Immunology and Uveitis

Immunology and Uveitis Publications

Silpa-Archa S, Hoopholerb T, Foster CS. Appraisal of vitreous syphilis antibody as a novel biomarker for the diagnosis of syphilitic uveitis: a prospective case-control study. Eye (Lond) 2023;37(1):146-154.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of syphilis antibody tests in vitreous samples and to propose an algorithm using vitreous syphilis antibody as a supplementary test to confirm syphilitic uveitis (SU). METHODS: A prospective case-control study was conducted at the Retina and Uveitis Clinic from May 2017 to January 2020. Initially, patients were classified based on syphilis serology into group 1 (positive testing) and group 2 (negative testing). Group 1 was further divided into 2 subgroups (group 1A and 1B) depending on their relevant clinical manifestations and clinical improvement. Group 2 served as a control group. RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients were enrolled in the study: 14 in group 1A, 5 in group 1B, and 19 in group 2B. No patient was assigned to group 2A. All patients in group 1A, representing definite SU, completed syphilis test (rapid plasma reagin [RPR], enzyme immunoassay [EIA], and fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption [FTA-ABS]) for vitreous, and all vitreous samples yielded positive results. Of the 5 subjects in group 1B, 3 cases were considered to be not SU with different conditions, and 2 were indeterminate for SU. They presented with different features not typical of SU, and they had variable and fewer positive syphilis antibody responses. The most sensitive test for detecting syphilis antibodies in vitreous was EIA (90.9%), followed by RPR (80.0%) and FTA-ABS IgG (78.9%). EIA and FTA-ABS had the highest specificity, detecting 100% of the syphilis antibody. CONCLUSIONS: Vitreous analysis of syphilis antibody can serve as a supplementary test to confirm SU in selected cases as the proposed algorithm.
Belanger NL, Barbero R, Barclay R, Lepene B, Sobrin L, Bispo PJM. Improved Detection of Herpesviruses from Diluted Vitreous Specimens Using Hydrogel Particles. Diagnostics (Basel) 2022;12(12)Abstract
Infectious uveitis is a sight-threatening infection commonly caused by herpesviruses. Vitreous humor is often collected for molecular confirmation of the causative agent during vitrectomy and mixed in large volumes of buffered saline, diluting the pathogen load. Here, we explore affinity-capture hydrogel particles (Nanotrap®) to concentrate low abundant herpesviruses from diluted vitreous. Simulated samples were prepared using porcine vitreous spiked with HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV and CMV at 105 copies/mL. Pure undiluted samples were used to test capturing capability of three custom Nanotrap particles (red, white and blue) in a vitreous matrix. We found that all particles demonstrated affinity to the herpesviruses, with the Red Particles having both good capture capability and ease of handling for all herpesviruses. To mimic diluted vitrectomy specimens, simulated-infected vitreous were then serially diluted in 7 mL TE buffer. Diluted samples were subjected to an enrichment protocol using the Nanotrap Red particles. Sensitivity of pathogen detection by qPCR in diluted vitreous increased anywhere between 2.3 to 26.5 times compared to non-enriched specimens. This resulted in a 10-fold increase in the limit of detection for HSV-1, HSV-2 and VZV. These data demonstrated that Nanotrap particles can capture and concentrate HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV and CMV in a vitreous matrix.
Yavuz Saricay L, Baldwin G, Leake K, Johnston A, Shah AS, Patel NA, Gonzalez E. Cytomegalovirus retinitis and immune recovery uveitis in a pediatric patient with leukemia. J AAPOS 2022;Abstract
Immune recovery uveitis (IRU) is an ocular form of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, which is rare in the pediatric population. We report a case of IRU in an 11-year-old girl with a history of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in the setting of acute leukemia, who developed uveitis, vitritis, retinitis, and vasculitis during immune reconstitution. She was found to have negative CMV antigenemia, and the disease occurred during concurrent systemic antiviral therapy. Anterior chamber tap confirmed the absence of the CMV in the eye, and recurrent blood samples continued to reveal absent CMV viral particles systemically while her lymphocyte count was steadily increasing. The patient responded to oral steroids, leading to resolution of active retinitis. Tapering the steroids caused a mild reactivation of the ocular immune response.
