Cornea Publications

Greiner JV, Ying G-S, Pistilli M, Maguire MG, Asbell PA, and Group DEAM (DREAM) SR. Association of Tear Osmolarity With Signs and Symptoms of Dry Eye Disease in the Dry Eye Assessment and Management (DREAM) Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2023;64(1):5.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the relationships of (1) tear osmolarity (TO) levels with the severity of signs and symptoms of dry eye disease (DED) and (2) changes in TO with changes in signs and symptoms. METHODS: Patients (N = 405) with moderate to severe DED in the Dry Eye Assessment and Management (DREAM) Study were evaluated at baseline and at six and 12 months. Associations of TO with signs and symptoms were evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficient (r) and regression models. RESULTS: The mean (standard deviation [SD]) TO was 303 (16) mOsm/L at baseline and 303 (18) mOsm/L at both six and 12 months. TO was higher in older patients (306 mOsm/L for ≥70 years vs. 300 mOsm/L for <50 years; P = 0.01) and those with Sjögren's disease (311 vs. 302 mOsm/L; P < 0.0001). TO did not differ between patients randomized to placebo and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. TO was weakly correlated with conjunctival (r = 0.18; P < 0.001) and corneal staining scores (r = 0.17; P < 0.001), tear film break-up time (r = 0.06; P = 0.03), and Schirmer test score (r = -0.07; P = 0.02) but not with Ocular Surface Disease Index scores (r = 0.03; P = 0.40). Changes in signs and were not significantly correlated with change in TO at six or 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Within DREAM, TO was weakly correlated with DED signs, explaining <5% variability in signs. Changes in tear osmolarity were not associated with changes in signs and symptoms of DED, indicating that the association may not be causal.
Blanco T, Singh RB, Nakagawa H, Taketani Y, Dohlman TH, Chen Y, Chauhan SK, Yin J, Danan R. Conventional Type I Migratory CD103+ Dendritic Cells are Required for Corneal Allograft Survival. Mucosal Immunol 2023;Abstract
Corneal transplant rejection primarily occurs due to T helper 1 (Th1) effector cell mediated immune response of the host toward allogeneic tissue. The evidence suggests that Type 1 migratory conventional CD103+ dendritic cells (CD103+DC1) acquire an immunosuppressive phenotype in the tumor environment; however, the involvement of CD103+DC1 in allograft survival continues to be an elusive question of great clinical significance in tissue transplantation. In this study, we assess the role of CD103+DC1 in suppressing Th1 alloreactivity against transplanted corneal allografts. The immunosuppressive function of CD103+DC1 has been extensively studied in non-transplantation settings. We found that host CD103+DC1 infiltrate the corneal graft and migrate to the draining lymph nodes (DLN) to suppress alloreactive CD4+ Th1 cells via the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1/ PD-1) axis. The systemic depletion of CD103+ DC1 in allograft recipients leads to amplified Th1 activation, impaired Treg function, and increased frequency of allograft rejection. While allograft recipient Rag1 null mice reconstituted with naïve CD4+CD25- T cells efficiently generated peripheral Treg cells (pTreg), the CD103+DC1-depleted mice failed to generate pTreg. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of pTreg failed to rescue allografts in CD103+DC1-depleted recipients from rejection. These data demonstrate the critical role of CD103+DC1 in regulating host alloimmune responses. Short title: Role of CD103+ DCs in corneal allograft survival.
Kuziez L, Eleiwa TK, Chauhan MZ, Sallam AB, Elhusseiny AM, Saeed HN. Corneal Adverse Events Associated with SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 Vaccination: A Systematic Review. Vaccines (Basel) 2023;11(1)Abstract
Vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have played an important global role in reducing morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 infection. While the benefits of vaccination greatly outweigh the risks, adverse events do occur. Non-ocular adverse effects of the vaccines have been well-documented, but descriptions of ophthalmic effects remain limited. This systematic review aims to provide an overview of reported cases of corneal adverse events after receiving vaccination against COVID-19 and to compile existing clinical data to bring attention to these phenomena. Our review discusses corneal graft rejection, including proposed mechanisms, herpetic keratitis, and other reported corneal complications. Ophthalmologists and primary care physicians should be aware of such possible associations.
