Glaucoma

Glaucoma Publications

Brazile BL, Yang B, Waxman S, Lam P, Voorhees AP, Hua Y, Loewen RT, Loewen NA, Rizzo JF, Jakobs T, Sigal IA. Lamina Cribrosa Capillaries Straighten as Intraocular Pressure Increases. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2020;61(12):2.Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to visualize the lamina cribrosa (LC) capillaries and collagenous beams, measure capillary tortuosity (path length over straight end-to-end length), and determine if capillary tortuosity changes when intraocular pressure (IOP) increases. Methods: Within 8 hours of sacrifice, 3 pig heads were cannulated via the external ophthalmic artery, perfused with PBS to remove blood, and then perfused with a fluorescent dye to label the capillaries. The posterior pole of each eye was mounted in a custom-made inflation chamber for control of IOP with simultaneous imaging. Capillaries and collagen beams were visualized with structured light illumination enhanced imaging at IOPs from 5 to 50 mm Hg at each 5 mm Hg increment. Capillary tortuosity was measured from the images and paired two-sample t-tests were used to assess for significant changes in relation to changes in IOP. Results: Capillaries were highly tortuous at 15 mm Hg (up to 1.45). In all but one eye, tortuosity decreased significantly as IOP increased from 15 to 25 mm Hg (P < 0.01), and tortuosity decreased significantly in every eye as IOP increased from 15 to 40 mm Hg (P < 0.01). In only 16% of capillaries, tortuosity increased with elevated IOP. Capillaries had a surprisingly different topology from the collagen beams. Conclusions: Although high capillary tortuosity is sometimes regarded as potentially problematic because it can reduce blood flow, LC capillary tortuosity may provide slack that mitigates against reduced flow and structural damage caused by excessive stretch under elevated IOP. We speculate that low capillary tortuosity could be a risk factor for damage under high IOP.
Chiou CA, Wang M, Taniguchi EV, Silva RNE, Khoroshilov A, Li D, Wang H, Greenstein SH, Brauner SC, Turalba AV, Pasquale LR, Shen LQ. Characterization of Prelaminar Wedge-Shaped Defects in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma. Curr Eye Res 2020;:1-8.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the clinical relevance of prelaminar wedge defects (PLWDs) detected by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective case-control study, PLWDs were defined as triangular-shaped defects at the surface of the optic nerve prelaminar tissue, not adjacent to blood vessels, present on cross-sectional SS-OCT scans. Two observers masked to diagnosis independently reviewed scans to detect PLWDs and lamina cribrosa defects. History of disc hemorrhage, occurring within 2 years prior to imaging, was obtained from chart review. One eye per subject was randomly selected. Two-sided t-tests, analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction, and multivariable logistic regression analysis were performed to explore demographic and clinical features associated with PLWDs. RESULTS: 40 POAG and 23 control eyes were included. PLWDS were found in 27.5% of POAG (n = 11) and 4.3% of controls (n = 1, = .04). Eyes with repeat SS-OCT imaging (7 POAG and 0 controls) had persistent PLWDs. More POAG eyes with PLWDs had a history of disc hemorrhage (45.5%) than POAG eyes without PLWDs (3.4%, = .004). On multivariable analysis, compared to POAG without PLWDs, POAG with PLWDs had increased odds of observed disc hemorrhage (OR = 21.6, 95% CI, 2.2-589.0, = .02) after adjusting for age, gender, visual field mean deviation and maximum intraocular pressure (IOP). POAG with PLWDs had more lamina cribrosa defects (45.5%) than POAG without PLWDs (3.4%, = .01) but did not differ significantly from controls (8.7%, = .07). Compared to all patients without PLWDs, patients with PLWDs had increased odds of having lamina cribrosa defects (OR = 44.8; 95% CI, 6.3-703.6, < .001) after adjusting for age, gender, and maximum IOP. CONCLUSIONS: PLWDs were more frequently found in POAG than control eyes and were associated with a history of disc hemorrhage and lamina cribrosa defects. PLWDs may be a useful imaging biomarker of glaucomatous damage.