Susarla G, Chan W, Li A, Davoudi S, Ahmadi T, Sathe S, Tom L, Papaliodis GN, Mercader JM, Leong A, Sobrin L. Mendelian Randomization Shows a Causal Effect of Low Vitamin D on Non-infectious Uveitis and Scleritis Risk. Am J Ophthalmol 2022;244:11-18.Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate a causal relationship between Vitamin D levels and non-infectious uveitis and scleritis using Mendelian randomization (MR) techniques. DESIGN: Two-sample Mendelian randomization case-control study. METHODS: The study setting was a biobank of an academic, integrated health care system. The patient population comprised 375 case patients with a non-infectious uveitis and/or scleritis diagnosis and no diagnosis of infectious, trauma-related, or drug-induced uveitis/scleritis. In addition, there were 4167 controls with no uveitis or scleritis diagnosis. Causal effect estimates of low 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25OHD) on uveitis/scleritis risk were calculated. RESULTS: We found an association of genetically decreased 25OHD with uveitis/scleritis risk (odds ratio [OR] = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.01-4.64, P = .049, per SD decrease in log25OHD). In a first sensitivity MR analysis excluding the genetic variants that are unlikely to have a role in biologically active 25OHD, effect estimates were consistent with those from the primary analysis (OR = 2.38, 95% CI =1.06-5.36, P = 0.035, per SD of log25OHD). Furthermore, in a second sensitivity analysis using only the 6 variants within the CYP2R1 locus (which encodes 25OHD hydroxylase, the liver enzyme responsible for converting Vitamin D to 25OHD), genetically decreased 25OHD was strongly associated with increased uveitis/scleritis risk (OR = 6.42, 95% CI = 3.19-12.89, P = 1.7 × 10-7, per SD of log25OHD). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a causal relationship between low Vitamin D levels and higher risk of non-infectious uveitis and scleritis. Vitamin D supplementation may be a low-cost, low-risk intervention to mitigate non-infectious uveitis and scleritis risk, and should be explored in a prospective trial.
Zhang Z, Ng Ming Sheng S, Kempen JH, Fabiani C, Arora A, Gupta V, Tsui E, Cimino L, Symes RJ, Dell J, Finger RP, Heinz C, Agrawal R. Uveitis Registries - A Digital Tool for Patient Care, Education, Research, and Collaboration. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2022;:1-11.Abstract
PURPOSE: Clinical registries are increasingly important in research and clinical advancement. This review explores and compares current uveitis registries and recommends future directions on how uveitis registries can complement one another for synergistic effect and benefit. METHODS: From a systematic search, 861 citations were screened for longitudinal, non-interventional, and multicenter uveitis-specific registries. Additional registries were identified via consultations with uveitis experts. Characteristics of all registries were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: Four registries were identified: Treatment Exit Options for Non-infectious Uveitis, AutoInflammatory Disease Alliance International Registry, Ocular Autoimmune Systemic Inflammatory Infectious Study, and Fight Uveitis Blindness!. Despite certain differences, these registries have the overarching goal of collecting large quantities of real-world, high-quality patient data to improve the understanding of uveitis. CONCLUSION: The four uveitis registries share similar goals and collect clinical data from overlapping geographical regions. There is vast potential for collaboration, including data sharing to further augment datasets for analysis.
Maleki A, Philip A, Foster SC. Adalimumab Monotherapy in the Treatment of Idiopathic Multifocal Choroiditis: A Case Report. Case Rep Ophthalmol 2022;13(3):793.Abstract
In this study, we report a case of multifocal choroiditis that was successfully treated with adalimumab monotherapy. A 25-year-old male presented with a history of bilateral multifocal choroiditis which was resistant to a combination of azathioprine, valacyclovir, and prednisone. Dilated fundoscopy revealed small creamy-yellow lesions around the arcades in both eyes (OU). Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) revealed active hypocyanescent lesions around the arcades and macula OU. Valacyclovir was stopped, adalimumab subcutaneous injections biweekly were added to the regimen, and prednisone was tapered after the second adalimumab loading dose. At 3-month follow-up, ocular examination and ICGA were unremarkable OU. After 30 months of remission, azathioprine was tapered and stopped. After 40 months of remission, adalimumab was tapered and stopped. Four months after stopping adalimumab injections, the patient returned with new floaters in his right eye (OD). ICGA and macular optical coherence tomography detected active lesions OU. The patient was restarted on adalimumab subcutaneous injections as monotherapy. At 3-month follow-up visit, his symptoms had resolved, and ICGA showed resolution of the lesions OD and improvement of the lesions in the left eye (OS). He has been in remission for 6 months at the time of writing since restarting adalimumab monotherapy. We conclude from this study that long-term adalimumab monotherapy can be employed effectively and safely in the re-treatment of patients with multifocal choroiditis resistant to other immunomodulatory therapy even after successful tapering and discontinuation of concurrent therapies.
