Immunology and Uveitis

Immunology and Uveitis Publications

Ferrara M, Eggenschwiler L, Stephenson A, Montieth A, Nakhoul N, Araùjo-Miranda R, Foster SC. The Challenge of Pediatric Uveitis: Tertiary Referral Center Experience in the United States. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2018;:1-8.Abstract
PURPOSE: To describe the distribution, clinical findings, visual outcomes, treatment, and complications of children with uveitis at a tertiary referral ophthalmic center. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. We reviewed the medical records of all patients ≤16 years with uveitis referred to Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution from March 2005 to July 2016. RESULTS: Of 286 included children, 62.24% were female. Mean age of onset was 8.4 years. The uveitis was mainly anterior (61.9%), recurrent (68.53%), bilateral (81.82%), and noninfectious (96.5%). Idiopathic cases accounted for 51.4%. The most frequent systemic association was juvenile idiopathic arthritis (34.96%). The majority of patients (78.32%) experienced complications. All patients, except one, needed systemic therapy. CONCLUSION: Pediatric uveitis is challenging to diagnose and manage, with frequent and potentially severe complications. Most cases were bilateral, recurrent, and idiopathic. Prompt referral to uveitis-specialized centers and an appropriate systemic therapy are mandatory for good visual outcomes.
Sheppard JD, Foster SC, Toyos MM, Markwardt K, Da Vanzo R, Flynn TE, Kempen JH. Difluprednate 0.05% versus Prednisolone Acetate 1% for Endogenous Anterior Uveitis: Pooled Efficacy Analysis of Two Phase 3 Studies. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2017;:1-13.Abstract
PURPOSE: To analyse pooled data from 2 similar phase 3 noninferiority studies comparing difluprednate 0.05% versus prednisolone acetate 1% in patients with endogenous anterior uveitis. METHODS: Patients received difluprednate alternating with vehicle or prednisolone acetate for 14 days (8 drops/day in both groups), followed by tapering from day 14 to 28. All patients were observed until day 42. RESULTS: More patients on difluprednate than on prednisolone acetate were cleared of anterior chamber cells on day twenty one (71.3% vs 54.7%; p = 0.02); results were similar at the other time points. Treatment withdrawals were higher with prednisolone acetate than difluprednate (19.8% vs 7.4%; log-rank p = 0.02). Study discontinuation due to lack of efficacy was also higher with prednisolone acetate than difluprednate (14.0% vs 0%; p = 0.0002 [pre-specified exploratory analysis]). CONCLUSIONS: More difluprednate-treated eyes were quiet following 21 days of treatment, and difluprednate-treated patients were much less likely to be withdrawn from the study because of treatment failure.
PURPOSE: To report the novel application of nontreponemal and treponemal antibody to confirm diagnosis of ocular syphilis from vitreous samples. METHODS: Two distinct case reports emphasizing the importance of confirmatory vitreous treponemal antibody. Multimodal imaging of patients was also applied. RESULTS: We report two distinct cases with positive serum treponemal antibody but opposing vitreous treponemal antibody results. One case with a positive vitreous test responded well to antisyphilitic treatment. By contrast, a case with a negative vitreous result was changed to serpiginous choroiditis, eventually cured by immunomodulatory treatment. CONCLUSION: Intraocular fluid analysis of nontreponemal and treponemal antibody may play an important role in ruling out suspected ocular syphilis in settings without a polymerase chain reaction facility, especially immunocompromised patients who are at risk of multiple infections. Further studies are needed to establish the sensitivity and specificity of nontreponemal and treponemal antibody test on vitreous samples.