Jiang Y, Ondeck C. A Review of New Medications and Future Directions of Medical Therapies in Glaucoma. Semin Ophthalmol 2020;:1-7.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Treatment is still largely targeted at lowering intraocular pressure. Intraocular pressures can be lowered through a variety of topical medications, lasers and incisional surgeries. There are currently several classes of topical medications available in the US that are aimed at lowering intraocular pressure through a variety of different mechanisms. Additionally, there have been numerous different formulations and fixed-dose combination medications that offer greatly expanded treatment options over the last several years. The wide variety of topical medications aim to address the issues with compliance, effectiveness and side effect profile that vary among each individual patient and disease.  Purpose: Three new topical medications, netarsudil 0.02%, latanoprostene bunod 0.24% and fixed-dose combination netarsudil 0.02% - latanoprost 0.005% have been approved in the US market to treat glaucoma. This review article will summarize the studies looking at their effectiveness and side effect profiles and discuss their utilization in the treatment of glaucoma. Additionally, we will briefly discuss future directions of research in topical glaucoma medications. CONCLUSION: Three new topical glaucoma medications offer additional treatment options for patient with glaucoma. Further research is needed to better understand the utility of sustained release formulations in the treatment of glaucoma.
Silva RNE, Chiou CA, Wang M, Devlin J, Li D, Lovelace S, Wang H, Greenstein SH, Brauner SC, Shen LQ. Quantification of the peripapillary microvasculature in eyes with glaucomatous paracentral visual field loss. Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2020;Abstract
PURPOSE: To quantify abnormalities in the peripapillary microvasculature in eyes with primary open angle glaucomatous (POAG) and paracentral visual field (VF) loss. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: and Controls: 33 POAG patients, including 15 with paracentral VF loss and 18 with peripheral VF loss, and 31 controls underwent swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) of the peripapillary region. METHODS: POAG groups were matched by VF mean deviation (MD). The peripapillary microvasculature from internal limiting membrane to the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) interface, was quantified within a 0.70-mm annulus around Bruch's membrane opening after removal of large vessels. Both vessel density (VD) and the integrated OCTA by ratio analysis signal (IOS) suggestive of flow were measured. Regional VD and IOS were measured from the affected hemisphere corresponding to the VF hemifield of more severe loss, which was used to calculate the paracentral total deviation (PaTD), or TD within the central 10 degrees. One eye per subject was included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Difference in peripapillary OCTA measurements between paracentral and peripheral VF loss groups and correlation of peripapillary VD and IOS with PaTD. RESULTS: The POAG groups had matched VF MD (-3.1±2.5dB for paracentral vs. -2.3±2.0 for peripheral, P=0.31) and did not differ in average RNFL thickness (71.1±14.7μm, 78.1±15.0 μm, P=0.55); patients in the paracentral group were younger than the peripheral group (59.2±9.6 years, 67.4±6.6 years, respectively, P=0.02). Compared to controls, both paracentral and peripheral VF loss groups had reduced VD (P<0.001 and P=0.009) and IOS (P<0.001 and P=0.01, respectively) in the affected hemisphere. Compared to POAG eyes with peripheral VF loss, the paracentral group had reduced peripapillary VD (35.0±2.2% vs 38.0±2.0%, P=0.001) and IOS (40.4±4.0% vs 44.3±3.1%, P=0.02) in the affected hemisphere. Among all POAG eyes, paracentral and peripheral VF loss groups, peripapillary VD and IOS of the affected hemisphere significantly correlated with functional measurement of paracentral loss, i.e. PaTD, (r=0.40, P=0.02; r=0.45, P=0.008, respectively). These correlations remained significant after adjusting for age (r=0.41, P=0.02; r=0.47, P=0.01; respectively). CONCLUSION: Regional peripapillary microvasculature showed decreased vessel density and flow in POAG with paracentral loss, supporting its importance in this glaucoma subtype.