Betzler BK, Putera I, Testi I, Distia Nora RL, Kempen J, Md OMK, Pavesio C, Gupta V, Agrawal R. Anti-tubercular therapy in the treatment of tubercular uveitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Surv Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
We quantitatively evaluated the efficacy of antitubercular therapy (ATT) in tubercular uveitis (TBU) patients. Main outcome measures include inflammation recurrence, inflammation reduction, complete resolution of inflammation, improved visual acuity (VA), ability to taper corticosteroids to < 10 mg/day without inflammatory progression, and use of adjunctive immunosuppressants while on ATT. This review is prospectively registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020206845). Forty-nine studies reporting data for 4,017 TBU patients were included. In comparative studies, the odds ratio (OR) of inflammatory recurrence was 0.33 (95%CI:0.19-0.60) for TBU patients treated with ATT±corticosteroid versus no ATT. For TBU patients treated with ATT±corticosteroid, the pooled absolute incidences of inflammatory recurrence, inflammatory reduction, complete resolution of inflammation, and visual acuity improvement were 13% (n=310/2,216; 95%CI:9-18), 81% (n=217/276; 95%CI: 62-95), 83% (n=1,167/1,812; 95%CI: 77-89), and 65% (n=347/542; 95%CI:51-78), respectively. Corticosteroids were tapered to <10 mg/day without inflammatory progression in 91% (n=326/395; 95%CI:78-99) of patients, 9% (n=121/1,376; 95%CI:6-13) of whom were administered concomitant immunosuppressive agents alongside ATT. We conclude that treatment of TBU with ATT±corticosteroid is associated with a high level of control or improvement of inflammation. More prospective studies with detailed reporting of ATT regimens, patient subgroups, and outcomes are required to better evaluate ATT effectiveness.
Agarwal A, Singh RB, Erckens RJ, Berendschot TTJM, Webers CAB. Quantitative Analysis of the Choroidal Vascularity in Eyes with Uveitis Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography: A Systematic Review. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2022;:1-12.Abstract
PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review is to identify techniques used for quantification of choriocapillaris (CC) flow in eyes with uveitis using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), report reliability and level of correlation with techniques such as indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). METHODS: A systematic search of several databases was done. The studies were analyzed for techniques of measurement, reliability, and correlation with other modalities. Risk of bias assessment was performed. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included. CC vessel density (7 studies) and flow deficit area (4 studies) were the most used indices. There was significant heterogeneity in the studies due to differences in the scan protocol, thresholding strategy, and analysis. Comparison with ICGA was performed by only one study, and reliability indices were reported by only two studies. CONCLUSION: OCTA is a useful tool to measure the CC vascularity in eyes with uveitis. However, standardized acquisition and analysis protocols are needed.
Valdes L, Cox JT, Yang J, Susarla G, Han S, Papaliodis GN, Sobrin L. Anti-infliximab antibodies and clinical response in noninfectious uveitis and scleritis patients treated with infliximab: A retrospective review. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2022;27:101634.Abstract
Purpose: To investigate the clinical response to infliximab in ocular inflammation patients who develop anti-infliximab antibodies (AIA) vs. those patients who do not develop AIA. Observations: A retrospective review was performed of patients treated with infliximab for noninfectious uveitis (NIU) or scleritis. Clinical response was determined as a composite clinical endpoint and classified as complete, partial, or absent. Nine of 32 infliximab-treated patients (28%) were found to develop AIA. Among the AIA-positive patients, clinical response was complete in 7 patients (78%) and partial in 2 patients (22%). Among the AIA-negative patients, clinical response was complete in 15 patients (65%), partial in 6 patients (26%) and absent in 2 patients (9%). Serum infliximab levels tended to decrease with appearance of AIA but rarely became undetectable. Conclusions and Importance: In this pilot study, AIA-positive patients did not have diminished clinical response to infliximab when compared with AIA-negative patients. There was a high rate of complete clinical response to infliximab in this group of NIU and scleritis patients. Approximately a quarter of patients developed AIA. AIA-positive patients did not have diminished rates of clinical response when compared with AIA-negative patients. This suggests that routine AIA monitoring may not be clinically useful, although validation of this finding in larger cohorts is necessary.
Bleicher ID, Brill D, Wu F, Sobrin L, Patel N. Acute Idiopathic Maculopathy Following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2022;:1-4.Abstract
A 49-year-old man presented with acute unilateral blurred vision one week after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. A unilateral serous detachment of the macula, intraretinal hemorrhages, vitritis, and anterior chamber cell was found. Diagnostic testing was negative for infectious and inflammatory causes, and a diagnosis of acute idiopathic maculopathy (AIM) was made. Symptoms and serous detachment resolved over 12 weeks, with residual retinal pigment epithelial changes consistent with the disease course. AIM is a rare diagnosis that presented in close proximity to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination without evidence of coxsackievirus infection. Further research is necessary to clarify an association between this vaccine and uveitis.
Maleki A, Colombo A, Manhapra A, Foster SC. Authors' response. Surv Ophthalmol 2022;67(3):880-882.
