Posner-Schlossman syndrome (PSS) shares some clinical features with uveitis and open angle glaucoma. Cytokines and autoantibodies have been associated with uveitis and open angle glaucoma. However, the role of serum cytokines and autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of PSS remains unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of type 1 T helper (Th1) and Th17 related cytokines and autoantibodies with PSS. Peripheral blood serum samples were collected from 81 patients with PSS and 97 gender- and age-matched healthy blood donors. Th1 and Th17 related cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon- γ (IFN-γ), IL-6 and IL-17, and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) were determined by double antibody sandwich ELISA. Anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-keratin antibody (AKA) and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Anti-cardiolipin antibody (ACA)-IgG, ACA-IgM, ACA-IgA, anti-double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP) were detected by indirect ELISA. Serum levels of IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-6 in PSS patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P < 0.003), and these associations survived the Bonferroni correction (Pc < 0.018). There was no significant difference in serum levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17 between the PSS and control groups (Pc > 0.12). Positive rate of serum anti-dsDNA in PSS patients was significantly higher than that in the control group (P = 0.002, Pc = 0.018), while positive rates of serum ANA, AKA, ANCA, ACA-IgG, ACA-IgM, ACA-IgA, GPI and anti-CCP in the PSS group were not significantly different from those in the control group (Pc > 0.09). These results suggest that anti-dsDNA may contribute to the pathogenesis of PSS, while Th1 and Th17 related cytokines and other autoantibodies may not be major contributors to PSS.
PURPOSE: To compare diagnostic performance and structure-function correlations of multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG), full-field flash ERG (ff-ERG) photopic negative response (PhNR) and transient pattern-reversal ERG (PERG) in a non-human primate (NHP) model of experimental glaucoma (EG). METHODS: At baseline and after induction of chronic unilateral IOP elevation, 43 NHP had alternating weekly recordings of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) by spectral domain OCT (Spectralis) and retinal function by mfERG (7F slow-sequence stimulus, VERIS), ff-ERG (red 0.42 log cd-s/m(2) flashes on blue 30 scotopic cd/m(2) background, LKC UTAS-E3000), and PERG (0.8° checks, 99% contrast, 100 cd/m(2) mean, 5 reversals/s, VERIS). All NHP were followed at least until HRT-confirmed optic nerve head posterior deformation, most to later stages. mfERG responses were filtered into low- and high-frequency components (LFC, HFC, >75 Hz). Peak-to-trough amplitudes of LFC features (N1, P1, N2) and HFC RMS amplitudes were measured and ratios calculated for HFC:P1 and N2:P1. ff-ERG parameters included A-wave (at 10 ms), B-wave (trough-to-peak) and PhNR (baseline-to-trough) amplitudes as well as PhNR:B-wave ratio. PERG parameters included P50 and N95 amplitudes as well as N95:P50 ratio and N95 slope. Diagnostic performance of retinal function parameters was compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (A-ROC) to discriminate between EG and control eyes. Correlations to RNFLT were compared using Steiger's test. RESULTS: Study duration was 15 ± 8 months. At final follow-up, structural damage in EG eyes measured by RNFLT ranged from 9% above baseline (BL) to 58% below BL; 29/43 EG eyes (67%) and 0/43 of the fellow control eyes exhibited significant (>7%) loss of RNFLT from BL. Using raw parameter values, the largest A-ROC findings for mfERG were: HFC (0.82) and HFC:P1 (0.90); for ff-ERG: PhNR (0.90) and PhNR:B-wave (0.88) and for PERG: P50 (0.64) and N95 (0.61). A-ROC increased when data were expressed as % change from BL, but the pattern of results persisted. At 95% specificity, the diagnostic sensitivity of mfERG HFC:P1 ratio was best, followed by PhNR and PERG. The correlation to RNFLT was stronger for mfERG HFC (R = 0.65) than for PhNR (R = 0.59) or PERG N95 (R = 0.36), (p = 0.20, p = 0.0006, respectively). The PhNR flagged a few EG eyes at the final time point that had not been flagged by mfERG HFC or PERG. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic performance and structure-function correlation were strongest for mfERG HFC as compared with ff-ERG PhNR or PERG in NHP EG.
