Glaucoma

Glaucoma Publications

Silva RNE, Taniguchi EV, Cruzat A, Paschalis EI, Pasquale LR, Colby KA, Dohlman CH, Chodosh J, Shen LQ. Angle Anatomy and Glaucoma in Patients With Boston Keratoprosthesis. Cornea 2019;Abstract
PURPOSE: To quantitatively analyze the angle anatomy in eyes with a Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis (KPro) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and to assess the diagnostic ability of AS-OCT in KPro-associated glaucoma. METHODS: AS-OCT (RTVue) images from KPro eyes with and without glaucoma were reviewed. The angle opening distance at 500 μm from the scleral spur (AOD500), trabecular-iris angle at 500 μm from the scleral spur (TIA500), and trabecular-iris surface area at 500 μm from the scleral spur (TISA500) were measured by 2 observers masked to the diagnosis. The measurements for each visible quadrant were compared between KPro eyes with and without glaucoma. RESULTS: Twenty-two eyes with glaucoma and 17 eyes without glaucoma from 39 patients with KPro were included. Of the 4 quadrants imaged, the temporal angle was the most visible (79.5%) and angle measurements of the temporal quadrant were the only ones that differentiated the 2 groups: the mean AOD500, TIA500, and TISA500 were significantly lower in KPro eyes with glaucoma than without glaucoma (388.2 ± 234.4 μm vs. 624.5 ± 310.5 μm, P = 0.02; 26.1 ± 14.0 degrees vs. 39.1 ± 17.1 degrees, P = 0.03; and 0.15 ± 0.09 mm vs. 0.23 ± 0.12 mm, P = 0.03; respectively). The highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for detecting glaucoma was 0.75 for temporal TIA500 (95% confidence interval 0.57-0.94, P = 0.02) with 50% specificity at 80% of sensitivity and a cutoff value of 37 degrees. CONCLUSIONS: The temporal angle was the most visible on AS-OCT in eyes with a KPro. Significant narrowing of the temporal angle detected on AS-OCT was associated with glaucoma in these eyes.
Shakarchi AF, Mihailovic A, West SK, Friedman DS, Ramulu PY. Vision Parameters Most Important to Functionality in Glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019;60(14):4556-4563.Abstract
Purpose: To determine the importance of various vision parameters to functionality in glaucoma. Methods: Vision was measured using seven parameters: visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity (CS), integrated visual field (IVF), area under the log CS function (AULCSF), color vision, stereoacuity, and VA with noise (ViN). Likelihood ratio testing (LRT) determined if the full set of visual parameters significantly explained variability in 10 functional outcomes. For outcomes where the visual contribution was significant, dominance analysis determined the relative importance of the various visual parameters. Results: The analysis included 151 glaucoma patients. Mean age was 70 ± 6.8 years, and 47% were men. Significant visual contributions (LRT P < 0.05) were noted for glaucoma quality of life (GQL-15), reading speed, driving cessation, daily steps, and base of support while walking, but not for fear of falling, balance, gait velocity, stride velocity, and stride length while walking (LRT P > 0.05). The most important parameter (and percent contribution) to vision-explained variability were AULCSF for daily steps (45%), IVF for base of support (35%), VA for reading speed (34%), CS for GQL-15 (30%), and VA for driving cessation (26%). Conclusions: Measures of visual ability are important for several aspects of quality of life and functionality. The most important vision parameter for functionality differs depending on the domain studied. Reading and driving were explained by VA and IVF sensitivity. On the other hand, GQL-15 and daily steps were more heavily influenced by CS and AULCSF, which are rarely performed clinically.