Silpa-Archa S, Sriyuttagrai W, Foster SC. Treatment for Epstein-Barr Virus-associated uveitis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction: Efficacy of Anti-Viral Agents and a literature review. J Clin Virol 2022;147:105079.Abstract
BACKGROUND: There are still many research challenges and unanswered questions in relation to Epstein-Barr virus-associated uveitis. These include the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in asymptomatic patients, its pathogenicity in the uveitis eye, and the role of antiviral therapy for EBV-associated intraocular inflammation. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of prospectively collected data from the Ophthalmology Department, Rajavithi Hospital between 2015 and 2020. A qualitative assay using multiplex real-time PCR was performed to detect pathogen genes from specimens obtained from a total of 344 patients. The main outcome measure was treatment success defined by clinical improvement and absence of viral DNA confirmed by PCR. RESULTS: Of the 35 cases, 24 with complete data were enrolled in the study, including 22 with post-treatment PCR results. Sixty-seven percent were HIV-infected, and other plausible causes or coinfection with other pathogens were found in 75% of patients. Cytomegalovirus (38%) was the most common co-infecting pathogen. The most commonly employed regimen was a combination of systemic acyclovir and intravitreal ganciclovir injection (58%). Of the 22 cases who had post-treatment PCR results, absence of detection of the virus by PCR in the intraocular fluid after treatment was demonstrated in 73% of patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with EBV infection can be simultaneously co-infected with other pathogens. Systemic acyclovir and ganciclovir achieved clinical improvement in most cases, and EBV infection was cured in the majority of patients.
He B, Tanya SM, Wang C, Kezouh A, Torun N, Ing E. The Incidence of Sympathetic Ophthalmia After Trauma: A Meta-analysis. Am J Ophthalmol 2022;234:117-125.Abstract
PURPOSE: Sympathetic ophthalmia (SO) is a rare, bilateral panuveitis that occurs following open globe injury (OGI), with a variable incidence reported in the literature. Our objective was to determine the incidence proportion and incidence rate of SO following OGI to help guide shared physician-patient decision making. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases from inception to November 2020 for population-based studies on OGI and SO in adults and children. Two reviewers independently screened search results. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to calculate the incidence proportion and incidence rate. The Risk Of Bias In Non-Randomized Studies - of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool was used to assess the risk of bias. The study was registered on PROSPERO CRD42020198920. RESULTS: A total of 24 studies were utilized in the meta-analyses. After OGI, the estimated overall incidence proportion of SO was 0.19% (95% CI 0.14%-0.24%) and the incidence rate of SO was 33 per 100,000 person-years, (95% CI 19.61-56.64) with I2 of 13% and 72%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: SO after OGI is rare. The estimated incidence proportion and incidence rate are useful when counselling patients regarding management options after OGI. Further studies are needed to examine the influence of age, the extent and location of trauma, timing of repair, and prophylactic eye removal on the incidence of SO.
Maleki A, Anesi SD, Look-Why S, Manhapra A, Foster SC. Pediatric uveitis: A comprehensive review. Surv Ophthalmol 2022;67(2):510-529.Abstract
Pediatric uveitis accounts for 5-10% of all uveitis. Uveitis in children differs from adult uveitis in that it is commonly asymptomatic and can become chronic and cause damage to ocular structures. The diagnosis might be delayed for multiple reasons, including the preverbal age and difficulties in examining young children. Pediatric uveitis may be infectious or noninfectious in etiology. The etiology of noninfectious uveitis is presumed to be autoimmune or autoinflammatory. The most common causes of uveitis in this age group are idiopathic and juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis. The stepladder approach for the treatment of pediatric uveitis is based on expert opinion and algorithms proposed by multidisciplinary panels. Uveitis morbidities in pediatric patients include cataract, glaucoma, and amblyopia. Pediatric patients with uveitis should be frequently examined until remission is achieved. Once in remission, the interval between follow-up visits can be extended; however, it is recommended that even after remission the child should be seen every 8-12 weeks depending on the history of uveitis and the medications used. Close follow up is also necessary as uveitis can flare up during immunomodulatory therapy. It is crucial to measure the impact of uveitis, its treatment, and its complications on the child and the child's family. Visual acuity can be considered as an acceptable criterion for assessing visual function. Additionally, the number of cells in the anterior chamber can be a measure of disease activity. We review different aspects of pediatric uveitis. We discuss the mechanisms of noninfectious uveitis, including autoimmune and autoinflammatory etiologies, and the risks of developing uveitis in children with systemic rheumatologic diseases. We address the risk factors for developing morbidities, the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN) criteria for timing and anatomical classifications, and describe a stepladder approach in the treatment of pediatric uveitis based on expert opinion and algorithms proposed by multi-disciplinary panels. In this review article, We describe the most common entities for each type of anatomical classification and complications of uveitis for the pediatric population. Additionally, we address monitoring of children with uveitis and evaluation of Quality of Life.

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