Retina Publications

Yanai R, Chen S, Uchi S-H, Nanri T, Connor KM, Kimura K. Attenuation of choroidal neovascularization by dietary intake of ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and lutein in mice. PLoS One 2018;13(4):e0196037.Abstract
Dietary ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) and lutein each protect against age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We here examined the effects of ω-3 LCPUFAs and lutein supplementation in a mouse model of AMD. Mice were assigned to four groups: (1) a control group fed an ω-3 LCPUFA-free diet, (2) a lutein group fed an ω-3 LCPUFA-free diet with oral administration of lutein, (3) an ω-3 group fed an ω-3 LCPUFA-supplemented diet, and (4) an ω-3 + lutein group fed an ω-3 LCPUFA-supplemented diet with oral administration of lutein. Mice were fed the defined diets beginning 2 weeks before, and received lutein with an oral gavage needle beginning 1 week before, induction of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) by laser photocoagulation. The area of CNV measured in choroidal flat-mount preparations was significantly reduced in mice fed ω-3 LCPUFAs or lutein compared with those in the control group, and it was reduced in an additive manner in those receiving both ω-3 LCPUFAs and lutein. The concentrations of various inflammatory mediators in the retina or choroid were reduced in mice fed ω-3 LCPUFAs or lutein, but no additive effect was apparent. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in chorioretinal lesions revealed by dihydroethidium staining as well as the expression of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) in the retina revealed by immunohistofluorescence and immunoblot analyses were attenuated by ω-3 LCPUFAs and lutein in a synergistic manner. Our results thus show that dietary intake of ω-3 LCPUFAs and lutein attenuated CNV in an additive manner and in association with suppression of inflammatory mediator production, ROS generation, and Nox4 expression. Dietary supplementation with both ω-3 LCPUFAs and lutein warrants further study as a means to protect against AMD.
Sveinsdóttir K, Ley D, Hövel H, Fellman V, Hüppi PS, Smith LEH, Hellström A, Hansen Pupp I. Relation of Retinopathy of Prematurity to Brain Volumes at Term Equivalent Age and Developmental Outcome at 2 Years of Corrected Age in Very Preterm Infants. Neonatology 2018;114(1):46-52.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a major complication of preterm birth and has been associated with later visual and nonvisual impairments. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate relationships between any stage of ROP, brain volumes, and developmental outcomes. METHODS: This study included 52 very preterm infants (gestational age [mean ± SD]: 26.4 ± 1.9 weeks). Total brain, gray matter, unmyelinated white matter (UWMV), and cerebellar volumes were estimated in 51 out of 52 infants by magnetic resonance imaging at term-equivalent age. Bayley Scales of Infant Development were used to assess developmental outcomes in 49 out of 52 infants at a mean corrected age of 24.6 months. RESULTS: Nineteen out of 52 infants developed any stage of ROP. Infants with ROP had a lower median (IQR) UWMV (173 [156-181] vs. 204 [186-216] mL, p < 0.001) and cerebellar volume (18.3 [16.5-20] vs. 22.3 [20.3-24.7] mL, p < 0.001) than infants without ROP. They also had a lower median (IQR) mental developmental index (72 [56-83] vs. 100 [88-104], p < 0.001) and a lower psychomotor developmental index (80 [60-85] vs. 92 [81-103], p = 0.002). Brain volumes and developmental outcomes did not differ among infants with different stages of ROP. CONCLUSION: Any stage of ROP in preterm infants was associated with a reduced brain volume and an impaired developmental outcome. These results suggest that common pathways may lead to impaired neural and neurovascular development in the brain and retina and that all stages of ROP may be considered in future studies on ROP and development.
Laíns I, Park DH, Mukai R, Silverman R, Oellers P, Mach S, Kim IK, Vavvas DG, Miller JW, Miller JB, Husain D. Peripheral Changes Associated with Delayed Dark Adaptation in Age-related Macular Degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol 2018;Abstract
PURPOSE: To study the association between peripheral changes in Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and dark adaptation (DA). DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional study. METHODS: We recruited patients with AMD and a control group (> 50 years) without any vitreoretinal disease. Ultra-widefield (UWF) pseudocolor and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) (Optos Inc, MA) were obtained, and were assessed by two graders for the presence of several peripheral changes in perimacular, mid- and far-peripheral zones. All participants were also imaged with 7 field color fundus photographs used for AMD staging (AREDS system). Both eyes of study participants were tested with the AdaptDx® (MacuLogix, PA) DA extended protocol (20 minutes). Multilevel, mixed-effect models (accounting for correlated outcomes between 2 eyes) were used for analyses. RESULTS: We included 128 eyes (n= 72 patients), 75% with AMD and the remainder controls. The presence of reticular pigmentary changes in the mid- (ß= 4.3, p=0.012) and far- peripheral zones (ß= 8.4, p<0.001) was associated with delayed rod-intercept times (RITs), even after adjusting for confounding factors. The presence, number and extent of peripheral classic drusen did not show a similar association (p ≥ 0.148). The presence of a mottled decreased FAF pattern in the mid-peripheral zone was also associated with prolonged RITs (β= 4.4, p= 0.031). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest an association between DA and the presence of peripheral reticular pigmentary changes, as well as the presence of a peripheral mottled decreased FAF pattern. This provides new insights on the clinical significance of peripheral changes in AMD, and their contribution to impairments on DA.