of in of Consortium GGPAD (GGLAD), Hauser MA, Allingham RR, Aung T, Van Der Heide CJ, Taylor KD, Rotter JI, Wang S-HJ, Bonnemaijer PWM, Williams SE, Abdullahi SM, Abu-Amero KK, Anderson MG, Akafo S, Alhassan MB, Asimadu I, Ayyagari R, Bakayoko S, Nyamsi PB, Bowden DW, Bromley WC, Budenz DL, Carmichael TR, Challa P, Chen Y-DI, Chuka-Okosa CM, Cooke Bailey JN, Costa VP, Cruz DA, DuBiner H, Ervin JF, Feldman RM, Flamme-Wiese M, Gaasterland DE, Garnai SJ, Girkin CA, Guirou N, Guo X, Haines JL, Hammond CJ, Herndon L, Hoffmann TJ, Hulette CM, Hydara A, Igo RP, Jorgenson E, Kabwe J, Kilangalanga NJ, Kizor-Akaraiwe N, Kuchtey RW, Lamari H, Li Z, Liebmann JM, Liu Y, Loos RJF, Melo MB, Moroi SE, Msosa JM, Mullins RF, Nadkarni G, Napo A, Ng MCY, Nunes HF, Obeng-Nyarkoh E, Okeke A, Okeke S, Olaniyi O, Olawoye O, Oliveira MB, Pasquale LR, Perez-Grossmann RA, Pericak-Vance MA, Qin X, Ramsay M, Resnikoff S, Richards JE, Schimiti RB, Sim KS, Sponsel WE, Svidnicki PV, Thiadens AAHJ, Uche NJ, van Duijn CM, de Vasconcellos JPC, Wiggs JL, Zangwill LM, Risch N, Milea D, Ashaye A, Klaver CCW, Weinreb RN, Ashley Koch AE, Fingert JH, Khor CC. Association of Genetic Variants With Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Among Individuals With African Ancestry. JAMA 2019;322(17):1682-1691.Abstract
Importance: Primary open-angle glaucoma presents with increased prevalence and a higher degree of clinical severity in populations of African ancestry compared with European or Asian ancestry. Despite this, individuals of African ancestry remain understudied in genomic research for blinding disorders. Objectives: To perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of African ancestry populations and evaluate potential mechanisms of pathogenesis for loci associated with primary open-angle glaucoma. Design, Settings, and Participants: A 2-stage GWAS with a discovery data set of 2320 individuals with primary open-angle glaucoma and 2121 control individuals without primary open-angle glaucoma. The validation stage included an additional 6937 affected individuals and 14 917 unaffected individuals using multicenter clinic- and population-based participant recruitment approaches. Study participants were recruited from Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa, the United States, Tanzania, Britain, Cameroon, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Morocco, Peru, and Mali from 2003 to 2018. Individuals with primary open-angle glaucoma had open iridocorneal angles and displayed glaucomatous optic neuropathy with visual field defects. Elevated intraocular pressure was not included in the case definition. Control individuals had no elevated intraocular pressure and no signs of glaucoma. Exposures: Genetic variants associated with primary open-angle glaucoma. Main Outcomes and Measures: Presence of primary open-angle glaucoma. Genome-wide significance was defined as P < 5 × 10-8 in the discovery stage and in the meta-analysis of combined discovery and validation data. Results: A total of 2320 individuals with primary open-angle glaucoma (mean [interquartile range] age, 64.6 [56-74] years; 1055 [45.5%] women) and 2121 individuals without primary open-angle glaucoma (mean [interquartile range] age, 63.4 [55-71] years; 1025 [48.3%] women) were included in the discovery GWAS. The GWAS discovery meta-analysis demonstrated association of variants at amyloid-β A4 precursor protein-binding family B member 2 (APBB2; chromosome 4, rs59892895T>C) with primary open-angle glaucoma (odds ratio [OR], 1.32 [95% CI, 1.20-1.46]; P = 2 × 10-8). The association was validated in an analysis of an additional 6937 affected individuals and 14 917 unaffected individuals (OR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.09-1.21]; P < .001). Each copy of the rs59892895*C risk allele was associated with increased risk of primary open-angle glaucoma when all data were included in a meta-analysis (OR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.14-1.25]; P = 4 × 10-13). The rs59892895*C risk allele was present at appreciable frequency only in African ancestry populations. In contrast, the rs59892895*C risk allele had a frequency of less than 0.1% in individuals of European or Asian ancestry. Conclusions and Relevance: In this genome-wide association study, variants at the APBB2 locus demonstrated differential association with primary open-angle glaucoma by ancestry. If validated in additional populations this finding may have implications for risk assessment and therapeutic strategies.
