Glaucoma

Glaucoma Publications

Madjedi KM, Stuart KV, Chua SYL, Luben RN, Warwick A, Pasquale LR, Kang JH, Wiggs JL, Lentjes MA, Aschard H, Sattar N, Foster PJ, Khawaja AP, for and the and Consortium MRFGCUKBEV. The Association between Serum Lipids and Intraocular Pressure in 2 Large United Kingdom Cohorts. Ophthalmology 2022;129(9):986-996.Abstract
PURPOSE: Serum lipids are modifiable, routinely collected blood test features associated with cardiovascular health. We examined the association of commonly collected serum lipid measures (total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], and triglycerides) with intraocular pressure (IOP). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in the UK Biobank and European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk cohorts. PARTICIPANTS: We included 94 323 participants from the UK Biobank (mean age, 57 years) and 6230 participants from the EPIC-Norfolk (mean age, 68 years) cohorts with data on TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides collected between 2006 and 2009. METHODS: Multivariate linear regression adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, medical, and ophthalmic covariables was used to examine the associations of serum lipids with corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Corneal-compensated IOP. RESULTS: Higher levels of TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C were associated independently with higher IOPcc in both cohorts after adjustment for key demographic, medical, and lifestyle factors. For each 1-standard deviation increase in TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C, IOPcc was higher by 0.09 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06-0.11 mmHg; P < 0.001), 0.11 mmHg (95% CI, 0.08-0.13 mmHg; P < 0.001), and 0.07 mmHg (95% CI, 0.05-0.09 mmHg; P < 0.001), respectively, in the UK Biobank cohort. In the EPIC-Norfolk cohort, each 1-standard deviation increase in TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C was associated with a higher IOPcc by 0.19 mmHg (95% CI, 0.07-0.31 mmHg; P = 0.001), 0.14 mmHg (95% CI, 0.03-0.25 mmHg; P = 0.016), and 0.17 mmHg (95% CI, 0.06-0.29 mmHg; P = 0.003). An inverse association between triglyceride levels and IOP in the UK Biobank (-0.05 mmHg; 95% CI, -0.08 to -0.03; P < 0.001) was not replicated in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort (P = 0.30). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that serum TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C are associated positively with IOP in 2 United Kingdom cohorts and that triglyceride levels may be associated negatively. Future research is required to assess whether these associations are causal in nature.
Margeta MA, Yin Z, Madore C, Pitts KM, Letcher SM, Tang J, Jiang S, Gauthier CD, Silveira SR, Schroeder CM, Lad EM, Proia AD, Tanzi RE, Holtzman DM, Krasemann S, Chen DF, Butovsky O. Apolipoprotein E4 impairs the response of neurodegenerative retinal microglia and prevents neuronal loss in glaucoma. Immunity 2022;55(9):1627-1644.e7.Abstract
The apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) allele is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer disease and a decreased risk of glaucoma, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we found that in two mouse glaucoma models, microglia transitioned to a neurodegenerative phenotype characterized by upregulation of Apoe and Lgals3 (Galectin-3), which were also upregulated in human glaucomatous retinas. Mice with targeted deletion of Apoe in microglia or carrying the human APOE4 allele were protected from retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss, despite elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Similarly to Apoe-/- retinal microglia, APOE4-expressing microglia did not upregulate neurodegeneration-associated genes, including Lgals3, following IOP elevation. Genetic and pharmacologic targeting of Galectin-3 ameliorated RGC degeneration, and Galectin-3 expression was attenuated in human APOE4 glaucoma samples. These results demonstrate that impaired activation of APOE4 microglia is protective in glaucoma and that the APOE-Galectin-3 signaling can be targeted to treat this blinding disease.