Callaway NF, Gonzalez MA, Yonekawa Y, Faia LJ, Mandelcorn ED, Khurana RN, Saleh MGA, Lin P, Sobrin L, Albini TA. OUTCOMES OF PARS PLANA VITRECTOMY FOR MACULAR HOLE IN PATIENTS WITH UVEITIS. Retina 2017;Abstract
PURPOSE: Inflammatory macular hole is a rare complication of uveitis, and data on surgical outcomes of closure are scarce. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anatomical and visual outcomes of conventional pars plana vitrectomy for patients with uveitis. METHODS: Noncomparative, interventional, and consecutive case series from 6 vitreoretinal surgical centers from 2007 to 2015. Twenty eyes of 19 patients were included with 4 patients separated as viral retinitis. The primary outcome was change in best-corrected visual acuity at Month 3. Secondary outcomes were closure of the macular hole and postoperative optical coherence tomography characteristics. RESULTS: All eyes underwent conventional three-port pars plana vitrectomy with indocyanine green-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling. Mean Snellen best-corrected visual acuity improved from 20/200 to 20/63 (P = 0.01 for a difference in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) at Month 3. Twelve (75%) of patients achieved 2 or more lines of visual acuity improvement by postoperative Month 3. Surgery resulted in decreased epiretinal membrane (P = 0.002), intraretinal fluid (P < 0.001), subretinal fluid (P = 0.029), central subfield thickness (P < 0.001), and central cube volume (P = 0.041). Surgical intervention achieved anatomical success, as measured by macular hole closure, in 13 (81%) of patients at postoperative Month 3. CONCLUSION: Patients with inflammatory macular hole respond well to conventional surgery, with good anatomical and visual acuity outcomes.
Sood AB, Pearce WA, Workowski KA, Lockwood J, Yeh S. Combined Intravitreal and Systemic Antibiotic Therapy in a Patient with Syphilitic Uveitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2017;:1-3.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report the novel use of combined intravitreal and systemic antibiotic therapy in a patient with syphilitic panuveitis and discuss the management of ocular syphilis. METHODS: Case report Results: A 45-year old heterosexual male with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) presented with 1 month of blurry vision in both eyes. Clinical examination revealed a bilateral panuveitis. The patient denied history of genital lesions or rash, but did complain of difficulty hearing bilaterally. Treponemal EIA was positive, the RPR titer greater than 1:512 dilution, and CSF VDRL 1:4. A diagnosis of neurosyphilis and ocular syphilis was made based on the clinical and laboratory findings. The patient was admitted for systemic intravenous antibiotic therapy, but was noted to have a penicillin allergy. Intravitreal ceftazidime was promptly administered bilaterally to achieve treponemacidal levels of antibiotic therapy. After penicillin desensitization protocol, the patient received 14 days of intravenous penicillin with clinical resolution. CONCLUSIONS: There are increasing reports of ocular syphilis in the United States and delay in diagnosis and management can lead to severe visual impairment and blindness. We report the first case of adjunct intravitreal antibiotic therapy in a penicillin allergic patient. As ocular syphilis is a form of bacterial endophthalmitis, combination intravitreal and systemic antibiotics may be considered.
Silpa-Archa S, Ponwong A, Preble JM, Foster SC. Culture-Positive Endogenous Endophthalmitis: An Eleven-Year Retrospective Study in the Central Region of Thailand. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2017;:1-10.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report the characteristics of infection and prognostic factors of endogenous endophthalmitis (EE) over an 11-year period. METHODS: The clinical records of 41 eyes of 36 patients diagnosed with culture-proven EE at the Rajavithi Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Median age at presentation was 58 years. Liver abscess (19%) and urinary tract infections (19%) were the most common sources of infection. The most common causative agents were gram-negative organisms (48%). The most commonly isolated microorganism was Klebsiella pneumoniae (26.8%). Worse initial visual acuity and severe intraocular inflammation at first presentation were equally associated with poor visual outcome in the multivariate model (adjusted odds ratio, 20.32; 95% confidence interval [1.12-357.45]; P = 0.040). CONCLUSIONS: Endogenous endophthalmitis usually has a poor visual prognosis. Liver abscess and urinary tract infections are common primary sites of infection. Poor initial visual acuity and severe intraocular inflammation at the initial presentation are predictors of poor visual outcome.