Yousefi S, Elze T, Pasquale LR, Saeedi O, Wang M, Shen LQ, Wellik SR, De Moraes CG, Myers JS, Boland MV. Monitoring Glaucomatous Functional Loss Using an Artificial Intelligence-Enabled Dashboard. Ophthalmology 2020;127(9):1170-1178.Abstract
PURPOSE: To develop an artificial intelligence (AI) dashboard for monitoring glaucomatous functional loss. DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional, longitudinal cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Of 31 591 visual fields (VFs) on 8077 subjects, 13 231 VFs from the most recent visit of each patient were included to develop the AI dashboard. Longitudinal VFs from 287 eyes with glaucoma were used to validate the models. METHOD: We entered VF data from the most recent visit of glaucomatous and nonglaucomatous patients into a "pipeline" that included principal component analysis (PCA), manifold learning, and unsupervised clustering to identify eyes with similar global, hemifield, and local patterns of VF loss. We visualized the results on a map, which we refer to as an "AI-enabled glaucoma dashboard." We used density-based clustering and the VF decomposition method called "archetypal analysis" to annotate the dashboard. Finally, we used 2 separate benchmark datasets-one representing "likely nonprogression" and the other representing "likely progression"-to validate the dashboard and assess its ability to portray functional change over time in glaucoma. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The severity and extent of functional loss and characteristic patterns of VF loss in patients with glaucoma. RESULTS: After building the dashboard, we identified 32 nonoverlapping clusters. Each cluster on the dashboard corresponded to a particular global functional severity, an extent of VF loss into different hemifields, and characteristic local patterns of VF loss. By using 2 independent benchmark datasets and a definition of stability as trajectories not passing through over 2 clusters in a left or downward direction, the specificity for detecting "likely nonprogression" was 94% and the sensitivity for detecting "likely progression" was 77%. CONCLUSIONS: The AI-enabled glaucoma dashboard, developed using a large VF dataset containing a broad spectrum of visual deficit types, has the potential to provide clinicians with a user-friendly tool for determination of the severity of glaucomatous vision deficit, the spatial extent of the damage, and a means for monitoring the disease progression.
Anand N, Klug E, Nirappel A, Solá-Del Valle D. A Review of Cyclodestructive Procedures for the Treatment of Glaucoma. Semin Ophthalmol 2020;:1-15.Abstract
Cyclodestruction aims to reduce aqueous humor production through the coagulation or destruction of the ciliary body and has been an important treatment choice for glaucoma since the 1930s. The purpose of the current review is to highlight the evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of various cyclodestructive modalities, emphasizing peer-reviewed articles from the last 20 years and the most common variants of these procedures. The review focuses primarily on the two most common variants of transscleral cyclophotocoagulation (TS-CPC), continuous-wave diode cyclophotocoagulation (CW-TSCPC) and MicroPulse diode cyclophotocoagulation (MP-TSCPC) as well as endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation (ECP) and high-intensity focused ultrasound cyclodestruction (HIFU). We believe that the role of cyclodestruction in glaucoma treatment will only continue to expand given the advances in the field, particular with regards to targeted ciliary body destruction and improvement in the safety profile.