Meshkin RS, Zhao Y, Elze T, Boland MV, Friedman DS. Remote Video Monitoring of Simultaneous Visual Field Testing. J Glaucoma 2022;31(7):488-493.Abstract
PRCIS: In this prospective interventional case series that included 474 patients, there were no significant differences in visual field (VF) parameters between fields from patients tested one-at-a-time and simultaneously, except for fixation losses. PURPOSE: To test for differences in reliability and performance parameters of patients taking VF tests while using a remote patient monitoring system to supervise 1 or 2 test sessions simultaneously. METHODS: In a prospective interventional case series, 861 eyes of 474 consecutive patients undergoing automated perimetry during a 6-month period were monitored during the test using an audio/video-enabled remote monitoring system. Two patients were simultaneously tested (simultaneous test) by a single technician if they were ready for testing at the same time. Patients were otherwise tested individually (single test). Performance and reliability parameters including false negatives, false positives, fixation losses, mean deviation, pattern standard deviation, VF index, and test duration were compared between patients undergoing simultaneous tests and single tests. Patients undergoing remotely monitored testing, for whom a prior VF could be found, had performance and reliability parameters compared with those prior tests. VFs were analyzed separately for 2 test strategies: SITA Standard 24-2 and SITA Faster 24-2C. RESULTS: No significant parameter differences were observed among SITA Standard 24-2 VFs between single and simultaneous tests, except for fixation losses (single: 16.8±19.7%, simultaneous: 22.5±25.0%, P=0.01). Similarly, there were no significant differences observed among SITA Faster 24-2C tests. Paired analyses comparing remotely monitored VFs with prior traditionally monitored VFs showed no significant differences for any parameters, except for fewer fixation losses with remote monitoring (traditional: 23.6±27.5%, remote 17.7±20.8%, P=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Remote patient monitoring of VF testing enabled technicians to supervise testing of 2 patients simultaneously with preserved performance and reliability.
Ciociola EC, Yang S-A, Hall N, Lorch AC, Miller JW, Friedman DS, Boland MV, Elze T, Zebardast N, Zebardast N. Effectiveness of Trabeculectomy and Tube Shunt With Versus Without Concurrent Phacoemulsification: IRIS Registry Longitudinal Analysis. Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2022;Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of trabeculectomy and glaucoma drainage device (GDD) surgery performed with concurrent phacoemulsification compared to stand-alone procedures. DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients in the IRIS® Registry (Intelligent Research in Sight) who underwent trabeculectomy or GDD from 2013 through 2019. METHODS: Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to determine reoperation rates. Reoperation was defined as any subsequent glaucoma surgery occurring 1 month to 3 years after the initial procedure. Multivariable cox proportional hazard models were used to determine reoperation risk factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reoperation rate, IOP, visual acuity, reoperation procedure type, postoperative complications, and predictors of surgical failure. RESULTS: A total of 117,697 eyes receiving glaucoma surgery alone and 35,657 eyes receiving surgery with phacoemulsification were included. The cumulative reoperation rate for trabeculectomy alone was 4.9% and 11.5% vs 3.0% and 7.3% for trabeculectomy combined with phacoemulsification (p<0.001) at postoperative one and three years, respectively. The reoperation rates for GDD alone were 3.8% and 7.8% vs 2.1% and 5.4% for GDD with phacoemulsification (p<0.001) at postoperative one and three years, respectively. Stand-alone procedures achieved greater IOP reduction by percentage change from baseline (trabeculectomy alone 35.3% vs trabeculectomy with phacoemulsification 23.1%, p<0.001, and GDD alone 36.1% vs GDD with phacoemulsification 29.3%, p<0.001). Visual acuity improved by 0.12 logMAR (95% CI 0.11 - 0.12) and 0.10 logMAR (0.08 - 0.11) following trabeculectomy and GDD with phacoemulsification and declined by 0.15 logMAR (0.14 - 0.15) and 0.12 logMAR (0.11 - 0.12) following stand-alone trabeculectomy and GDD. The overall documented complication rate was 2.9% for GDD and 1.4% for trabeculectomy. Age, sex, race, ethnicity, baseline IOP, and glaucoma diagnosis and severity were associated with surgical failure risk. The most common reoperation procedure was GDD. CONCLUSIONS: Reoperation rates within the first three years following trabeculectomy and GDD with and without phacoemulsification were low. Trabeculectomy and GDD with phacoemulsification had lower reoperation rates compared to stand-alone procedures. However, stand-alone procedures resulted in greater IOP reduction compared to combined procedures. Postoperative complications were uncommon overall. Patient age, sex, race, ethnicity, baseline IOP, and glaucoma diagnosis and severity were associated with surgical success.