Maleki A, Swan RT, Lasave AF, Ma L, Foster SC. Reply. Ophthalmology 2017;124(8):e64-e65.
Grotting LA, Davoudi S, Uchiyama E, Lobo A-M, Papaliodis GN, Sobrin L. Pre-papillary vitreous opacities associated with Behçet's disease: a case series and review of the literature. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017;Abstract
PURPOSE: To present pre-papillary vitreous opacity as an uncommon manifestation of inflammation in Behçet's disease that may be specific to this uveitic entity. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 67 patients with Behçet's disease examined at our clinic between 2005 and 2016. Behçet's disease was diagnosed based on established clinical criteria of inflammation involving the eyes, mucocutaneous junctions, and skin. Patients with Behçet's disease who presented with papillitis and a pre-papillary vitreous opacity were identified. Response to anti-inflammatory treatment on examination and optical coherence tomography imaging were evaluated. PubMed searches were performed for (1) other cases with pre-papillary vitreous opacities in uveitic entities and (2) reports of optic nerve involvement specifically in Behçet's disease. RESULTS: We identified three patients with Behçet's disease who presented with unilateral papillitis and a pre-papillary vitreous opacity. The pre-papillary vitreous opacity had a funnel-shaped appearance on optical coherence tomography. All patients were initially treated with steroids, which led to resolution of the opacity clinically and on imaging. We identified one previous report of such a pre-papillary opacity in a patient with Behçet's disease, and no reports of this finding in other uveitic entities. CONCLUSION: This study expands the number of Behçet's disease cases presenting with a pre-papillary vitreous opacity and demonstrates novel optical coherence imaging of this finding. This finding may be specific to Behçet's disease as it was not identified in other uveitic entities in a review of the existing literature.
You C, Ma L, Lasave AF, Foster SC. Rituximab Induction and Maintenance Treatment in Patients with Scleritis and Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Wegener's). Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2017;:1-8.Abstract
AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of rituximab (RTX) induction and maintenance treatment for patients with scleritis and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), Wegener's. METHODS: Nine patients (12 eyes) with scleritis with GPA who did not respond to corticosteroids and more than one immunosuppressive agent who received ongoing maintenance RTX treatment were identified. Demographics and outcome measures were recorded. RESULTS: Median follow-up time of 30 months (range, 15 to 87 months). All 12 eyes achieved remission during the RTX maintenance period with a median time in remission of 14 months (range, 5-76 months), and median interval between RTX initiation and inactive disease of 5 months (range, 2-8 months). Two eyes in two patients relapsed. One received steroid eye drops, and the other received a short-term increased dose of intravenous corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS: RTX was effective as an induction and maintenance treatment in our small cohort of patients with GPA-associated scleritis.