Liu WW, McClurkin M, Tsikata E, Hui P-C, Elze T, Celebi ARC, Khoueir Z, Lee R, Shieh E, Simavli H, Que C, Guo R, de Boer J, Chen TC. Three-dimensional Neuroretinal Rim Thickness and Visual Fields in Glaucoma: A Broken-stick Model. J Glaucoma 2020;29(10):952-963.Abstract
PRECIS: In open-angle glaucoma, when neuroretinal rim tissue measured by volumetric optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans is below a third of the normal value, visual field (VF) damage becomes detectable. PURPOSE: To determine the amount of neuroretinal rim tissue thickness below which VF damage becomes detectable. METHODS: In a retrospective cross-sectional study, 1 eye per subject (of 57 healthy and 100 open-angle glaucoma patients) at an academic institution had eye examinations, VF testing, spectral-domain OCT retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements, and optic nerve volumetric scans. Using custom algorithms, the minimum distance band (MDB) neuroretinal rim thickness was calculated from optic nerve scans. "Broken-stick" regression was performed for estimating both the MDB and RNFL thickness tipping-point thresholds, below which were associated with initial VF defects in the decibel scale. The slopes for the structure-function relationship above and below the thresholds were computed. Smoothing curves of the MDB and RNFL thickness covariates were evaluated to examine the consistency of the independently identified tipping-point pairs. RESULTS: Plots of VF total deviation against MDB thickness revealed plateaus of VF total deviation unrelated to MDB thickness. Below the thresholds, VF total deviation decreased with MDB thickness, with the associated slopes significantly greater than those above the thresholds (P<0.014). Below 31% of global MDB thickness, and 36.8% and 43.6% of superior and inferior MDB thickness, VF damage becomes detectable. The MDB and RNFL tipping points were in good accordance with the correlation of the MDB and RNFL thickness covariates. CONCLUSIONS: When neuroretinal rim tissue, characterized by MDB thickness in OCT, is below a third of the normal value, VF damage in the decibel scale becomes detectable.
Gagrani M, Garg I, Ghate D. Surgical interventions for primary congenital glaucoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020;8:CD008213.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is an optic neuropathy with high intraocular pressure (IOP) that manifests within the first few years of a child's life and is not associated with other systemic or ocular abnormalities. PCG results in considerable morbidity even in high-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness and safety of different surgical techniques for PCG. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2020, Issue 4); Ovid MEDLINE; Embase.com; PubMed; metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (last searched 23 June 2014); ClinicalTrials.gov; and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic search. We last searched the electronic databases on 27 April 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing different surgical interventions in children under five years of age with PCG. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methodology. MAIN RESULTS: We included 16 trials (13 RCTs and three quasi-RCTs) with 587 eyes in 446 children. Eleven (69%) trials were conducted in Egypt and the Middle East, three in India, and two in the USA. All included trials involved children younger than five years of age, with follow-up ranging from six to 80 months. The interventions compared varied across trials. Three trials (on 68 children) compared combined trabeculotomy and trabeculectomy (CTT) with trabeculotomy. Meta-analysis of these trials suggests there may be little to no evidence of a difference between groups in mean IOP (mean difference (MD) 0.27 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.74 to 1.29; 88 eyes; 2 studies) and surgical success (risk ratio (RR) 1.01, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.14; 102 eyes; 3 studies) at one year postoperatively. We assessed the certainty of evidence as very low for these outcomes, downgrading for risk of bias (-1) and imprecision (-2). Hyphema was the most common adverse outcome in both groups (no meta-analysis due to considerable heterogeneity; I = 83%). Two trials (on 39 children) compared viscotrabeculotomy to conventional trabeculotomy. Meta-analysis of 42 eyes suggests there is no evidence of between groups difference in mean IOP (MD -1.64, 95% CI -5.94 to 2.66) and surgical success (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.78) at six months postoperatively. We