Oncology

Oncology Publications

Brouwer NJ, Konstantinou EK, Gragoudas ES, Marinkovic M, Luyten GPM, Kim IK, Jager MJ, Vavvas DG. Targeting the YAP/TAZ Pathway in Uveal and Conjunctival Melanoma With Verteporfin. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021;62(4):3.Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether YAP/TAZ activation in uveal melanoma (UM) and the susceptibility of melanoma cell lines to YAP/TAZ inhibition by verteporfin (VP) is related to the tumor's genetic background. Methods: Characteristics of 144 patients with enucleated UM were analyzed together with mRNA expression levels of YAP/TAZ-related genes (80 patients from the The Cancer Genome Atlas [TCGA] project and 64 patients from Leiden, The Netherlands). VP was administered to cell lines 92.1, OMM1, Mel270, XMP46, and MM28 (UM), CRMM1 and CRMM2 (conjunctival melanoma), and OCM3 (cutaneous melanoma). Viability, growth speed, and expression of YAP1-related proteins were assessed. Results: In TCGA data, high expression of YAP1 and WWTR1 correlated with the presence of monosomy 3 (P = 0.009 and P < 0.001, respectively) and BAP1-loss (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001, respectively) in the primary UM; metastasis development correlated with higher expression of YAP1 (P = 0.05) and WWTR1 (P = 0.003). In Leiden data, downstream transcription factor TEAD4 was increased in cases with M3/BAP1-loss (P = 0.002 and P = 0.006) and related to metastasis (P = 0.004). UM cell lines 92.1, OMM1, and Mel270 (GNAQ/11-mutation, BAP1-positive) and the fast-growing cell line OCM3 (BRAF-mutation) showed decreased proliferation after exposure to VP. Two slow-growing UM cell lines XMP46 and MM28 (GNAQ/11-mutation, BAP1-negative) were not sensitive to VP, and neither were the two conjunctival melanoma cell lines (BRAF/NRAS-mutation). Conclusions: High risk UM showed an increased expression of YAP/TAZ-related genes. Although most UM cell lines responded in vitro to VP, BAP1-negative and conjunctival melanoma cell lines did not. Not only the mutational background, but also cell growth rate is an important predictor of response to YAP/TAZ inhibition by VP.
Raval V, Binkley E, Aronow ME, Valenzuela J, Peereboom DM, Singh AD. Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma - Ocular Variant (PCNSL-O): An Interdisciplinary Review on Management. Surv Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
Primary central nervous system lymphoma-ophthalmic variant (PCNSL-O) is an ocular subset of PCNSL predominantly involving subretinal pigment epithelium (RPE) space, retina, and vitreous. The ophthalmic manifestations can precede, occur simultaneously, or follow other compartments of the CNS. Clinical trials have resulted in a significantly improved outcome in PCNSL patients over the past 2 decades, with a higher proportion of patients receiving frontline high dose methotrexate-based polychemotherapy regimens with curative intent; however, the current management of PCNSL-O remains controversial due to lack of prospective data. The goals of PCNSL-O treatment are both to achieve local (ocular) control and to prevent tumor-specific mortality from further CNS involvement. Despite achieving high rates of ocular control with intravitreal agents like methotrexate and rituximab, the overall survival is poor, as 65-85% of patients eventually succumb to CNS disease. Few studies define the role of systemic chemotherapy with/without local treatment as a first line induction treatment for PCNSL-O considering limiting factors such as ocular penetration of systemically administered drugs and treatment related neurotoxicity. Also, the role of adjuvant treatment for PCNSL-O to prevent CNS progression and to improve overall survival is unknown. In this systematic review of the literature, we analyze treatment outcomes of various regimens (local, systemic, and combination) in terms of local control, CNS progression, and overall survival.