for the and Group WCMUST (MUST) TF-up SR, Kempen JH, Altaweel MM, Holbrook JT, Sugar EA, Thorne JE, Jabs DA. Association Between Long-Lasting Intravitreous Fluocinolone Acetonide Implant vs Systemic Anti-inflammatory Therapy and Visual Acuity at 7 Years Among Patients With Intermediate, Posterior, or Panuveitis. JAMA 2017;317(19):1993-2005.Abstract
Importance: A randomized clinical trial comparing fluocinolone acetonide implant vs systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppression for treatment of severe noninfectious intermediate, posterior, and panuveitides did not result in a significant difference in visual acuity at 2 and 4.5 years; longer-term outcomes are not known. Objective: To compare the association between intravitreous fluocinolone acetonide implant vs systemic therapy and long-term visual and other outcomes in patients with uveitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: Nonprespecified 7-year observational follow-up of the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) randomized clinical trial comparing the alternative treatments. Follow-up was conducted in tertiary uveitis subspecialty practices in the United States (21), the United Kingdom (1), and Australia (1). Of 255 patients 13 years or older with intermediate, posterior, or panuveitis (active within ≤60 days) enrolled in the MUST trial between December 6, 2005, and December 9, 2008, 215 consented to ongoing follow-up through at least 7 years postrandomization (last visit, February 10, 2016). Interventions: Participants had been randomized to receive a surgically placed intravitreous fluocinolone acetonide implant or systemic corticosteroids supplemented by immunosuppression. When both eyes required treatment, both eyes were treated. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was change from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity in uveitic eyes (5 letters = 1 visual acuity chart line; potential range of change in letters read, -121 to +101; minimal clinically important difference, 7 letters), analyzed by treatment assignment accounting for nonindependence of eyes when patients had 2 uveitic eyes. Secondary outcomes included potential systemic toxicities of corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy and death. Results: Seven-year data were obtained for 161 uveitic eyes (70% of 90 patients assigned to implant) and 167 uveitic eyes (71% of 90 patients assigned to systemic therapy) (77% female; median age at enrollment, 48 [interquartile range, 36-56] years). Change in mean visual acuity from baseline (implant, 61.7; systemic therapy, 65.0) through 7 years (implant, 55.8; systemic therapy, 66.2) favored systemic therapy by 7.2 (95% CI, 2.1-12) letters. Among protocol-specified, prospectively collected systemic adverse outcomes, the cumulative 7-year incidence in the implant and systemic therapy groups, respectively, was less than 10%, with the exceptions of hyperlipidemia (6.1% vs 11.2%), hypertension (9.8% vs 18.4%), osteopenia (41.5% vs 43.1%), fractures (11.3% vs 18.6%), hospitalization (47.6% vs 42.3%), and antibiotic-treated infection (57.4% vs 72.3%). Conclusions and Relevance: In 7-year extended follow-up of a randomized trial of patients with severe intermediate, posterior, or panuveitis, those randomized to receive systemic therapy had better visual acuity than those randomized to receive intravitreous fluocinolone acetonide implants. Study interpretation is limited by loss to follow-up. Trial Registration: Identifier: NCT00132691.
Borkar DS, Homayounfar G, Tham VM, Ray KJ, Vinoya AC, Uchida A, Acharya NR. Association Between Thyroid Disease and Uveitis: Results From the Pacific Ocular Inflammation Study. JAMA Ophthalmol 2017;135(6):594-599.Abstract
Importance: Common pathophysiological mechanisms may be responsible for immune dysregulation in both thyroid disease and uveitis. Studies investigating a possible association are limited. Objective: To determine the association between thyroid disease and uveitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective, population-based case-control study was conducted from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2007, among 217 061 members of the Kaiser Permanente Hawaii health system during the study period. A clinical diagnosis of uveitis was determined through a query of the electronic medical record followed by individual medical record review for confirmation by a uveitis specialist. Thyroid disease was determined based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, coding. Two control groups were chosen at a 4:1 ratio for comparison with patients with uveitis. A logistic regression analysis was performed with uveitis as the main outcome variable and thyroid disease as the main predictor variable, while adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, and history of autoimmune disease. Data analysis was conducted between 2014 and 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures: A diagnosis of thyroid disease among patients with uveitis and respective controls. Results: Of the 224 patients with uveitis (127 women and 97 men; mean [SD] age, 54.1 [17.8] years) identified during the study period, 29 (12.9%) had a diagnosis of thyroid disease, compared with 62 of 896 patients (6.9%) in the control group (P = .01) and 78 of 896 patients (8.7%) in the ophthalmology clinic control group (P = .06). Using the general Kaiser Permanente Hawaii population control group, patients who had thyroid disease had a 1.7-fold (95% CI, 1.03-2.80; P = .04) higher odds of having uveitis compared with patients who did not have thyroid disease when controlling for age, sex, race, smoking status, and autoimmune disease. A similar association was found using the ophthalmology clinic control group (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-2.9; P = .02) while adjusting for these factors. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that a history of thyroid disease has a weak to moderate association with uveitis. Similar autoimmune mechanisms could explain the pathogenesis of both conditions. If future studies corroborate these findings, they may have further clinical implications in the laboratory workup of uveitis.