Posarelli M, Chirapapaisan C, Muller R, Abbouda A, Pondelis N, Cruzat A, Cavalcanti BM, Cox SM, Jamali A, Pavan-Langston D, Hamrah P. Corneal nerve regeneration is affected by scar location in herpes simplex keratitis: A longitudinal in vivo confocal microscopy study. Ocul Surf 2023;Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of corneal scarring location on corneal nerve regeneration in patients with herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis in their affected and contralateral eyes over a 1-year period by in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM), and to correlate these findings to corneal sensation measured by Cochet-Bonnet Esthesiometer. METHODS: Prospective, longitudinal, case-control study. Bilateral corneal nerve density and corneal sensation was analyzed centrally and peripherally in 24 healthy controls and 23 patients with unilateral HSV-related corneal scars using IVCM. RESULTS: In the central scar (CS) group, total nerve density in the central cornea remained significantly lower compared to controls at follow-up (11.05 ± 1.97mm/mm2, p < 0.001), and no significant nerve regeneration was observed (p = 0.090). At follow-up, total nerve density was not significantly different from controls in the central and peripheral cornea of peripheral scar (PS) group (all p > 0.05), and significant nerve regeneration was observed in central corneas (16.39 ± 2.39mm/mm2, p = 0.007) compared to baseline. In contralateral eyes, no significant corneal nerve regeneration was observed in central or peripheral cornea of patients with central scars or peripheral scars at 1-year follow-up, compared to baseline (p > 0.05). There was a positive correlation between corneal nerve density and sensation in both central (R = 0.53, p < 0.0001) and peripheral corneas (R = 0.27, p = 0.0004). In the CS group, the corneal sensitivity was <4 cm in 4 (30.8%) and 7 (53.8%) patients in the central and peripheral corneas at baseline, and in 5 (38.5%) and 2 subjects (15.4%) at follow-up, whereas in the PS group only 1 patient (10%) showed a corneal sensation < 4cm in the central cornea at baseline, and only 1 (10.0%), 3 (30.0%) and 1 (10.0%) patients at follow-up in the central, affected and opposite area of the cornea, respectively. CONCLUSION: The location of HSV scarring in the cornea affects the level of corneal nerve regeneration. Eyes with central corneal scar have a diminished capacity to regenerate nerves in central cornea, they show a more severe reduction in corneal sensation in the central and peripheral cornea that persist at follow-up, and they have a reduced capability to restore the corneal sensitivity above the cut-off of 4 cm. Thus, clinicians should be aware that CS patients would benefit from closer monitoring for potential complications associated with neurotrophic keratopathy, as they have a lower likelihood for nerve regeneration.
Qureshi S, Dohlman TH. Penetrating Keratoplasty: Indications and Graft Survival by Geographic Region. Semin Ophthalmol 2023;38(1):31-43.Abstract
Corneal transplantation, or penetrating keratoplasty (PK), is the most common form of solid-organ transplantation performed worldwide. Here, we evaluated the indications for PK and rates of transplant survival around the world by geographic region. We conducted a literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar databases and identified 155 relevant studies from 41 countries published between 1987 and 2021. The most common indications for PK were keratoconus in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Australia, New Zealand, and Central and South America, bullous keratopathy in North America, and corneal scarring in Asia. The overall global mean graft survival rates at 1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, and 10-years were 88.6%, 81.2%, 78.9%, 72.8%, and 61.2%, respectively. Through this systematic analysis of PK by region, we hope to bring a new perspective to the corneal transplantation literature and to potentially highlight global differences and unmet needs in patient care.
André C, Islam MM, Paschalis E, Bispo PJM. Comparative In Vitro Activity of New Lipoglycopeptides and Vancomycin Against Ocular Staphylococci and Their Toxicity on the Human Corneal Epithelium. Cornea 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of new lipoglycopeptides as novel topical therapies for improved treatment of recalcitrant ocular infections. We evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial activity of oritavancin, dalbavancin, and telavancin compared with vancomycin (VAN) against a large collection of ocular staphylococcal isolates and their cytotoxicity on human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution against 223 Staphylococcus spp. clinical isolates. Time-kill kinetics were determined for methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (n = 2) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) (n = 1). In vitro cytotoxicity assays were performed with AlamarBlue and live/dead staining on HCECs. RESULTS: All new lipoglycopeptides showed strong in vitro potency against ocular staphylococci, including multidrug-resistant MRSA strains, with dalbavancin showing a slightly higher potency overall [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)90 0.06 μg/mL] compared with telavancin and oritavancin (MIC90 0.12 μg/mL), whereas VAN had the lowest potency (MIC90 2 μg/mL). Oritavancin exerted rapid bactericidal activity within 1 h for MRSA and 2 h for MRSE. All other drugs were bactericidal within 24 h. At a concentration commonly used for topical preparations (25 mg/mL), cytotoxicity was observed for VAN after 5 min of incubation, whereas reduction in HCEC viability was not seen for telavancin and was less affected by oritavancin and dalbavancin. Cytotoxicity at 25 mg/mL was seen for all drugs at 30 and 60 min but was significantly reduced or undetected for lower concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that new lipoglycopeptides have substantially better in vitro antimicrobial activity against ocular staphylococcal isolates compared with VAN, with a similar or improved toxicity profile on HCECs.