Yousefi S, Pasquale LR, Boland MV, Johnson CA. Machine-identified Patterns of Visual Field Loss and An Association with Rapid Progression in the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study. Ophthalmology 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To identify patterns of visual field (VF) loss based on unsupervised machine learning and to identify patterns that are associated with rapid progression. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and longitudinal study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2231 abnormal VFs from 205 eyes of 176 OHTS participants followed over approximately 16 years. METHODS: VFs were assessed by an unsupervised deep archetypal analysis algorithm as well as an OHTS certified VF reader to identify prevalent patterns of VF loss. Machine-identified patterns of glaucoma damage were compared against those patterns previously identified (expert-identified) in the OHTS in 2003. Based on the longitudinal VFs of each eye, VF loss patterns that were strongly associated with rapid glaucoma progression were identified. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Machine-expert correspondence and type of patterns of VF loss associated with rapid progression. RESULTS: The average VF mean deviation (MD) at conversion to glaucoma was -2.7 dB (Standard Deviation (SD) = 2.4 dB) while the average MD of the eyes at the last visit was -5.2 dB (SD = 5.5 dB). Fifty out of 205 eyes had MD rate of -1 dB/year or worse and were considered rapid progressors. Eighteen machine-identified patterns of VF loss were compared with expert-identified patterns in which 13 patterns of VF loss were similar. The most prevalent expert-identified patterns included partial arcuate, paracentral, and nasal step defects, and the most prevalent machine-identified patterns included temporal wedge, partial arcuate, nasal step, and paracentral VF defects. One of the machine-identified patterns of VF loss predicted future rapid VF progression after adjustment for age, sex, and initial MD. CONCLUSIONS: An automated machine learning system can identify patterns of VF loss and could provide objective, and reproducible nomenclature for characterizing early signs of visual defects and rapid progression in patients with glaucoma.
Feldman RM, Chuang AZ, Mansberger SL, Tanna AP, Blieden LS, Bell NP, Gross RL, Pasquale LR, Greenfield DS, Liebmann JM, Weinreb RN, Weinreb RN. Outcomes of the Second Aqueous Shunt Implant Versus Transscleral Cyclophotocoagulation Treatment Study: A Randomized Comparative Trial. J Glaucoma 2022;31(9):701-709.Abstract
PRCIS: Short-term overall success rates were high with either SGDD or CPC. However, SGDD was associated with more clinic visits and an increased risk of additional glaucoma surgery. Both treatments were reasonable options for eyes with inadequately controlled IOP after a single GDD. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to compare the implantation of a second glaucoma drainage device (SGDD) and transscleral cyclophotocoagulation (CPC) in eyes with inadequately controlled intraocular pressure (IOP), despite the presence of a preexisting glaucoma drainage device. METHODS: Patients with inadequately controlled IOP, despite the medical therapy and a preexisting glaucoma drainage device, were enrolled at 14 clinical centers and randomly assigned to treatment with a SGDD or CPC. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Surgical failure was defined as: (1) IOP ≤5 mm Hg or >18 mm Hg or <20% reduction below baseline on maximum tolerated topical ocular hypotensive therapy, (2) reoperation for glaucoma, or (3) loss of light perception. The primary outcome measure was overall success with or without adjunctive medical therapy. RESULTS: Forty-two eyes of 42 participants were randomized to SGDD (n=22) or CPC (n=20). Mean duration of follow-up was 18.6 (±12.1; range: 1.1-38.6) months. The cumulative success rate was 79% for SGDD and 88% for CPC at 1 year ( P =0.63). Although the study was underpowered, no significant differences in IOP, postoperative number of IOP-lowering medications, or adverse events were observed. The number of additional glaucoma surgeries ( P =0.003), office visits during the first 3 months ( P <0.001), and office visits per month after month 3 ( P <0.001) were greater in the SGDD group. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term overall success rates were high with either SGDD or CPC. However, SGDD was associated with more clinic visits and an increased risk of additional glaucoma surgery.