Antar H, Tsikata E, Ratanawongphaibul K, Zhang J, Shieh E, Lee R, Freeman M, Papadogeorgou G, Simavli H, Que C, Verticchio Vercellin AC, Khoueir Z, de Boer JF, Chen TC. Analysis of Neuroretinal Rim by Age, Race, and Sex Using High-Density 3-Dimensional Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography. J Glaucoma 2019;28(11):979-988.Abstract
PRéCIS:: Neuroretinal rim minimum distance band (MDB) thickness is significantly lower in older subjects and African Americans compared with whites. It is similar in both sexes. PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between age, race, and sex with the neuroretinal rim using high-density spectral-domain optical coherence tomography optic nerve volume scans of normal eyes. METHODS: A total of 256 normal subjects underwent Spectralis spectral-domain optical coherence tomography optic nerve head volume scans. One eye was randomly selected and analyzed for each subject. Using custom-designed software, the neuroretinal rim MDB thickness was calculated from volume scans, and global and quadrant neuroretinal rim thickness values were determined. The MDB is a 3-dimensional neuroretinal rim band comprised of the shortest distance between the internal limiting membrane and the termination of the retinal pigment epithelium/Bruch's membrane complex. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the associations of age, race, and sex with neuroretinal rim MDB measurements. RESULTS: The population was 57% female and 69% white with a mean age of 58.4±15.3 years. The mean MDB thickness in the normal population was 278.4±47.5 µm. For this normal population, MDB thickness decreased by 0.84 µm annually (P<0.001). African Americans had thinner MDBs compared with whites (P=0.003). Males and females had similar MDB thickness values (P=0.349). CONCLUSION: Neuroretinal rim MDB thickness measurements decreased significantly with age. African Americans had thinner MDB neuroretinal rims than whites.
Choquet H, Wiggs JL, Khawaja AP. Clinical implications of recent advances in primary open-angle glaucoma genetics. Eye (Lond) 2019;Abstract
Over the last decade, genetic studies, including genome-wide association studies (GWAS), have accelerated the discovery of genes and genomic regions contributing to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), a leading cause of irreversible vision loss. Here, we review the findings of genetic studies of POAG published in English prior to September 2019. In total, 74 genomic regions have been associated at a genome-wide level of significance with POAG susceptibility. Recent POAG GWAS provide not only insight into global and ethnic-specific genetic risk factors for POAG susceptibility across populations of diverse ancestry, but also important functional insights underlying biological mechanisms of glaucoma pathogenesis. In this review, we also summarize the genetic overlap between POAG, glaucoma endophenotypes, such as intraocular pressure and vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR), and other eye disorders. We also discuss approaches recently developed to increase power for POAG locus discovery and to predict POAG risk. Finally, we discuss the recent development of POAG gene-based therapies and future strategies to treat glaucoma effectively. Understanding the genetic architecture of POAG is essential for an earlier diagnosis of this common eye disorder, predictive testing of at-risk patients, and design of gene-based targeted medical therapies none of which are currently available.
Saeedi OJ, Elze T, D'Acunto L, Swamy R, Hegde V, Gupta S, Venjara A, Tsai J, Myers JS, Wellik SR, De Moraes CG, Pasquale L, Shen LQ, Boland MV. Reply. Ophthalmology 2019;126(10):e78-e79.
Mayro EL, Wang M, Elze T, Pasquale LR. The impact of artificial intelligence in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma. Eye (Lond) 2019;Abstract
Deep learning (DL) is a subset of artificial intelligence (AI), which uses multilayer neural networks modelled after the mammalian visual cortex capable of synthesizing images in ways that will transform the field of glaucoma. Autonomous DL algorithms are capable of maximizing information embedded in digital fundus photographs and ocular coherence tomographs to outperform ophthalmologists in disease detection. Other unsupervised algorithms such as principal component analysis (axis learning) and archetypal analysis (corner learning) facilitate visual field interpretation and show great promise to detect functional glaucoma progression and differentiate it from non-glaucomatous changes when compared with conventional software packages. Forecasting tools such as the Kalman filter may revolutionize glaucoma management by accounting for a host of factors to set target intraocular pressure goals that preserve vision. Activation maps generated from DL algorithms that process glaucoma data have the potential to efficiently direct our attention to critical data elements embedded in high throughput data and enhance our understanding of the glaucomatous process. It is hoped that AI will realize more accurate assessment of the copious data encountered in glaucoma management, improving our understanding of the disease, preserving vision, and serving to enhance the deep bonds that patients develop with their treating physicians.