assessed the certainty of evidence as very low, downgrading for risk of bias and imprecision due to small sample size. Hyphema was the most common adverse outcome (38% in viscotrabeculotomy and 28% in conventional trabeculotomy), with no evidence of difference difference (RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.63 to 2.83). Two trials (on 95 children) compared microcatheter-assisted 360-degree circumferential trabeculotomy to conventional trabeculotomy. Meta-analysis of two trials suggests that mean IOP may be lower in the microcatheter group at six months (MD -2.44, 95% CI -3.69 to -1.19; 100 eyes) and at 12 months (MD -1.77, 95% CI -2.92 to -0.63; 99 eyes); and surgical success was more likely to be achieved in the microcatheter group compared to the conventional trabeculotomy group (RR 1.59, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.21; 60 eyes; 1 trial at 6 months; RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.97; 99 eyes; 2 trials at 12 months). We assessed the certainty of evidence for these outcomes as moderate due to small sample size. Hyphema was the most common adverse outcome (40% in the microcatheter group and 17% in the conventional trabeculotomy group), with greater likelihood of occurring in the microcatheter group (RR 2.25, 95% CI 1.25 to 4.04); the evidence was of moderate certainty due to small sample size (-1). Of the nine remaining trials, no two trials compared the same two surgical interventions: one trial compared CTT versus CTT with sclerectomy; three trials compared various suturing techniques and adjuvant use including mitomycin C, collagen implant in CTT; one trial compared CTT versus Ahmed valve implant in previously failed surgeries; one trial compared CTT with trabeculectomy; one trial compared trabeculotomy to goniotomy; and two trials compared different types of goniotomy. No trials reported quality of life or economic data. Many of the included trials had limitations in study design, implementation, and reporting, therefore the reliability and applicability of the evidence remains unclear. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence suggests that there may be little to no evidence of difference between CTT and routine conventional trabeculotomy, or between viscotrabeculotomy and routine conventional trabeculotomy. A 360-degree circumferential trabeculotomy may show greater surgical success than conventional trabeculotomy. Considering the rarity of the disease, future research would benefit from a multicenter, possibly international trial, involving parents of children with PCG and with a follow-up of at least one year.
Mihailovic A, Varadaraj V, Ramulu PY, Friedman DS. Evaluating Goldmann Applanation Tonometry Intraocular Pressure Measurement Agreement Between Ophthalmic Technicians and Physicians. Am J Ophthalmol 2020;219:170-176.Abstract
PURPOSE: To examine IOP measurement disagreement between technicians and physicians and the impact of an educational intervention on the short and long-term disagreement in IOP measurement using Goldmann applanation tonometry. DESIGN: Prospective study designed to enhance measurement reliability. SETTING: A glaucoma clinic at a university hospital. StudyPopulation: 6 technicians and 2 physicians. INTERVENTION: An educational intervention was implemented for the technicians to improve IOP measurement agreement with physicians. MainOutcomeMeasures: Frequency of IOP measurement disagreement between physicians and technicians, defined as a difference in IOP of >2 or >3 mm Hg and assessed at baseline and immediately and 6 months postintervention. RESULTS: IOP was evaluated for a total of 529 eyes (physician measured mean IOP = 16.4 mm Hg [SD = 5.9]), 30 per technician-physician pair for each data collection period: baseline, immediately postintervention and 6 months postintervention. At baseline, physicians disagreed 17% and 7% of the time when measuring IOP using >2 and >3 mm Hg to define disagreement, respectively, whereas the average disagreement between technicians and physicians was 25% and 13%. Disagreement was greater at IOPs greater than 20 mm Hg. No significant changes were noted in the frequency of disagreement between technicians and physicians immediately or 6 months postintervention. CONCLUSIONS: Two physicians measuring the same patient in the same room disagreed by >2 mm Hg in 17% of patients' eyes, and this amount of disagreement was even higher when comparing physicians to certified technicians. An educational intervention did not improve agreement in IOP measurements between technicians and physicians. This highlights an important limitation of Goldmann tonometry.