Yang M, Lennikov A, Chang K, Ashok A, Lee C, Cho K-S, Utheim TP, Dartt DA, Chen DF. Transcorneal but not transpalpebral electrical stimulation disrupts mucin homeostasis of the ocular surface. BMC Ophthalmol 2022;22(1):490.Abstract
PURPOSE: Transcorneal electrical stimulation (TcES) is increasingly applied as a therapy for preserving and improving vision in retinal neurodegenerative and ischemic disorders. However, a common complaint about TcES is its induction of eye pain and dryness in the clinic, while the mechanisms remain unknown. METHOD: TcES or transpalpebral ES (TpES) was conducted in C57BL6j mice for 14 days. The contralateral eyes were used as non-stimulated controls. Levels of intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) were assessed by Fura-2AM. The conductance resistances of the eye under various ES conditions were measured in vivo by an oscilloscope. RESULTS: Although TcES did not affect tear production, it significantly induced damage to the ocular surface, as revealed by corneal fluorescein staining that was accompanied by significantly decreased mucin (MUC) 4 expression compared to the control. Similar effects of ES were detected in cultured primary corneal epithelium cells, showing decreased MUC4 and ZO-1 levels after the ES in vitro. In addition, TcES decreased secretion of MUC5AC from the conjunctiva in vivo, which was also corroborated in goblet cell cultures, where ES significantly attenuated carbachol-induced [Ca2+]i increase. In contrast to TcES, transpalpebral ES (TpES) did not induce corneal fluorescein staining while significantly increasing tear production. Importantly, the conductive resistance from orbital skin to the TpES was significantly smaller than that from the cornea to the retina in TcES. CONCLUSION: TcES, but not TpES, induces corneal epithelial damage in mice by disrupting mucin homeostasis. TpES thus may represent a safer and more effective ES approach for treating retinal neurodegeneration clinically.
De Arrigunaga S, Akpek EK, Aldave AJ, Mian S, Zurakowski D, Ciolino JB, Ciolino JB. Prospective, Randomized, Multicenter, Double-Masked, Clinical Trial of Corneal Cross-linking for Boston Keratoprosthesis Carrier Tissue. Am J Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: Assess whether cross-linking the carrier donor cornea of the Boston Keratoprosthesis (BKPro) improves retention of the device in participants at high risk of keratolysis. DESIGN: Prospective, double-masked randomized clinical trial. METHODS: In this multicenter study, sixty-eight adult participants who were scheduled for BKPro implantation were enrolled. Masked participants were randomized to receive either a cross-linked (CXL) or non-cross-linked (non-CXL) donor corneal carrier. Kaplan-Meier event-free survival was determined by the product-limit method and compared by the log-rank test to examine if survival curves were different between the CXL and non-CXL groups. The primary outcome of the study was time from surgery to BKPro removal. Secondary endpoint was twelve-month retention rate. RESULTS: Sixty-eight participants were enrolled and randomized 1:1 to each group. Average age at the time of surgery was 62 [24-89] years and 42 (62%) participants were male. Overall BKPro retention rate was 70% during a mean follow-up time of 93 (6 - 201) weeks. Twenty BKPros were removed, ten in the CXL group and ten in the non-CXL group, with 18 requiring removal because of sterile keratolysis. There was no difference in the time to removal between the groups during the study (P = 0.910). At twelve months, there was no significant difference in the retention rate in the CXL group (94%) versus the non-CXL group (82%, P = 0.150). CONCLUSION: In this prospective study, cross-linking of the carrier cornea prior to BKPro implantation did not reduce the incidence of sterile keratolysis or increase device retention among participants at high risk for retention failure.
Sit AJ, Chen TC, Takusagawa HL, Rosdahl JA, Hoguet A, Chopra V, Richter GM, Ou Y, Kim SJ, WuDunn D. Corneal Hysteresis for the Diagnosis of Glaucoma and Assessment of Progression Risk: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To review the current published literature on the utility of corneal hysteresis (CH) to assist the clinician in the diagnosis of glaucoma or in the assessment of risk for disease progression in existing glaucoma patients. METHODS: Searches of the peer-reviewed literature in the PubMed database were performed through July 2022. The abstracts of 423 identified articles were examined to exclude reviews and non-English articles. After inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, 19 articles were selected, and the panel methodologist rated them for level of evidence. Eight articles were rated level I, and 5 articles were rated level II. The 6 articles rated level III were excluded. RESULTS: Corneal hysteresis is lower in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, primary angle-closure glaucoma, pseudoexfoliative glaucoma, and pseudoexfoliation syndrome compared with normal subjects. Interpretation of low CH in patients with high intraocular pressure (IOP) or on topical hypotensive medications is complicated by the influence of these parameters on CH measurements. However, CH is also lower in treatment-naïve, normal-tension glaucoma patients compared with normal subjects who have a similar IOP. In addition, lower CH is associated with an increased risk of progression of glaucoma based on visual fields or structural markers in open-angle glaucoma patients, including those with apparently well-controlled IOP. CONCLUSIONS: Corneal hysteresis is lower in glaucoma patients compared with normal subjects, and lower CH is associated with an increased risk of disease progression. However, a causal relationship remains to be demonstrated. Nevertheless, measurement of CH complements current structural and functional assessments in determining disease risk in glaucoma suspects and patients. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references.