Fan BJ, Bailey JC, Igo RP, Kang JH, Boumenna T, Brilliant MH, Budenz DL, Fingert JH, Gaasterland T, Gaasterland D, Hauser MA, Kraft P, Lee RK, Lichter PR, Liu Y, Moroi SE, Myers JS, Pericak-Vance MA, Realini A, Rhee DJ, Richards JE, Ritch R, Schuman JS, Scott WK, Singh K, Sit AJ, Vollrath D, Weinreb RN, Wollstein G, Zack DJ, Haines JL, Pasquale LR, Wiggs JL. Association of a Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Genetic Risk Score With Earlier Age at Diagnosis. JAMA Ophthalmol 2019;Abstract
Importance: Genetic variants associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) are known to influence disease risk. However, the clinical effect of associated variants individually or in aggregate is not known. Genetic risk scores (GRS) examine the cumulative genetic load by combining individual genetic variants into a single measure, which is assumed to have a larger effect and increased power to detect relevant disease-related associations. Objective: To investigate if a GRS that comprised 12 POAG genetic risk variants is associated with age at disease diagnosis. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional study included individuals with POAG and controls from the Glaucoma Genes and Environment (GLAUGEN) study and the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration (NEIGHBOR) study. A GRS was formulated using 12 variants known to be associated with POAG, and the alleles associated with increasing risk of POAG were aligned in the case-control sets. In case-only analyses, the association of the GRS with age at diagnosis was analyzed as an estimate of disease onset. Results from cohort-specific analyses were combined with meta-analysis. Data collection started in August 2012 for the NEIGHBOR cohort and in July 2008 for the GLAUGEN cohort and were analyzed starting in March 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Association of a 12 single-nucleotide polymorphism POAG GRS with age at diagnosis in individuals with POAG using linear regression. Results: The GLAUGEN study included 976 individuals with POAG and 1140 controls. The NEIGHBOR study included 2132 individuals with POAG and 2290 controls. For individuals with POAG, the mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 63.6 (9.8) years in the GLAUGEN cohort and 66.0 (13.7) years in the NEIGHBOR cohort. For controls, the mean (SD) age at enrollment was 65.5 (9.2) years in the GLAUGEN cohort and 68.9 (11.4) years in the NEIGHBOR cohort. All study participants were European white. The GRS was strongly associated with POAG risk in case-control analysis (odds ratio per 1-point increase in score = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.21-1.27; P = 3.4 × 10-66). In case-only analyses, each higher GRS unit was associated with a 0.36-year earlier age at diagnosis (β = -0.36; 95% CI, -0.56 to -0.16; P = 4.0 × 10-4). Individuals in the top 5% of the GRS had a mean (SD) age at diagnosis of 5.2 (12.8) years earlier than those in the bottom 5% GRS (61.4 [12.7] vs 66.6 [12.9] years; P = 5.0 × 10-4). Conclusions and Relevance: A higher dose of POAG risk alleles was associated with an earlier age at glaucoma diagnosis. On average, individuals with POAG with the highest GRS had 5.2-year earlier age at diagnosis of disease. These results suggest that a GRS that comprised genetic variants associated with POAG could help identify patients with risk of earlier disease onset impacting screening and therapeutic strategies.