Chodnicki KD, Prasad S. Ophthalmic Implications of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy. Semin Ophthalmol 2021;:1-6.Abstract
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is a revolutionary addition to the burgeoning field of immunotherapy. CAR T-cells are engineered by combining a T-cell receptor with the antigen-binding site of an immunoglobulin that allows the hybrid cell to target antigens of interest. CAR T-cell therapy has been approved to treat various hematologic malignancies, including relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. While the treatment efficacy is exciting, challenges remain in understanding the unique spectrum of adverse effects of CAR T-cell therapy, including cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity. Innovative research is underway to expand this therapy into solid tumors and fields beyond hematology and oncology. To date, there has been limited research into ophthalmic uses and considerations of CAR T-cell therapy. This review focuses on preclinical investigations into CAR T-cell therapy for retinoblastoma and uveal melanoma, as well as ophthalmic complications of CAR T-cell therapy.
Reshef ER, Bleier BS, Freitag SK. The Endoscopic Transnasal Approach to Orbital Tumors: A Review. Semin Ophthalmol 2021;:1-9.Abstract
Historically, surgical access to orbital tumors has required a transcutaneous, transconjunctival or transcranial approach. Resection of orbital tumors is notoriously challenging due to the surrounding dense network of critical structures in a confined bony cavity. Advances in endoscopic endonasal surgery, initially used for sinonasal and skull base conditions, have allowed for expansion of its applications beyond the sinorbital interface. In the past decade, the evolution of techniques has enabled a purely endoscopic, minimally invasive approach to medially located orbital pathology with good outcomes. With experience and multidisciplinary collaboration between orbit and rhinologic surgeons, this has expanded to allow for a safe and effective transnasal approach to nearly all regions of the orbit with or without assistance from the orbital side. This review summarizes the relevant anatomy, variations of surgical approaches, and literature regarding outcomes of the endoscopic endonasal approach to orbital tumors.
Haque M, Xiong X, Lei F, Das JK, Song J. An optimized protocol for the generation of HBV viral antigen-specific T lymphocytes from pluripotent stem cells. STAR Protoc 2021;2(1):100264.Abstract
In T cell-based cancer immunotherapy, tumor antigen (Ag)-specific CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) can specifically target tumor Ags on malignant cells. This promising approach drove us to adopt this strategy of T cell transfer (ACT)-based immunotherapy for chronic viral infections. Here, we describe the generation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) Ag-specific CTLs from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), i.e., iPSC-CTLs. Ag-specific iPSC-CTLs can target HBV Ag cells and infiltrate into the liver to suppress HBV replication in a murine model. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Haque et al. (2020).
Singh N, Singh R, Bowen RC, Abdel-Rahman MH, Singh AD. Uveal Melanoma in BAP1 Tumor Predisposition Syndrome: Estimation of Risk. Am J Ophthalmol 2021;224:172-177.Abstract
PURPOSE: To estimate point prevalence of uveal melanoma in the patients with germline BAP1 pathogenic variant. DESIGN: Cohort study with risk assessment using Bayesian analysis. METHODS: The point prevalence estimate was obtained by Bayes's rule of reverse conditional probabilities. The probability of uveal melanoma given that BAP1 mutation exists was derived from the prevalence of uveal melanoma, prevalence of germline BAP1 pathogenic variants, and the probability of germline BAP1 pathogenic variant given that uveal melanoma is present. Confidence intervals (CIs) for each variable were calculated as the mean of Bernoulli random variables and for the risk estimate, by the delta method. The age at diagnosis and the gender of the uveal melanoma patients with BAP1 germline pathogenic variants obtained from previous publications or from authors' unpublished cohort was compared with those in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. RESULTS: The point prevalence of uveal melanoma in patients with the germline BAP1 pathogenic variants in the US population was estimated to be 2.8% (95% CI, 0.88%-4.81%). In the SEER database, the median age at diagnosis of uveal melanomas was 63 (range 3-99 years) with a male-to-female ratio of 1.01:1. In comparison, uveal melanoma cases with BAP1 germline pathogenic variants from the US population (n = 27) had a median age at diagnosis of 50.5 years (range 16-71). CONCLUSIONS: Quantification of the risk of developing uveal melanoma can enhance counseling regarding surveillance in patients with germline BAP1 pathogenic variant.