Tauqeer Z, Yonekawa Y. Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management. Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) 2018;Abstract
Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a heritable vitreoretinopathy characterized by anomalous retinal vascular development. The principal feature of the disease is an avascular peripheral retina. This in turn can cause further pathological changes including neovascularization, exudation, hemorrhage, and retinal detachment. The biological basis of the disease is thought to be from defects in the Wnt signaling pathway. Many gene mutations have been implicated, and these can be inherited in an autosomal dominant (most common), autosomal recessive, and X-linked recessive fashion. Examination with wide-field fluorescein angiography is essential and can identify the disease in its earlier stages, enabling timely treatment, in addition to helping identify asymptomatic family members. The current treatment paradigm involves laser photocoagulation of the avascular peripheral retina for neovascular sequelae and vitreoretinal surgery for progressive retinal detachment. Further studies are underway to better characterize this complex vitreoretinopathy.
Sun P, Tandias RM, Yu G, Arroyo JG. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings and visual outcome after treatment for vitreomacular traction. Retina 2018;Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the capacity of spectral domain optical coherence tomography macular findings to predict best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) outcomes after treatment for symptomatic vitreomacular traction. METHODS: This consecutive, retrospective study included 24 patients (29 eyes) who experienced vitreomacular traction release with pneumatic vitreolysis (n = 9), intravitreal ocriplasmin (n = 6), or pars plana vitrectomy (n = 14). Preoperative and postoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography images were used to determine the cone outer segment tips (COST) line, inner segment/outer segment line, and other frequently used features. Correlations between optical coherence tomography findings and BCVA were determined using regression analyses. RESULTS: Postoperative BCVA was correlated with length of the COST line and inner segment/outer segment line defects at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively (P < 0.05) by simple linear regression analysis. However, multivariable regression analysis showed that only length of the COST line defect was significantly correlated with BCVA preoperatively and postoperatively (P < 0.05). Postoperative BCVA improvement at 12 months was significantly correlated with preoperative length of the COST line defect (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Recovery of the COST line and inner segment/outer segment line defects as observed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography is positively correlated with visual acuity improvement after successful vitreomacular traction treatment. Best-corrected visual acuity improvement may be predicted using the length of the preoperative COST line defect.
Guhan S, Peng S-L, Janbatian H, Saadeh S, Greenstein S, Al Bahrani F, Fadlallah A, Yeh T-C, Melki SA. Surgical adhesives in ophthalmology: history and current trends. Br J Ophthalmol 2018;Abstract
Tissue adhesives are gaining popularity in ophthalmology, as they could potentially reduce the complications associated with current surgical methods. An ideal tissue adhesive should have superior tensile strength, be non-toxic and anti-inflammatory, improve efficiency and be cost-effective. Both synthetic and biological glues are available. The primary synthetic glues include cyanoacrylate and the recently introduced polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives, while most biological glues are composed of fibrin. Cyanoacrylate has a high tensile strength, but rapidly polymerises upon contact with any fluid and has been associated with histotoxicity. Fibrin induces less toxic and inflammatory reactions, and its polymerisation time can be controlled. Tensile strength studies have shown that fibrin is not as strong as cyanoacrylate. While more research is needed, PEG variants currently appear to have the most promise. These glues are non-toxic, strong and time-effective. Through MEDLINE and internet searches, this paper presents a systematic review of the current applications of surgical adhesives to corneal, glaucoma, retinal, cataract and strabismus surgeries. Our review suggests that surgical adhesives have promise to reduce problems in current ophthalmic surgical procedures.
