular vision deficit without amblyopia/strabismus, and 64 (46%) controls. Sensitivity was 100%, with all 66 patients with referral-warranted ocular disease referred. Five patients with intermittent strabismus receiving pass results were deemed "acceptable pass" when considering patient risk factors and amblyogenic potential. Specificity was 91%, with 7 incorrect referrals. Subanalysis of children aged 2-8 years (n = 92) provided similar results (sensitivity 100%; specificity 89%). CONCLUSIONS: In this study cohort, the blinq showed very high sensitivity and specificity for detecting referral-warranted amblyopia and strabismus. Implementation of the device in vision screening programs could lead to improved rates of disease detection and reduction in false referrals.
Abnormalities in cranial motor nerve development cause paralytic strabismus syndromes, collectively referred to as congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders, in which patients cannot fully move their eyes. These disorders can arise through one of two mechanisms: (a) defective motor neuron specification, usually by loss of a transcription factor necessary for brainstem patterning, or (b) axon growth and guidance abnormalities of the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves. This review focuses on our current understanding of axon guidance mechanisms in the cranial motor nerves and how disease-causing mutations disrupt axon targeting. Abnormalities of axon growth and guidance are often limited to a single nerve or subdivision, even when the causative gene is ubiquitously expressed. Additionally, when one nerve is absent, its normal target muscles attract other motor neurons. Study of these disorders highlights the complexities of axon guidance and how each population of neurons uses a unique but overlapping set of axon guidance pathways.
PURPOSE: To review the available evidence comparing the effectiveness of extraocular muscle botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) injection with eye muscle surgery for restoring ocular alignment in children and adults with nonparalytic, nonrestrictive horizontal strabismus. METHODS: Literature searches in the PubMed Cochrane Library, and clinical trial databases with no date restrictions, but limited to articles published in English, were conducted last on January 10, 2021. The searches yielded 515 citations, 40 of which were reviewed in full text by the first author. Fourteen articles met the criteria for inclusion (randomized or nonrandomized comparative studies, or case series with a minimum 50 patients; evaluating extraocular muscle BTXA injection for initial or repeat treatment of horizontal, nonparalytic, nonrestrictive strabismus; with at least 6 months of follow-up) and were graded by a methodologist. RESULTS: The 14 included studies consisted of 2 randomized clinical trials, 3 nonrandomized comparative studies, and 9 case series. All 5 comparative studies were graded level II evidence, and the 9 case series were graded level III evidence. Successful motor outcomes after BTXA injection were relatively consistent across 4 of the 5 comparative studies at 60%, when adjustment was made for differential selection bias in 1 of the studies. In the 4 studies, successful motor outcomes after surgery ranged from 66% to 77% with a mean follow-up of 23 to 75 months, and the outcomes were not significantly different from those after BTXA injection. In the fifth level II study, success was significantly higher with BTXA injection than with surgery (94% vs. 72%). The level III BTXA case series demonstrated higher motor success rates of 87% to 89% when children were treated in 2 muscles at a time; rates were lower in adults treated with single-muscle BTXA injection. CONCLUSIONS: Extraocular muscle injection of BTXA achieves a high rate of successful motor alignment, comparable with that achieved after eye muscle surgery for nonparalytic, nonrestrictive horizontal strabismus. Good alignment may require multiple BTXA injections, and it is not yet clear whether sensory outcomes are equivalent for BTXA injections versus eye muscle surgery in young children.
BACKGROUND: Strabismus is the leading risk factor for amblyopia, which should be early detected for minimized visual impairment. However, traditional school screening for strabismus can be challenged due to several factors, most notably training, mobility and cost. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the feasibility of using a smartphone application in school vision screening for detection of strabismus. METHODS: The beta smartphone application, EyeTurn, can measure ocular misalignment by computerized Hirschberg test. The application was used by a school nurse in a routine vision screening for 133 elementary school children. All app measurements were reviewed by an ophthalmologist to assess the rate of successful measurement and were flagged for in-person verification with prism alternating cover test (PACT) using a 2.4Δ threshold (root mean squared error of the app). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the best sensitivity and specificity for an 8Δ threshold (recommended by AAPOS) with the PACT measurement as ground truth. RESULTS: The nurse obtained at least one successful app measurement for 93% of children (125/133). 40 were flagged for PACT, of which 6 were confirmed to have strabismus, including 4 exotropia (10△, 10△, 14△ and 18△), 1 constant esotropia (25△) and 1 accommodative esotropia (14△). Based on the ROC curve, the optimum threshold for the app to detect strabismus was determined to be 3.0△, with the best sensitivity (83.0%), specificity (76.5%). With this threshold the app would have missed one child with accommodative esotriopia, whereas conventional screening missed 3 cases of intermittent extropia. CONCLUSIONS: Results support feasibility of use of the app by personnel without professional training in routine school screenings to improve detection of strabismus.