Neerukonda VK, Jakobiec FA, Freitag SK, Stagner AM, Wolkow N. Lacrimal Gland Intravascular Micrometastasis From a Human Papillomavirus-Driven Anorectal Squamous Cell Carcinoma With a Review of Metastatic Disease to the Lacrimal Gland. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2020;Abstract
PURPOSE: To document a unique case of anorectal squamous cell carcinoma that was metastatic to the microvasculature of the lacrimal gland in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus and to review previously reported cases of metastases to the lacrimal gland. METHODS: Both a retrospective chart review and comprehensive literature review were performed. The unusual histopathologic pattern of the current case was illustrated with immunohistochemical studies (CD31, D2-40, pancytokeratin, p16, and p63) and in situ hybridization studies for high-risk human papillomavirus types 16 and 18. RESULTS: The authors describe the first case of metastatic anorectal squamous cell carcinoma to the lacrimal gland. Only 24 cases of metastatic disease to the lacrimal gland have been reported, the majority from breast carcinomas. The metastasis did not form a macroscopic lesions, instead was composed of microscopic intravascular and intraparenchymal tumor deposits, a subtle phenomena. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of the intravascular neoplastic cells. p16 served as a surrogate marker for human papillomavirus-associated squamous cell carcinoma and was confirmed with in situ hybridization for human papillomavirus 16 and 18. This testing, combined with the clinical history, defined the diagnosis and confirmed human papillomavirus as the tumor driver. CONCLUSIONS: Metastases to the lacrimal gland remain rare, but clinicians and pathologists alike must be attuned to the possibility of subtle microscopic foci of tumor as a pattern of metastasis in scenarios without a discrete mass-forming lesion, as this may portend a poor prognosis.
Wolkow N, Jakobiec FA, Gragoudas ES. LONG-TERM OBSERVATION OF MULTIFOCAL METASTATIC INTRAOCULAR CARCINOID WITH ACQUIRED IRIS HETEROCHROMIA. Retin Cases Brief Rep 2020;14(3):265-267.Abstract
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To report a unique case of a pulmonary carcinoid tumor unilaterally metastatic to the iris and ciliary body and bilaterally to the choroid that was conservatively followed. METHODS: A 46-year-old woman presented with bilateral choroidal lesions and a left iris tumor. Ultrasound biomicroscopy disclosed a ciliary body component. A diagnosis of metastatic carcinoid tumor was made based on the clinical features. Rather than an excision, photodynamic therapy, or radiation treatment, as has been reported in all previous cases of carcinoid tumor metastatic to the iris, the patient was observed. RESULTS: Excellent vision was maintained for 8 years. The iris tumor gradually enlarged, but the choroidal lesions remained unchanged. The iris with the carcinoid tumor gradually acquired a brown pigmentation; this is the first reported case of acquired iris heterochromia in the setting of carcinoid tumor. CONCLUSION: We conclude, in cases of metastatic carcinoid in which visual acuity is excellent and the patient is asymptomatic, that observation of the ocular lesions is an acceptable course of action. The iris heterochromia is believed to have been caused by secretory factors produced by the tumor.
Wolkow N, Jakobiec FA, Afrogheh AH, Pai SI, Faquin WC. High Expression of Programmed Death Ligand 1 and Programmed Death Ligand 2 in Ophthalmic Sebaceous Carcinoma: The Case for a Clinical Trial of Checkpoint Inhibitors. Am J Ophthalmol 2020;220:128-139.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2) in ocular adnexal sebaceous carcinoma (OASC), and to appraise these findings within the context of recent comparable studies. DESIGNS: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Twenty cases of primary OASC were immunostained for PD-L1, PD-L2 and CD8. PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression were graded with both the combined positive score (CPS) and the tumor proportion score (TPS). Both raw CPS and TPS were reported, as well as positivity with TPS and CPS ≥1. CD8 expression was graded on a 0-3 scale. Charts were reviewed for clinical correlations. The results of the current study were compared with results of similar recent investigations. RESULTS: For the 20 cases, mean expression of PD-L1 with CPS was 29.7 (range 0-101.5) and with TPS was 12.2 (range 0-95.8); mean expression of PD-L2 with CPS was 7.9 (range 0-37.3) and with TPS was 1.9 (range 0-12.9). PD-L1 CPS ≥1 was detected in 95% of OASC, while PD-L1 TPS ≥1 was found in 75%. PD-L2 CPS ≥1 was present in 60%, while only 20% had PD-L2 TPS ≥1. Immune cells appeared to contribute to a substantial proportion of PD-L1 and PD-L2 positivity, and a conspicuous CD8-positive T-lymphocytic infiltrate was present in most tumors. Significant correlations were identified between tissue expression of PD-L1, PD-L2, and CD8. Tissues with greater levels of PD-L1 tended to express higher levels of PD-L2 and CD8. The degree of PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression was also associated with the area in millimeters squared of the immunostained tumor, suggesting that tumor sampling may influence interpretation of PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression in ocular adnexal tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The current and preceding studies confirm that PD-L1 and PD-L2 are expressed in a high percentage of OASCs. These results support the premise that checkpoint inhibitor drugs hold considerable therapeutic promise for patients with OASC and stimulate the institution of clinical trials.