Kempen JH, Van Natta ML, Friedman DS, Altaweel MM, Ansari H, Dunn JP, Elner SG, Holbrook JT, Lim LL, Sugar EA, Jabs DA, and Group MUST (MUST) TF-up SR. Incidence and Outcome of Uveitic Glaucoma in Eyes With Intermediate, Posterior, or Panuveitis Followed up to 10 Years After Randomization to Fluocinolone Acetonide Implant or Systemic Therapy. Am J Ophthalmol 2020;219:303-316.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate long-term risk and outcomes of glaucoma in eyes with intermediate, posterior, and panuveitis managed with systemic or fluocinolone acetonide (0.59 mg, "implant") therapy. DESIGN: Prospective Follow-up of the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) Clinical Trial Cohort. METHODS: Patients with intermediate, posterior, or panuveitis randomized to implant or systemic therapy (corticosteroid plus immunosuppression in >90%) were followed prospectively for glaucoma incidence and outcome. RESULTS: Among 405 uveitic at-risk eyes of 232 patients (median follow-up = 6.9 years), 40% (79/196) of eyes assigned and treated with implant and 8% (17/209) of eyes assigned and treated with systemic therapy (censoring eyes receiving an implant on implantation) developed glaucoma (hazard ratio [HR] = 5.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2, 10.8; P < .001). Adjustment for intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation during follow-up only partially mitigated the association of implant treatment with glaucoma incidence: HR = 3.1 (95% CI 1.6, 6.0); P = .001. Among 112 eyes of 83 patients developing glaucoma, the 5-year cumulative incidence following diagnosis of sustained (2 or more consecutive visits) worsening of mean deviation by ≥6 dB was 20% (95% CI 12%, 33%); 5-year cumulative incidence of sustained worsening of cup-to-disc ratio by ≥0.2 was 26% (95% CI 17%, 39%). CONCLUSIONS: The implant has substantially higher risk of glaucoma than systemic therapy, a difference not entirely explained by posttreatment IOP elevation. Management of IOP elevation was effective in preventing worsening of glaucoma for the large majority of cases, but even under expert clinical management, some glaucoma worsened. Uveitis cases should be monitored carefully for IOP elevation and glaucoma indefinitely.
Chen X, Lei F, Zhou C, Chodosh J, Wang L, Huang Y, Dohlman CH, Paschalis EI. Glaucoma after Ocular Surgery or Trauma: The Role of Infiltrating Monocytes and Their Response to Cytokine Inhibitors. Am J Pathol 2020;190(10):2056-2066.Abstract
Glaucoma is a frequent and devastating long-term complication following ocular trauma, including corneal surgery, open globe injury, chemical burn, and infection. Postevent inflammation and neuroglial remodeling play a key role in subsequent ganglion cell apoptosis and glaucoma. To this end, this study was designed to investigate the amplifying role of monocyte infiltration into the retina. By using three different ocular injury mouse models (corneal suture, penetrating keratoplasty, and globe injury) and monocyte fate mapping techniques, we show that ocular trauma or surgery can cause robust infiltration of bone marrow-derived monocytes into the retina and subsequent neuroinflammation by up-regulation of Tnf, Il1b, and Il6 mRNA within 24 hours. This is accompanied by ganglion cell apoptosis and neurodegeneration. Prompt inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α or IL-1β markedly suppresses monocyte infiltration and ganglion cell loss. Thus, acute ocular injury (surgical or trauma) can lead to rapid neuroretinal inflammation and subsequent ganglion cell loss, the hallmark of glaucoma. Infiltrating monocytes play a central role in this process, likely amplifying the inflammatory cascade, aiding in the activation of retinal microglia. Prompt administration of cytokine inhibitors after ocular injury prevents this infiltration and ameliorates the damage to the retina-suggesting that it may be used prophylactically for neuroprotection against post-traumatic glaucoma.