Nakao T, Inomata T, Blanco T, Musayeva A, Tahvildari M, Amouzegar A, Yin J, Chauhan SK, Chen Y, Dana R. Amplified Natural Killer Cell Activity and Attenuated Regulatory T-cell Function Are Determinants for Corneal Alloimmunity in Very Young Mice. Transplantation 2022;Abstract
BACKGROUND: Corneal transplantation outcomes are generally less favorable in young children compared with adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the immunological mechanisms underlying this difference. METHODS: A murine model of allogeneic corneal transplantation was used in the study, and graft survival was determined by evaluating opacity scores for 8 wk. Syngeneic transplantation in the very young host served as a surgical control. The frequencies of total and activated natural killer (NK) cells in cornea posttransplantation were kinetically evaluated using flow cytometry. The regulatory T cell (Treg) frequency and function in naive animals were assessed by flow cytometry and in vitro suppression assays, respectively. Finally, graft survival and immune responses were determined in NK cell-depleted, or adult naive Treg-transferred, young hosts. RESULTS: Corneal allograft survival in the very young recipients was significantly lower than in adult hosts. The frequencies of total NK cells and their interferon gamma-expressing subset in the cornea were significantly higher in the very young mice posttransplantation. In ungrafted mice, frequencies of Treg in draining lymph nodes as well as their capabilities to suppress NK-cell secretion of interferon gamma were lower in the very young compared with adults. In NK cell-depleted or adult Treg--transferred very young recipients, the allograft survival was significantly improved along with the suppressed NK-cell response. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that amplified activity of NK cells, together with lower suppressive function of Treg, contributes to early rejection of corneal allografts in very young graft recipients.
Viola P, Neri E, Testa V, Parekh M, Cian R, Grassetto A, Romano V. Clinical Outcomes of Preloaded Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty With Endothelium Inward: A 24-Month Comparative Analysis Between Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy and Bullous Keratopathy. Cornea 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare long-term clinical outcomes of preloaded Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) between Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) and bullous keratopathy (BK). METHODS: In this single-center retrospective clinical case series, 71 eyes of 64 patients indicated with FECD (62%) or BK (38%) (with or without cataract) were treated with preloaded DMEK grafts between March 2018 and February 2020. Standard DMEK peeling, followed by manual folding of the tissue with endothelium-inward orientation and storing in a preloaded fashion inside a 2.2-mm intraocular lens cartridge. All tissues were delivered using a bimanual pull-through technique, followed by air tamponade. Graft unfolding time, endothelial cell loss, corrected distance visual acuity, central corneal thickness, rebubbling rate, and intraoperative and postoperative complications at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months were recorded. RESULTS: The mean intraoperative graft unfolding time in FECD did not differ from the BK group ( P = 0.6061). Cystoid macular edema did not differ in either group ( P = 0.6866). The rebubbling rate was found to be significantly higher in FECD compared with the BK group ( P = 0.0423). Corrected distance visual acuity significantly improved at the first month after surgery ( P = 0.0012), with no differences between FECD and BK at 24 months ( P = 0.2578). Central corneal thickness was stable postoperatively and showed no differences between the groups ( P = 0.3693). Significantly higher endothelial cell counts were observed in the FECD group at 24 months ( P = 0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: Preloaded DMEK with "endothelium-in" offers acceptable intraoperative time, rebubbling rate, and clinical outcomes in both FECD and BK groups. Patients with FECD show better postoperative clinical outcomes even if the rebubbling rate is relatively high.
Liu C, Saeed HN. Disparities in Access to Corneal Tissue in the Developing World. Semin Ophthalmol 2022;:1-7.Abstract
Corneal disease is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. For most blinding corneal conditions, keratoplasty is the only way of restoring sight. Unfortunately, access to corneal transplantation is widely variable, most notably due to the lack of suitable donor material. There exists significant disparity between the developed and developing world when it comes to access to cornea tissue, with supply often inversely proportional to burden of disease. The purpose of this review is to identify the current disparities in supply and demand of corneal donor tissue, understand how to access corneal tissue, and propose solutions that promote equitable care for patients with severe corneal disease.