Ung C, Gragoudas E. Checkpoint inhibitor-induced sarcoid choroidal granulomas. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2020;18:100652.Abstract
Purpose: To present a novel case of sarcoid choroidal granulomas due to nivolumab therapy for metastatic cutaneous melanoma. Observations: A 55 year-old male with a history of stage III metastatic cutaneous melanoma treated by nivolumab presented with bilateral choroidal lesions. The ophthalmologic examination revealed bilateral creamy, yellow choroidal lesions with no ocular inflammation. The systemic workup revealed pulmonary sarcoidosis confirmed by biopsy. Conclusion: Nivolumab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy used in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. With the increasing use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with advanced melanoma, clinicians should be aware of this potential associated immune-related adverse event.
, Fabian ID, Abdallah E, Abdullahi SU, Abdulqader RA, Adamou Boubacar S, Ademola-Popoola DS, Adio A, Afshar AR, Aggarwal P, Aghaji AE, Ahmad A, Akib MNR, Al Harby L, Al Ani MH, Alakbarova A, Portabella SA, Al-Badri SAF, Alcasabas APA, Al-Dahmash SA, Alejos A, Alemany-Rubio E, Alfa Bio AI, Alfonso Carreras Y, Al-Haddad C, Al-Hussaini HHY, Ali AM, Alia DB, Al-Jadiry MF, Al-Jumaly U, Alkatan HM, All-Eriksson C, Al-Mafrachi AARM, Almeida AA, Alsawidi KM, Al-Shaheen AASM, Al-Shammary EH, Amiruddin PO, Antonino R, Astbury NJ, Atalay HT, Atchaneeyasakul L-O, Atsiaya R, Attaseth T, Aung TH, Ayala S, Baizakova B, Balaguer J, Balayeva R, Balwierz W, Barranco H, Bascaran C, Beck Popovic M, Benavides R, Benmiloud S, Bennani Guebessi N, Berete RC, Berry JL, Bhaduri A, Bhat S, Biddulph SJ, Biewald EM, Bobrova N, Boehme M, Boldt HC, Bonanomi MTBC, Bornfeld N, Bouda GC, Bouguila H, Boumedane A, Brennan RC, Brichard BG, Buaboonnam J, Calderón-Sotelo P, Calle Jara DA, Camuglia JE, Cano MR, Capra M, Cassoux N, Castela G, Castillo L, Català-Mora J, Chantada GL, Chaudhry S, Chaugule SS, Chauhan A, Chawla B, Chernodrinska VS, Chiwanga FS, Chuluunbat T, Cieslik K, Cockcroft RL, Comsa C, Correa ZM, Correa Llano MG, Corson TW, Cowan-Lyn KE, Csóka M, Cui X, Da Gama IV, Dangboon W, Das A, Das S, Davanzo JM, Davidson A, De Potter P, Delgado KQ, Demirci H, Desjardins L, Diaz Coronado RY, Dimaras H, Dodgshun AJ, Donaldson C, Donato Macedo CR, Dragomir MD, Du Y, Du Bruyn M, Edison KS, Eka Sutyawan WI, El Kettani A, Elbahi AM, Elder JE, Elgalaly D, Elhaddad AM, Elhassan MAM, Elzembely MM, Essuman VA, Evina TGA, Fadoo Z, Fandiño AC, Faranoush M, Fasina O, Fernández DDPG, Fernández-Teijeiro A, Foster A, Frenkel S, Fu LD, Fuentes-Alabi SL, Gallie BL, Gandiwa M, Garcia JL, García Aldana D, Gassant PY, Geel JA, Ghassemi F, Girón AV, Gizachew Z, Goenz MA, Gold AS, Goldberg-Lavid M, Gole GA, Gomel N, Gonzalez E, Gonzalez Perez G, González-Rodríguez L, Garcia Pacheco HN, Graells J, Green L, Gregersen PA, Grigorovski NDAK, Guedenon KM, Gunasekera SD, Gündüz AK, Gupta H, Gupta S, Hadjistilianou T, Hamel P, Hamid SA, Hamzah N, Hansen ED, Harbour WJ, Hartnett EM, Hasanreisoglu M, Hassan S, Hassan S, Hederova S, Hernandez J, Hernandez LMC, Hessissen L, Hordofa DF, Huang