Kang JH, VoPham T, Laden F, Rosner BA, Wirostko B, Ritch R, Wiggs JL, Qureshi A, Nan H, Pasquale LR. Cohort Study of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer and the Risk of Exfoliation Glaucoma. J Glaucoma 2020;29(6):448-455.Abstract
PRECIS: In a cohort study of 120,307 participants with 25+ years of follow-up, a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) was associated with a 40% higher exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) risk. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between NMSC (a marker of ultraviolet radiation exposure) and XFG. METHODS: We performed a cohort study of US women (n=79,102; 1980-2014) and men (n=41,205; 1986-2014), aged 40+ years and at risk for glaucoma who reported eye examinations. From 1984 (women)/1988 (men), we asked about basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma history separately; in prior years, we asked about any NMSC history in a single question. Squamous cell carcinoma was confirmed with histopathology reports while basal cell carcinoma and any early (<1984/<1988) NMSC history was self-reported. Incident XFG cases (362 women and 83 men) were confirmed with medical records. Using pooled data, we estimated multivariable-adjusted relative risks [MVRRs; 95% confidence intervals (CIs)] with Cox proportional hazards models that were stratified by age (in mo), 2-year time period at risk and average lifetime residential latitude. RESULTS: In multivariable-adjusted analyses, we observed a 40% higher XFG risk with any NMSC history (MVRR=1.40; 95% CI=1.08-1.82); the association was observed even with 4 and 8-year lags in NMSC history. Also, the NMSC association was stronger in younger (below 65 y; MVRR=2.56; 95% CI=1.62-4.05) versus older participants (65 y and above; MVRR=1.25; 95% CI=0.94-1.66; P for interaction=0.01) and those living in the northern latitudes (≥42°N; MVRR=1.92; 95% CI=1.28-2.88) versus more southern latitudes (<42°N; MVRR=1.19; 95% CI=0.86-1.66; P for interaction=0.04). CONCLUSION: NMSC was associated with higher XFG risk, particularly among younger participants and those living in the Northern US.
Elhusseiny AM, VanderVeen DK. Outcomes of Glaucoma Drainage Devices in Childhood Glaucoma. Semin Ophthalmol 2020;:1-11.Abstract
PURPOSE: Angle surgery is the gold standard for the management of many types of childhood glaucoma, yet glaucoma drainage devices (GDD) are effective tools for refractory advanced cases or secondary childhood glaucomas. The purpose of this article is to review recently published literature focused on the use of GDDs for pediatric glaucoma, including GDD general principles and surgical outcomes. METHODS: Literature review of various electronic databases was performed. RESULTS: 71 papers were reviewed for outcomes of GDD in childhood glaucomas. Success rates were usually defined by intraocular pressure (IOP) of 5-22 mmHg, with or without medications. Success rates were typically higher for non-valved GDDs but varied by length of follow-up. Non-valved GDDs afford lower and longer-lasting IOP control in pediatric eyes than valved GDD, however, no randomized controlled trials exist in childhood glaucoma. CONCLUSION: Various designs of GDDs are available for management of childhood glaucoma with good short-term success rates; individual patient factors should be taken into consideration when selecting a specific device.
Elhusseiny AM, Jamerson EC, Menshawey R, Tam EK, El Sayed YM. Collector Channels: Role and Evaluation in Schlemm's Canal Surgery. Curr Eye Res 2020;45(10):1181-1187.Abstract
OBJECTIVES: 1) To elucidate the role of collector channels in the aqueous humor outflow pathway 2) To suggest anatomic and functional methods of imaging collector channels in-vitro and in-vivo and 3) To discuss the role of such imaging modalities in the surgical management of glaucoma. METHODS: A thorough literature search was conducted on databases for studies published in English regarding the available methods to determine the role of collecting channels in normal and glaucomatous patients and to assess their patency. RESULTS: Intraocular pressure (IOP) exists as a balance between aqueous humor production and aqueous humor outflow. Collector channels are an essential anatomical constituent of the distal portion of the conventional aqueous humor outflow pathway. There are different surgical options for glaucoma management and with the recent advances in Schlemm's canal-based surgeries, collector channel's patency became a key factor in determining the optimum management for the glaucomatous eye. The advent of anatomic imaging methods has improved the ability to visualize collector channel morphology in-vitro, including swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), micro-computed tomography (micro CT), new immunohistochemistry techniques and scanning electron microscopy. The recent advent of real-time assessment of collector channel patency (including evaluation of episcleral venous outflow, observation of episcleral venous fluid wave, and tracer studies utilizing fluorescein, indocyanine green, and trypan blue) has been validated by the aforementioned anatomic imaging modalities. CONCLUSIONS: New modalities of in-vitro and in-vivo studies of collector channels provide promise to aid in the assessment of collector channel patency and individualization of surgical management for glaucoma patients.

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