Hellgren G, Löfqvist C, Hansen-Pupp I, Gram M, Smith LE, Ley D, Hellström A. Increased postnatal concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with reduced IGF-I levels and retinopathy of prematurity. Growth Horm IGF Res 2018;39:19-24.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a multifactorial disease linked to low insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels and perhaps to postnatal inflammation. Here, we investigated the longitudinal postnatal serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in relation to IGF-I levels and ROP. DESIGN: The study cohort included 52 infants born before 31 gestational weeks. The infants were screened for ROP and classified as non-ROP (n=33), non-proliferative ROP (stages 1 and 2; n=10), or proliferative ROP (stage 3, all treated for ROP; n=9). Blood samples were collected at birth, 24h after birth, and then weekly until at least 36weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) (i.e., up to 13weeks after birth). Circulating levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were evaluated in relation to circulating IGF-I levels and ROP. RESULTS: IL-6 levels negatively correlated with IGF-I levels between 5 and 8weeks after birth, (p<0.01 to p<0.05). At birth, the IL-6 and TNF-α levels were similar independent of later ROP. Twenty-four hours after birth, both IL-6 and TNF-α levels had increased in infants later treated for ROP (p<0.05). Postnatal, infants treated for ROP had higher IL-6 levels than infants without ROP. CONCLUSIONS: The pro-inflammatory response is associated with low IGF-I levels and the development of ROP.
Ung C, Laíns I, Silverman RF, Woods R, Lane AM, Papakostas TD, Husain D, Miller JW, Gragoudas ES, Kim IK, Miller JB. Evaluation of choroidal lesions with swept-source optical coherence tomography. Br J Ophthalmol 2018;Abstract
AIMS: The aim of our study was to image choroidal lesions with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and to identify the morphological characteristics associated with optimal visualisation. METHODS: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. Patients with choroidal melanocytic lesions <3 mm in thickness on B-scan ultrasonography were recruited. All participants underwent SS-OCT. On SS-OCT we evaluated qualitative (eg, lesion outline, detection of scleral-choroidal interface and quality of the image) and quantitative (measurement of maximum lesion thickness and the largest basal diameter) parameters. Probability of optimal image quality was examined using ordered logistic regression models. The main outcome measure was quality of the choroidal lesion images on SS-OCT, defined as: optimal, suboptimal or poor. RESULTS: We included 85 choroidal lesions of 82 patients. There were 24 choroidal lesions (29%) for which image quality was classified as optimal, 31 lesions (37%) as suboptimal and 30 lesions (36%) as poor. The factors associated with optimal image quality were distance closer to the fovea (OR 0.76, p<0.001), posterior pole location (OR 3.87, p=0.05), lower ultrasonography thickness (OR 0.44, p=0.04), lighter lesion pigmentation (OR 0.12, p=0.003) and smaller lesion diameter (OR 0.73, p<0.001). In the multivariable analysis, closer distance to the fovea (OR 0.81, p=0.005), lighter lesion pigmentation (OR 0.11, p=0.01) and smaller lesion diameter (OR 0.76, p=0.006) remained statistically significant. CONCLUSION: SS-OCT is useful in imaging most choroidal melanocytic lesions. Image quality is best when the choroidal lesion is closer to the fovea, has a smaller diameter and a lighter choroidal pigmentation.
Lin M, Anesi SD, Ma L, Ahmed A, Small K, Foster SC. Characteristics and Visual Outcome of Refractory Retinal Vasculitis Associated With Antineutrophil Cytoplasm Antibody-Associated Vasculitides. Am J Ophthalmol 2018;187:21-33.Abstract
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical characteristics, therapies, visual outcomes, and prognoses of patients with retinal vasculitis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV). DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with retinal vasculitis associated with AAV and at least 6 months of follow-up were included. Demographic data, systemic and ocular features, best-corrected visual acuity at the initial visit and latest visit, fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) findings, therapy regimen, and outcome were collected from the Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution (MERSI) database from 2006 to 2017. RESULTS: Fourteen patients (22 eyes) were identified. Twelve had granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and 1 each had microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). FA showed that AAV affected small-to-medium-size retinal vessels. Seven cases (50%) had both vein/venule and artery/arteriole involvement. Four cases co-presented with choroidal vasculitis. All of them failed various immunomodulatory therapies prior to referral to MERSI. Six patients received rituximab plus prednisone as their final therapy and 5 of them achieved remission. Four patients who failed cyclophosphamide previously were induced into remission by rituximab. Patients were followed for 33.4 ± 25.5 (range 6-84) months. Nine of 14 patients (64.3%) achieved remission at their latest visit. Seventeen of 22 eyes (77.3%) met the criteria for a good (≥20/40) visual outcome. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients enjoyed a good visual outcome and achieved remission after aggressive treatment. Rituximab should be considered as an initial treatment for patients with refractory retinal vasculitis associated with AAV.