Liu Y, Jassim F, Braaf B, Khoueir Z, Poon LY-C, Ben-David GS, Papadogeorgou G, Tsikata E, Simavli H, Que C, Lee R, Shieh E, Vakoc BJ, Bouma BE, de Boer JF, Chen TC. Diagnostic Capability of 3D Peripapillary Retinal Volume for Glaucoma Using Optical Coherence Tomography Customized Software. J Glaucoma 2019;28(8):708-717.Abstract
PRéCIS:: The diagnostic capability of peripapillary retinal volume is similar to peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness for diagnosing glaucoma, but with fewer artifacts. PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic capability of 3-dimensional peripapillary retinal volume (RV) versus 2-dimensional peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness for open-angle glaucoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was conducted. A total of 180 subjects (113 open-angle glaucoma, 67 normal participants) had spectral domain optical coherence tomography volume scans and RNFL thickness measurements. Peripapillary RV values were calculated using a custom-designed program with 4 circumpapillary annuli (CA): CA1 had circle diameters of 2.5 and 3.5 mm; CA2, 3 and 4 mm; CA3, 3.5 and 4.5 mm; and CA4, 4 and 5 mm. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated for global, quadrant, and octant regions for RV (CA1 to CA4) and RNFL thickness. Pair-wise comparisons were conducted. Artifacts rates were determined. RESULTS: Mean age was 62.7±15.4 years, and 47.8% (86/180) were male. Among RV measurements, best diagnostic performances were for the smallest 2 annuli for inferior RV (CA1: 0.964, CA2: 0.955). Of the 4 annuli, CA1 had the highest diagnostic performance. Of specific regions, the inferior RV quadrant had the highest performance across CA1 to CA4. Peripapillary RV had similar diagnostic capability compared with RNFL thickness (P>0.05). The artifact rate per B-scan for RV was 6.0%, which was significantly lower compared with 2-dimensional RNFL thickness in the same patient population (32.2%, P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic capability of RV is similar to RNFL thickness for perimetric open-angle glaucoma, but RV had fewer artifacts compared with RNFL thickness.
Khoueir Z, Jassim F, Braaf B, Poon LY-C, Tsikata E, Chodosh J, Dohlman CH, Vakoc BJ, Bouma BE, de Boer JF, Chen TC. Three-Dimensional Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging For Glaucoma Associated With Boston Keratoprosthesis Type I and II. J Glaucoma 2019;28(8):718-726.Abstract
PRECIS: Three-dimensional (3D) spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) volume scans of the optic nerve head (ONH) and the peripapillary area are useful in the management of glaucoma in patients with a type I or II Boston Keratoprosthesis (KPro). PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to report the use of spectral domain OCT in the management of glaucoma in patients with a type I or II Boston KPro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is an observational case series. Four consecutive patients with KPro implants were referred for glaucoma evaluation. A comprehensive eye examination was performed which included disc photography, visual field testing, and high-density spectral domain OCT volume scans of the ONH and the peripapillary area. 2D and 3D parameters were calculated using custom-designed segmentation algorithms developed for glaucoma management. RESULTS: Spectral domain OCT parameters provided useful information in the diagnosis and management of 4 KPro patients. OCT parameters which can be used in KPro patients included 2D retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, 3D peripapillary RNFL volume, 3D peripapillary retinal thickness and volume, 3D cup volume, and 3D neuroretinal rim thickness and volume. In 3 of 4 cases where the traditional 2D RNFL thickness scan was limited by artifacts, 3D spectral domain OCT volume scans provided useful quantitative objective measurements of the ONH and peripapillary region. Therefore, 3D parameters derived from high-density volume scans as well as radial scans of the ONH can be used to overcome the limitations and artifacts associated with 2D RNFL thickness scans. CONCLUSIONS: Spectral domain OCT volume scans offer the possibility to enhance the evaluation of KPro patients with glaucoma by using both 2D and 3D diagnostic parameters that are easily obtained in a clinic setting.
Werner AC, Shen LQ. A Review of OCT Angiography in Glaucoma. Semin Ophthalmol 2019;:1-8.Abstract
There is growing evidence that vascular dysfunction plays a role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. The details of this relationship have remained elusive partially due to limitations in our ability to assess blood flow in the optic nerve. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has emerged as a promising new technology well positioned to become the first clinically suitable test of optic nerve perfusion. OCTA uses the motion of red blood cells as an intrinsic contrast agent to create reproducible images of microvascular networks rapidly and non-invasively. A significant body of research regarding the use of OCTA in glaucoma has emerged in recent years. This review aims to provide an overview of the basic principles underlying OCTA technology, summarize the current literature regarding the application of OCTA in the management of glaucoma, and address the role of OCTA in explicating the vascular pathogenesis of glaucoma.