Selvan H, Gupta S, Wiggs JL, Gupta V. Juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma - A clinical and genetic update. Surv Ophthalmol 2022;67(4):1099-1117.Abstract
Juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) is a subset of primary open-angle glaucoma that is diagnosed before 40 years of age. The disease may be familial or non-familial, with proportions varying among different populations. Myocilin mutations are the most commonly associated. JOAG is characterized by high intraocular pressures (IOP), with many patients needing surgery. The mean age at diagnosis is in the 3rd decade, with a male preponderance. Myopia is a common association. The pathophysiology underlying the disease is immaturity of the conventional outflow pathways, which may or may not be observed on gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography. The unique optic nerve head features include large discs with deep, steep cupping associated with high IOP-induced damage. Progression rates among JOAG patients are comparable to adult primary glaucomas, but as the disease affects younger patients, the projected disability from this disease is higher. Early diagnosis, prompt management, and life-long monitoring play an important role in preventing disease progression. Gene-based therapies currently under investigation offer future hope.
Kang JH, Wang M, Frueh L, Rosner B, Wiggs JL, Elze T, Pasquale LR. Cohort Study of Race/Ethnicity and Incident Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Characterized by Autonomously Determined Visual Field Loss Patterns. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2022;11(7):21.Abstract
Purpose: We evaluated racial/ethnic differences in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) defined by machine-learning-derived regional visual field (VF) loss patterns. Methods: Participants (N = 209,036) from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 1980-2018), Nurses' Health Study II (NHS2; 1989-2019), and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS; 1986-2018) who were ≥40 years of age and free of glaucoma were followed biennially. Incident POAG cases (n = 1946) with reproducible VF loss were confirmed with medical records. Total deviation information from the earliest reliable glaucomatous VF for each POAG eye (n = 2564) was extracted, and machine learning analyses were used to identify optimal solutions ("archetypes") for regional VF loss patterns. Each POAG eye was assigned a VF archetype based on the highest weighting coefficient. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using per-eye Cox proportional hazards models. Results: We identified 14 archetypes: four representing advanced loss patterns, nine of early loss, and one of no VF loss. Compared to non-Hispanic whites, black participants had higher risk of early VF loss archetypes (HR = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.48-2.66) and even higher risk for advanced loss archetypes (HR = 6.17; 95% CI, 3.69-10.32; P-contrast = 0.0002); no differences were observed for Asians or Hispanic whites. Hispanic white participants had significantly higher risks of POAG with paracentral defects and advanced superior loss; black participants had significantly higher risks of all advanced loss archetypes and three early loss patterns, including paracentral defects. Conclusions: Blacks, compared to non-Hispanic whites, had higher risks of POAG with early central and advanced VF loss. Translational Relevance: In POAG, risks of VF loss regional patterns derived from machine learning algorithms showed racial differences.