BACKGROUND: The Delphi process has been widely used to delineate guidelines for the treatment of disorders for which there is little or no evidence in the published literature. The purpose of this study was to use the Delphi process to identify areas of consensus and disagreement on the definition of success after surgery for each type of strabismus. METHODS: Two rounds of electronic questionnaires were sent to 28 members of the Strabismus Success Definition Delphi Study Group. For the first round, responses to 70 questions were captured as agree (= 1) and disagree (= 2). For round 2, a total of 89 questions were captured on a Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). Consensus was determined a priori at 85%. RESULTS: In both the first and second rounds, inter-rater agreement of 85% consensus was reached for only 20% of questions. Intra-rater agreement per question was low, with κ values ranging from -0.11 to 0.62. Intra-rater agreement was also low among themes, ranging from poor to fair agreement: κ = 0.25 for motor, κ = 0.28 for sensory, and κ = 0.35 for follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights consensus areas that could be considered by researchers in designing studies and identifies areas where lack of consensus indicates that further research is needed.
Botulinum toxin is an important treatment for many conditions in ophthalmology, including strabismus, nystagmus, blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, spastic and congenital entropion, corneal exposure, and persistent epithelial defects. The mechanism of action of botulinum toxin for both strabismus and nystagmus is the neuromuscular blockade and transient paralysis of extraocular muscles, but when botulinum toxin is used for some forms of strabismus, a single injection can convey indefinite benefits. There are two unique mechanisms of action that account for the long-term effect on ocular alignment: (1) the disruption of a balanced system of agonist-antagonist extraocular muscles and (2) the reestablishment of central control of alignment by the binocular visual system. For other ocular conditions, botulinum toxin acts through transient paralysis of periocular muscles. Botulinum toxin is a powerful tool in ophthalmology, achieving its therapeutic effects by direct neuromuscular blockade of extraocular and periocular muscles and by unique mechanisms related to the underlying structure and function of the visual system.
PURPOSE: To report the results of adjustable graded augmentation of superior rectus transposition, a novel modification of superior rectus transposition (SRT) designed to reduce postoperative vertical or torsional diplopia. METHODS: The medical records of patients who underwent adjustable graded augmentation of SRT with or without adjustable medial rectus recession (MRc) from February 2017 to December 2019 were reviewed retrospectively. A Mendez ring was used to monitor torsional change after transposition of the superior rectus muscle to the lateral rectus muscle and after sequential placement of 2 or 3 augmentation sutures by superior rectus-lateral rectus loop myopexy. If excessive mechanical intorsion was induced, the responsible augmentation suture was severed intraoperatively. If torsional or vertical diplopia was noted after recovery, the distal-most augmentation suture was cut. Exotropia was managed by severing the distal-most augmentation suture or by medial rectus adjustment. RESULTS: A total of 8 patients who underwent adjustable graded augmentation of SRT were included (6 using the 3-suture technique): 3 for esotropic Duane syndrome, 2 for abducens nerve palsy, 1 for Moebius syndrome, and 2 for combined trochlear and abducens nerve palsies. Of the 8 patients, 4 had prior strabismus surgery, and 1 patient had previously undergone treatment with botulinum toxin. Severing one augmentation suture in 3 cases resolved vertical (n = 2) or torsional (n = 1) diplopia and consecutive exotropia (n = 1), resulting in excellent alignment and reduction of torticollis to <4° in 7 cases. The technique proved insufficient in 1 patient, who had undergone 3 prior strabismus procedures. CONCLUSIONS: In this study cohort, adjustable graded augmentation of SRT effectively managed the risk of postoperative vertical or torsional diplopia.