PURPOSE: To examine the efficacy and safety of infliximab therapy in the treatment for noninfectious intermediate uveitis resistant to conventional immunomodulatory therapy. METHODS: Forty-four eyes of 23 patients with resistant noninfectious intermediate uveitis who were treated with infliximab infusions for a minimum period of 3 months were included. Demographic data, clinical data, and fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography findings were collected from the Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution database between August 2005 and February 2014. Clinical response, improvement in ancillary test findings, and major side effects were evaluated. RESULTS: Nineteen patients (82.6%) achieved remission. The mean duration of treatment to induce remission was 3.99 ± 3.06 months (range, 2-14.7). Cystoid macular edema was the only complication observed during the course of the treatment in 1 eye (2.27%). One patient (4.3%) developed major side effects. None of the patients developed central or peripheral demyelinating neuropathies or multiple sclerosis. At 6 months after remission, logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity (P = 0.006) and central macular thickness (P = 0.03) showed significant improvement in patients who achieved remission. CONCLUSION: A significant number of patients achieved remission on infliximab therapy. The incidence of major side effects in our cohort was low.

Amphornphruet A, Silpa-Archa S, Preble JM, Foster SC. Endogenous Cryptococcal Endophthalmitis in Immunocompetent Host: Case Report and Review of Multimodal Imaging Findings and Treatment. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2017;:1-5.Abstract

PURPOSE: To describe a case of bilateral endogenous cryptococcal endophthalmitis in an immunocompetent host and to review adjunctive ophthalmic imaging patterns and treatment. METHODS: A retrospective case report. RESULTS: A 45-year-old female patient with two distinct presentations of endogenous cryptococcal endophthalmitis in each eye presented initially with progressive blurred vision in the left eye, beginning more than 10 years after a craniotomy with ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Complete ophthalmic imaging was conducted and compared with data from previous literature. Administration of amphotericin-B had poorly responded; however, consolidation of fluconazole resulted in disease stabilization. CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral intraocular cryptococcal infection can present with two distinct patterns of posterior segment findings. A review of ophthalmic imaging patterns found consistency in some characteristics of A-scan ultrasonogram and fundus fluorescein angiogram. Besides conventional treatment, voriconazole is likely to play an important role in the management of cryptococcal endophthalmitis.

Daniel E, Pistilli M, Kothari S, Khachatryan N, Kaçmaz OR, Gangaputra SS, Sen NH, Suhler EB, Thorne JE, Foster SC, Jabs DA, Nussenblatt RB, Rosenbaum JT, Levy-Clarke GA, Bhatt NP, Kempen JH, for Group SITEDR. Risk of Ocular Hypertension in Adults with Noninfectious Uveitis. Ophthalmology 2017;124(8):1196-1208.Abstract
PURPOSE: To describe the risk and risk factors for ocular hypertension (OHT) in adults with noninfectious uveitis. DESIGN: Retrospective, multicenter, cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged ≥18 years with noninfectious uveitis seen between 1979 and 2007 at 5 tertiary uveitis clinics. METHODS: Demographic, ocular, and treatment data were extracted from medical records of uveitis cases. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalent and incident OHT with intraocular pressures (IOPs) of ≥21 mmHg, ≥30 mmHg, and increase of ≥10 mmHg from documented IOP recordings (or use of treatment for OHT). RESULTS: Among 5270 uveitic eyes of 3308 patients followed for OHT, the mean annual incidence rates for OHT ≥21 mmHg and OHT ≥30 mmHg are 14.