Gupta MP, Dow E, Jeng-Miller KW, Mukai S, Orlin A, Xu K, Yonekawa Y, Chan PRV. SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN COATS DISEASE. Retina 2018;Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate microstructural retinal abnormalities on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging of eyes with Coats disease. METHODS: This is a multicenter, retrospective study in which SD-OCT images of patients with treatment-naive Coats disease were correlated with clinical examination and visual acuity and, when available, followed longitudinally over time. RESULTS: Macular SD-OCT of 27 eyes with Coats disease revealed intraretinal edema (59%), intraretinal exudates (67%), subretinal fluid (37%), subretinal exudate (48%), ellipsoid zone disruption (52%), external limiting membrane disruption (41%), and subfoveal nodule (26%). All these microstructural abnormalities correlated with worse baseline and final visual acuities (P < 0.05) on univariate analysis, except for intraretinal edema which exhibited a nonstatistically significant trend toward worse baseline visual acuity (P = 0.16). Within stage 2b eyes, external limiting membrane disruption and subretinal nodule on SD-OCT were associated with worse baseline visual acuity (P = 0.02 for both), and there was a trend toward worse final visual acuity with external limiting membrane disruption and subretinal nodule (P = 0.17 for both) and worse baseline (P = 0.08) and final (P = 0.13) visual acuities with ellipsoid zone disruption. No microstructural abnormalities were noted on OCT of fellow eyes. CONCLUSION: Spectral domain OCT can identify microstructural abnormalities in Coats disease that are associated on univariate analysis with worse baseline visual acuity and visual prognosis. Further larger studies are necessary.
Chen X, Liu Y, Zhang Y, Kam WR, Pasquale LR, Sullivan DA. Impact of aromatase absence on murine intraocular pressure and retinal ganglion cells. Sci Rep 2018;8(1):3280.Abstract
We hypothesize that aromatase, an enzyme that regulates estrogen production, plays a significant role in the control of intraocular pressure (IOP) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). To begin to test our hypothesis, we examined the impact of aromatase absence, which completely eliminates estrogen synthesis, in male and female mice. Studies were performed with adult, age-matched wild type (WT) and aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice. IOP was measured in a masked fashion in both eyes of conscious mice at 12 and 24 weeks of age. Retinas were obtained and processed for RGC counting with a confocal microscope. IOP levels in both 12- and 24-week old female ArKO mice were significantly higher than those of age- and sex-matched WT controls. The mean increase in IOP was 7.9% in the 12-week-, and 19.7% in the 24-week-old mice, respectively. These changes were accompanied by significant 9% and 7% decreases in RGC numbers in the ArKO female mice, relative to controls, at 12- and 24-weeks, respectively. In contrast, aromatase deficiency did not lead to an increased IOP in male mice. There was a significant reduction in RGC counts in the 12-, but not 24-, week-old male ArKO mice, as compared to their age- and sex-matched WT controls. Overall, our findings show that aromatase inhibition in females is associated with elevated IOP and reduced RGC counts.
Cheng L, Wong LJ, Yan N, Han RC, Yu H, Guo C, Batsuuri K, Zinzuwadia A, Guan R, Cho K-S, Chen DF. Ezh2 does not mediate retinal ganglion cell homeostasis or their susceptibility to injury. PLoS One 2018;13(2):e0191853.Abstract
Epigenetic predisposition is thought to critically contribute to adult-onset disorders, such as retinal neurodegeneration. The histone methyltransferase, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2), is transiently expressed in the perinatal retina, particularly enriched in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). We previously showed that embryonic deletion of Ezh2 from retinal progenitors led to progressive photoreceptor degeneration throughout life, demonstrating a role for embryonic predisposition of Ezh2-mediated repressive mark in maintaining the survival and function of photoreceptors in the adult. Enrichment of Ezh2 in RGCs leads to the question if Ezh2 also mediates gene expression and function in postnatal RGCs, and if its deficiency changes RGC susceptibility to cell death under injury or disease in the adult. To test this, we generated mice carrying targeted deletion of Ezh2 from RGC progenitors driven by Math5-Cre (mKO). mKO mice showed no detectable defect in RGC development, survival, or cell homeostasis as determined by physiological analysis, live imaging, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Moreover, RGCs of Ezh2 deficient mice revealed similar susceptibility against glaucomatous and acute optic nerve trauma-induced neurodegeneration compared to littermate floxed or wild-type control mice. In agreement with the above findings, analysis of RNA sequencing of RGCs purified from Ezh2 deficient mice revealed few gene changes that were related to RGC development, survival and function. These results, together with our previous report, support a cell lineage-specific mechanism of Ezh2-mediated gene repression, especially those critically involved in cellular function and homeostasis.