Yonamine S, Ton L, Rose-Nussbaumer J, Ying G-S, Ahmed IIK, Chen TC, Weiner A, Gedde SJ, Han Y. Survey of the American Glaucoma Society Membership on Current Glaucoma Drainage Device Placement and Postoperative Corticosteroid Use. Clin Ophthalmol 2022;16:2305-2310.Abstract
Purpose: To assess practice patterns and opinions of glaucoma specialists regarding glaucoma drainage device tube shunt placement and post-operative anti-inflammatory medication use. We also assess the perceived need for a randomized control trial to compare them. Patients and Methods: An online survey was distributed to a group of glaucoma specialists from the American Glaucoma Society via the American Glaucoma Society forum from April to August 2021. Results: One hundred and twenty-eight responses were included. Ninety percent placed tubes in the anterior chamber. Sixty-one percent reported that evidence suggested the superiority of sulcus tube placement over the anterior chamber, whereas 34% reported there was not enough evidence to suggest superiority of either in preventing endothelial cell loss. Comparing these techniques for intraocular pressure control, 49% reported evidence suggested sulcus tube placement superiority whereas 46% reported there was not enough evidence. Over 40% of respondents reported that they were either unfamiliar with literature or that there was not enough evidence to support the superiority of difluprednate 0.05% over prednisolone 1% for post-operative use in preventing endothelial cell loss and for intraocular pressure control. Ninety percent and 81% of respondents respectively would benefit from randomized control trials comparing outcomes of anterior chamber vs sulcus tube placement and post-operative corticosteroid usage. Conclusion: Most glaucoma specialists surveyed place glaucoma drainage device tube in the anterior chamber over the sulcus. A randomized control trial to determine optimal tube placement and post-operative anti-inflammatory medication use for preventing endothelial cell loss would change current glaucoma drainage device practice patterns.
Qiu M, Avdagic E, Ramulu PY, Golnik K, Boland MV. Ophthalmology Surgical Assessment of Tube Shunt Glaucoma Surgery. Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To develop an internationally standardized and validated tool to assess skill in performing tube shunt surgery. METHODS: A panel of 6 glaucoma surgeons developed a tool for assessing tube shunt surgery using a modified Dreyfus scale for skill acquisition. The tool was reviewed by a panel of 10 international content experts, and their comments were incorporated into the final rubric. A different panel of 8 international glaucoma specialists independently graded 6 surgical videos performed by surgeons at various levels of ophthalmic training to calculate inter-rater reliability for each step in the rubric. RESULTS: The tube shunt rubric contains 13 steps specific to tube shunt surgery and 7 global indices. The Cronbach's alpha statistic, a measure of internal reliability, ranged from 0.75 to 0.96, indicating strong internal reliability for all 13 steps. CONCLUSIONS: The tube shunt assessment tool has face validity, content validity, and inter-observer reliability, and can be used to assess tube shunt surgery skills. Further studies are required to determine predictive and construct validity.
Sekimitsu S, Wang J, Elze T, Segrè AV, Wiggs JL, Zebardast N. Interaction of background genetic risk, psychotropic medications, and primary angle closure glaucoma in the UK Biobank. PLoS One 2022;17(6):e0270530.Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Psychotropic medications have been reported as a risk factor for angle closure disease. However, the interaction between background genetic risk for primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and susceptibility to angle closure disease among psychotropic medication users has not been investigated. Here we demonstrate the utility of a genome-wide polygenic risk score (PRS) in identifying and risk-stratifying subjects with PACG and investigate the association between PACG genetic burden and exposure to psychotropic medications on prevalent angle closure. METHODS: This analysis used the UK Biobank dataset, a prospective cohort study of 502,506 UK residents. We constructed a PACG PRS for participants using genome-wide association study summary statistics from a multiethnic meta-analysis using the Lassosum method. RESULTS: Among the 441,054 participants, 959 (0.22%) were identified as PACG cases. Individuals with PACG had higher PRS compared to those without PACG (0.24±1.03 SD vs. 0.00±1.00 SD, p<0.001) and PACG prevalence increased with each decile of higher PRS. Among individuals using psychotropic medication, those with PACG had higher average PRS (0.31±1.00 SD vs. 0.00±1.00 SD, p<0.001) and were more likely to have a PRS in upper deciles of polygenic risk (p = 0.04). At each decile of PRS, psychotropic medication use was associated with increased risk of PACG. These effects were more pronounced and significant in higher deciles. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate the utility of a PRS for identifying individuals at higher risk of PACG. Additionally, we demonstrate an important relationship where the association between psychotropic medications use and PACG diagnosis varies across the polygenic risk spectrum.

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