LC, Hubbard GB, Hummlen M, Husakova K, Hussein Al-Janabi AN, Ida R, Ilic VR, Jairaj V, Jeeva I, Jenkinson H, Ji X, Jo DH, Johnson KP, Johnson WJ, Jones MM, Kabesha TAB, Kabore RL, Kaliki S, Kalinaki A, Kantar M, Kao L-Y, Kardava T, Kebudi R, Kepak T, Keren-Froim N, Khan ZJ, Khaqan HA, Khauv P, Kheir WJ, Khetan V, Khodabande A, Khotenashvili Z, Kim JW, Kim JH, Kiratli H, Kivelä TT, Klett A, Komba Palet JEK, Krivaitiene D, Kruger M, Kulvichit K, Kuntorini MW, Kyara A, Lachmann ES, Lam CPS, Lam GC, Larson SA, Latinovic S, Laurenti KD, Le BHA, Lecuona K, Leverant AA, Li C, Limbu B, Long QB, López JP, Lukamba RM, Lumbroso L, Luna-Fineman S, Lutfi D, Lysytsia L, Magrath GN, Mahajan A, Majeed AR, Maka E, Makan M, Makimbetov EK, Manda C, Martín Begue N, Mason L, Mason JO, Matende IO, Materin M, Mattosinho CCDS, Matua M, Mayet I, Mbumba FB, McKenzie JD, Medina-Sanson A, Mehrvar A, Mengesha AA, Menon V, Mercado GJVD, Mets MB, Midena E, Mishra DKC, Mndeme FG, Mohamedani AA, Mohammad MT, Moll AC, Montero MM, Morales RA, Moreira C, Mruthyunjaya P, Msina MS, Msukwa G, Mudaliar SS, Muma KI, Munier FL, Murgoi G, Murray TG, Musa KO, Mushtaq A, Mustak H, Muyen OM, Naidu G, Nair AG, Naumenko L, Ndoye Roth PA, Nency YM, Neroev V, Ngo H, Nieves RM, Nikitovic M, Nkanga ED, Nkumbe H, Nuruddin M, Nyaywa M, Obono-Obiang G, Oguego NC, Olechowski A, Oliver SCN, Osei-Bonsu P, Ossandon D, Paez-Escamilla MA, Pagarra H, Painter SL, Paintsil V, Paiva L, Pal BP, Palanivelu MS, Papyan R, Parrozzani R, Parulekar M, Pascual Morales CR, Paton KE, Pawinska-Wasikowska K, Pe'er J, Peña A, Peric S, Pham CTM, Philbert R, Plager DA, Pochop P, Polania RA, Polyakov VG, Pompe MT, Pons JJ, Prat D, Prom V, Purwanto I, Qadir AO, Qayyum S, Qian J, Rahman A, Rahman S, Rahmat J, Rajkarnikar P, Ramanjulu R, Ramasubramanian A, Ramirez-Ortiz MA, Raobela Léa, Rashid R, Reddy AM, Reich E, Renner LA, Reynders D, Ribadu D, Riheia MM, Ritter-Sovinz P, Rojanaporn D, Romero L, Roy SR, Saab RH, Saakyan S, Sabhan AH, Sagoo MS, Said AMA, Saiju R, Salas B, San Román Pacheco S, Sánchez GL, Sayalith P, Scanlan TA, Schefler AC, Schoeman J, Sedaghat A, Seregard S, Seth R, Shah AS, Shakoor SA, Sharma MK, Sherief ST, Shetye NG, Shields CL, Siddiqui SN, Sidi Cheikh S, Silva S, Singh AD, Singh N, Singh U, Singha P, Sitorus RS, Skalet AH, Soebagjo HD, Sorochynska T, Ssali G, Stacey AW, Staffieri SE, Stahl ED, Stathopoulos C, Stirn Kranjc B, Stones DK, Strahlendorf C, Suarez MEC, Sultana S, Sun X, Sundy M, Superstein R, Supriyadi E, Surukrattanaskul S, Suzuki S, Svojgr K, Sylla F, Tamamyan G, Tan D, Tandili A, Tarrillo Leiva FF, Tashvighi M, Tateshi B, Tehuteru ES, Teixeira LF, Teh KH, Theophile T, Toledano H, Trang DL, Traoré F, Trichaiyaporn S, Tuncer S, Tyau-Tyau H, Umar AB, Unal E, Uner OE, Urbak SF, Ushakova TL, Usmanov RH, Valeina S, van Hoefen Wijsard M, Varadisai A, Vasquez L, Vaughan LO, Veleva-Krasteva NV, Verma N, Victor AA, Viksnins M, Villacís Chafla EG, Vishnevskia-Dai V, Vora T, Wachtel AE, Wackernagel W, Waddell K, Wade PD, Wali AH, Wang Y-Z, Weiss A, Wilson MW, Wime ADC, Wiwatwongwana A, Wiwatwongwana D, Wolley Dod C, Wongwai P, Xiang D, Xiao Y, Yam JC, Yang H, Yanga JM, Yaqub MA, Yarovaya VA, Yarovoy AA, Ye H, Yousef YA, Yuliawati P, Zapata López AM, Zein E, Zhang C, Zhang Y, Zhao J, Zheng X, Zhilyaeva K, Zia N, Ziko OAO, Zondervan M, Bowman R. Global Retinoblastoma Presentation and Analysis by National Income Level. JAMA Oncol 2020;Abstract