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.4-15.5) and 5.1% (95% CI, 4.7-5.6) per year, respectively. Statistically significant risk factors for incident OHT ≥30 mmHg included systemic hypertension (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.29); worse presenting visual acuity (≤20/200 vs. ≥20/40, aHR, 1.47); pars plana vitrectomy (aHR, 1.87); history of OHT in the other eye: IOP ≥21 mmHg (aHR, 2.68), ≥30 mmHg (aHR, 4.86) and prior/current use of IOP-lowering drops or surgery in the other eye (aHR, 4.17); anterior chamber cells: 1+ (aHR, 1.43) and ≥2+ (aHR, 1.59) vs. none; epiretinal membrane (aHR, 1.25); peripheral anterior synechiae (aHR, 1.81); current use of prednisone >7.5 mg/day (aHR, 1.86); periocular corticosteroids in the last 3 months (aHR, 2.23); current topical corticosteroid use [≥8×/day vs. none] (aHR, 2.58); and prior use of fluocinolone acetonide implants (aHR, 9.75). Bilateral uveitis (aHR, 0.69) and previous hypotony (aHR, 0.43) were associated with statistically significantly lower risk of OHT. CONCLUSIONS: Ocular hypertension is sufficiently common in eyes treated for uveitis that surveillance for OHT is essential at all visits for all cases. Patients with 1 or more of the several risk factors identified are at particularly high risk and must be carefully managed. Modifiable risk factors, such as use of corticosteroids, suggest opportunities to reduce OHT risk within the constraints of the overriding need to control the primary ocular inflammatory disease.
You C, Lamba N, Lasave AF, Ma L, Diaz MH, Foster SC. Rituximab in the treatment of ocular cicatricial pemphigoid: a retrospective cohort study. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017;255(6):1221-1228.Abstract
PURPOSE: The purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of rituximab (RTX) for the treatment of patients with aggressive ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (OCP). METHODS: A review of patient records at a tertiary referral center with biopsy confirmed OCP who presented between 2006 and 2016. Sixty-one eyes of 32 patients with symptomatic OCP who received treatment with RTX monotherapy or RTX in combination with additional immunomodulatory treatment (IMT) were evaluated. Main outcomes included clinically evident remission of disease, the percentage of corticosteroid sparing patients, stage of OCP (Foster), best corrected visual acuity, and treatment complications. Remission was defined as absence of progressive scarring and active ocular inflammation for ≥ 2 months. Partial remission/responding was defined as disease control and clinical improvement for ≥ 2 months. RESULTS: Mean age at the initiation of RTX treatment was 59.1 years (range, 24-80 years) with a median follow-up time after RTX initiation of 32 months (range, 14 to 127 months). Twenty-six patients achieved clinical remission with an average sustained remission of 24.5 months (from 9 months to 84 months). RTX monotherapy was used in six patients, RTX in combination with intravenous immunoglobulin in 14 patients, and RTX with intravenous immunoglobulin and/or with other IMT agent in six patients. Seven eyes (11.5%) of six patients had favorable response to RTX and achieved response and partial remission, while inflammation remained active in the other seven eyes (11.5%) of four patients though there was no progressive scarring. At the last visit, three patients (9.4%) were on topical corticosteroid, three patients (9.4%) were treated with systemic corticosteroid treatments, and the other 26 patients (81.2%) achieved corticosteroid sparing therapy. Five eyes (8.2%) progressed one Foster stage. No other cicatrization progression or worsening of LogMAR visual acuity (p = 0.641) was observed during the follow-up period. Adverse events included leukopenia in three patients (9.4%), anemia in two patients (6.2%), liver enzyme elevation in three patients (9.4%) who were also on another concomitant IMT drug, and Epstein-Barr Virus infection and sinus infection in one patient each (3.1%). No other severe adverse events were noted during the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: These retrospective data suggest that RTX is efficacious and well tolerated when included for the treatment of OCP. Controlled studies are necessary to identify the role of this IMT agent in the therapeutic arsenal, especially its optimum dose and duration of administration.