Silva RNE, Shen LQ, Chiou CA, Shanbhag SS, Paschalis EI, Pasquale LR, Colby KA, Dohlman CH, Chodosh J, Alves MR. Glaucoma Management in Patients with Aniridia and Boston Type 1 Keratoprosthesis. Am J Ophthalmol 2019;Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess outcomes and glaucoma management in eyes with aniridia following Boston type 1 Keratoprosthesis (KPro) implantation. DESIGN: Retrospective, interventional comparative case series. METHODS: POPULATION: Patients with aniridia and patients with other preoperative diagnoses (excluding Stevens-Johnson syndrome, mucous membrane pemphigoid, and congenital disorders) who underwent KPro implantation at Massachusetts Eye and Ear with at least 2 years of follow-up. One eye per patient was selected based on the longer follow-up time. MAIN OUTCOME: Intermediate and long-term outcomes related to glaucoma. RESULTS: The aniridia (n=22) and comparison (n=61) groups had similar preoperative visual acuity (VA, mean ± standard deviation, 1.86±0.52 LogMAR, p=0.33) and follow-up time (65.6±26.3 months, p=0.25). Prior to KPro implantation, eyes with aniridia had more glaucoma (76.2%) and glaucoma surgery (57.1%) than comparison eyes (51.8%, p=0.053; 23.2%, p=0.005, respectively). More Ahmed valves were co-implanted with KPro in aniridia (47.6%) versus comparison eyes (17.9%, p=0.008). At final follow-up, more aniridia eyes had glaucoma (90.5%) than comparison eyes (64.3%, p=0.02), but the two groups had similar percentages of eyes with cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) >0.8 (23.8% vs. 30.4%, p=0.57) or CDR progression of ≥0.2 (42.9% vs. 44.6%, p=0.89, respectively). None of the eyes with prophylactic tube implantation developed glaucoma. Eyes with and without aniridia did not differ in post-KPro VA improvement (72.7%, 72.1%, p=0.96), and final VA (1.28±0.79 LogMAR, 1.23±0.98 LogMAR, p=0.51). CONCLUSION: Despite a higher glaucoma prevalence, eyes with aniridia achieved similar VA as comparison eyes with more than 5 years of mean follow-up time. Boston KPro offers satisfactory visual rehabilitation in aniridia when glaucoma is managed aggressively.
Gaier ED, Gise R, Heidary G. Imaging Amblyopia: Insights from Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Semin Ophthalmol 2019;:1-9.Abstract
Amblyopia refers to visual impairment resulting from perturbations in visual experience during visual development, typically secondary to strabismus, uncorrected refractive error, and/or deprivation. Amblyopia has traditionally been considered a cortical disease, but the depth of our understanding of this complex neurodevelopmental condition is limited by our ability to appreciate structural pathophysiology in the visual pathway. Recent advances in Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) have facilitated numerous studies of the structural changes in the retina and optic nerve, thereby expanding our appreciation for the pathogenesis of this condition. In this review, we summarize findings from studies evaluating retinal, retinal nerve fiber layer, and choroidal thickness changes in patients with amblyopia. Focusing on the largest and most recent studies, we discuss common limitations and confounding variables in these studies. We summarize recent advances in ocular imaging technology and reconcile the findings of early histological reports with those of structural OCT in amblyopia.
Smits DJ, Elze T, Wang H, Pasquale LR. Machine Learning in the Detection of the Glaucomatous Disc and Visual Field. Semin Ophthalmol 2019;:1-11.Abstract
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Early detection is of utmost importance as there is abundant evidence that early treatment prevents disease progression, preserves vision, and improves patients' long-term quality of life. The structure and function thresholds that alert to the diagnosis of glaucoma can be obtained entirely via digital means, and as such, screening is well suited to benefit from artificial intelligence and specifically machine learning. This paper reviews the concepts and current literature on the use of machine learning for detection of the glaucomatous disc and visual field.

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