Importance: Early diagnosis of retinoblastoma, the most common intraocular cancer, can save both a child's life and vision. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that many children across the world are diagnosed late. To our knowledge, the clinical presentation of retinoblastoma has never been assessed on a global scale. Objectives: To report the retinoblastoma stage at diagnosis in patients across the world during a single year, to investigate associations between clinical variables and national income level, and to investigate risk factors for advanced disease at diagnosis. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 278 retinoblastoma treatment centers were recruited from June 2017 through December 2018 to participate in a cross-sectional analysis of treatment-naive patients with retinoblastoma who were diagnosed in 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Age at presentation, proportion of familial history of retinoblastoma, and tumor stage and metastasis. Results: The cohort included 4351 new patients from 153 countries; the median age at diagnosis was 30.5 (interquartile range, 18.3-45.9) months, and 1976 patients (45.4%) were female. Most patients (n = 3685 [84.7%]) were from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Globally, the most common indication for referral was leukocoria (n = 2638 [62.8%]), followed by strabismus (n = 429 [10.2%]) and proptosis (n = 309 [7.4%]). Patients from high-income countries (HICs) were diagnosed at a median age of 14.1 months, with 656 of 666 (98.5%) patients having intraocular retinoblastoma and 2 (0.3%) having metastasis. Patients from low-income countries were diagnosed at a median age of 30.5 months, with 256 of 521 (49.1%) having extraocular retinoblastoma and 94 of 498 (18.9%) having metastasis. Lower national income level was associated with older presentation age, higher proportion of locally advanced disease and distant metastasis, and smaller proportion of familial history of retinoblastoma. Advanced disease at diagnosis was more common in LMICs even after adjusting for age (odds ratio for low-income countries vs upper-middle-income countries and HICs, 17.92 [95% CI, 12.94-24.80], and for lower-middle-income countries vs upper-middle-income countries and HICs, 5.74 [95% CI, 4.30-7.68]). Conclusions and Relevance: This study is estimated to have included more than half of all new retinoblastoma cases worldwide in 2017. Children from LMICs, where the main global retinoblastoma burden lies, presented at an older age with more advanced disease and demonstrated a smaller proportion of familial history of retinoblastoma, likely because many do not reach a childbearing age. Given that retinoblastoma is curable, these data are concerning and mandate intervention at national and international levels. Further studies are needed to investigate factors, other than age at presentation, that may be associated with advanced disease in LMICs.
Francis JH, Berry D, Abramson DH, Barker CA, Bergstrom C, Demirci H, Engelbert M, Grossniklaus H, Hubbard B, Iacob CE, Jaben K, Kurli M, Postow MA, Wolchok JD, Kim IK, Wells JR. Intravitreous Cutaneous Metastatic Melanoma in the Era of Checkpoint Inhibition: Unmasking and Masquerading. Ophthalmology 2020;127(2):240-248.Abstract
PURPOSE: Cutaneous melanoma metastatic to the vitreous is very rare. This study investigated the clinical findings, treatment, and outcome of patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma to the vitreous. Most patients received checkpoint inhibition for the treatment of systemic disease, and the significance of this was explored. DESIGN: Multicenter, retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen eyes of 11 patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma to the vitreous. METHODS: Clinical records, including fundus photography and ultrasound results, were reviewed retrospectively, and relevant data were recorded for each patient eye. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical features at presentation, ophthalmic and systemic treatments, and outcomes. RESULTS: The median age at presentation of ophthalmic disease was 66 years (range, 23-88 years), and the median follow-up from diagnosis of ophthalmic disease was 23 months. Ten of 11 patients were treated with immune checkpoint inhibition at some point in the treatment course. The median time from starting immunotherapy to ocular symptoms was 17 months (range, 4.5-38 months). Half of eyes demonstrated amelanotic vitreous debris. Five eyes demonstrated elevated intraocular pressure, and 4 eyes demonstrated a retinal detachment. Six patients showed metastatic disease in the central nervous system. Ophthalmic treatment included external beam radiation (30-40 Gy) in 6 eyes, intravitreous melphalan (10-20 μg) in 4 eyes, enucleation of 1 eye, and local observation while receiving systemic treatment in 2 eyes. Three eyes received intravitreous bevacizumab for neovascularization. The final Snellen visual acuity ranged from 20/20 to no light perception. CONCLUSIONS: The differential diagnosis of vitreous debris in the context of metastatic cutaneous melanoma includes intravitreal metastasis, and this seems to be particularly apparent during this era of treatment with checkpoint inhibition. External beam radiation, intravitreous melphalan, and systemic checkpoint inhibition can be used in the treatment of ophthalmic disease. Neovascular glaucoma and retinal detachments may occur, and most eyes show poor visual potential. Approximately one quarter of patients demonstrated ocular disease that preceded central nervous system metastasis. Patients with visual symptoms or vitreous debris in the context of metastatic cutaneous melanoma would benefit from evaluation by an ophthalmic oncologist.
Habib LA, Wolkow N, Freitag SK, Yoon MK. Advances in Immunotherapy and Periocular Malignancy. Semin Ophthalmol 2019;:1-7.Abstract
Immunotherapy has significantly advanced the field of oncology in recent decades. Understanding normal immunosurveillance, as well as the ways in which tumor cells have evolved to evade it, has provided the knowledge for development of drugs that allow one's own immune system to target and destroy malignant cells (immunotherapy). Cutaneous malignancies are particularly sensitive to this class of drugs. In a very sensitive anatomic region such as the periocular tissue, where surgical excision may come with significant morbidity, this technology has had a strong impact in the successful treatment of historically challenging tumors.

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