Purpose: Optic nerve head astrocytes, a subtype of white-matter astrocytes, become reactive early in the course of glaucoma. It was shown recently that in the DBA/2J mouse model of inherited glaucoma optic nerve astrocytes extend new longitudinal processes into the axon bundles before ganglion cell loss becomes apparent. The present study aims at testing whether this behavior of astrocytes is typical of early glaucomatous damage. Methods: Mice expressing green fluorescent protein in individual astrocytes were used to evaluate the early response of astrocytes in the glial lamina of the optic nerve head after increasing the IOP using the microbead occlusion method. Tissue sections from the glial lamina were imaged consecutively by confocal and electron microscopy. Results: Confocal and electron microscope images show that astrocytes close to the myelination transition zone in the hypertensive nerve heads extend new processes that follow the longitudinal axis of the optic nerve and invade axon bundles in the nerve head. Ultrastructurally, the longitudinal processes were largely devoid of subcellular organelles except for degenerating mitochondria. Conclusions: The longitudinal processes are a common feature of glaucomatous optic nerve astrocytes, whereas they are not observed after traumatic nerve injury. Thus, astrocytes appear to fine-tune their responses to the nature and/or timing of the injury to the neurons that they surround.
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 11,246 subjects, 40 years and older who underwent health care assessment as part of the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. METHODS: Variables regarding the duration (total minutes per week), frequency (days per week), and intensity of exercise (vigorous, moderate exercise and walking) as well as glaucoma prevalence were ascertained for 11,246 survey participants. Demographic, comorbidity, and health-related behavior information was obtained via interview. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the exercise-related parameters and odds of a glaucoma diagnosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Glaucoma defined by International Society for Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. RESULTS: Overall, 336 (2.7%) subjects met diagnostic criteria for glaucomatous disease. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, subjects engaged in vigorous exercise 7 days per week had higher odds of having glaucoma compared with those exercising 3 days per week (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-9.54). High intensity of exercise, as categorized by the guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), was also associated with greater glaucoma prevalence compared with moderate intensity of exercise (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03-2.33). There was no association between other exercise parameters including frequency of moderate exercise, walking, muscle strength exercise, flexibility training, or total minutes of exercise per week, and the prevalence of glaucoma. In sub-analyses stratifying by gender, the association between frequency of vigorous exercise 7 days per week and glaucoma diagnosis remained significant in men (OR 6.05, 95% CI 1.67-21.94) but not in women (OR 0.96 95% CI: 0.23-3.97). A U-shaped association between exercise intensity and glaucoma prevalence was noted in men (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.09-2.69 for low intensity versus moderate intensity; OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.25-3.85 for high intensity versus moderate intensity). CONCLUSION: In a South Korean population sample, daily vigorous exercise was associated with higher glaucoma prevalence. In addition, the intensity of exercise was positively associated with glaucoma diagnosis in men but not women.
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common optic neuropathy, is a heritable disease. Siblings of POAG cases have a ten-fold increase risk of developing the disease. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic nerve head characteristics are used clinically to predict POAG risk. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of IOP and optic disc parameters and validated our findings in multiple sets of POAG cases and controls. Using imputation to the 1000 genomes (1000G) reference set, we identified 9 new genomic regions associated with vertical cup disc ratio (VCDR) and 1 new region associated with IOP. Additionally, we found 5 novel loci for optic nerve cup area and 6 for disc area. Previously it was assumed that genetic variation influenced POAG either through IOP or via changes to the optic nerve head; here we present evidence that some genomic regions affect both IOP and the disc parameters. We characterized the effect of the novel loci through pathway analysis and found that pathways involved are not entirely distinct as assumed so far. Further, we identified a novel association between CDKN1A and POAG. Using a zebrafish model we show that six6b (associated with POAG and optic nerve head variation) alters the expression of cdkn1a In summary, we have identified several novel genes influencing the major clinical risk predictors of POAG and showed that genetic variation in CDKN1A is important in POAG risk.
We describe the surgical technique of endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation in a Boston keratoprosthesis type II patient. This patient with ocular cicatricial pemphigoid had pars plana endoscopic cyclophotocoagula through wounds created in the eyelids.
PURPOSE: To determine the diagnostic capability of spectral domain optical coherence tomography peripapillary retinal volume (RV) measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 156 patients, 89 primary open-angle glaucoma and 67 normal subjects, were recruited. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography peripapillary RV was calculated for 4 quadrants using 3 annuli of varying scan circle diameters: outer circumpapillary annuli of circular grids 1, 2, and 3 (OCA1, OCA2, OCA3). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves and pairwise comparisons of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to determine which quadrants were best for diagnosing primary open-angle glaucoma. The pairwise comparisons of the best ROC curves for RV and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) were performed. The artifact rates were analyzed. RESULTS: Pairwise comparisons showed that the smaller annuli OCA1 and OCA2 had better diagnostic performance than the largest annulus OCA3 (P<0.05 for all quadrants). OCA1 and OCA2 had similar diagnostic performance, except for the inferior quadrant which was better for OCA1 (P=0.0033). The pairwise comparisons of the best ROC curves for RV and RNFL were not statistically significant. RV measurements had lower rates of artifacts at 7.4% while RNFL measurements had higher rates at 42.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Peripapillary RV measurements have excellent ability for diagnosing not only glaucoma patients but also a subset of early glaucoma patients. The inferior quadrant of peripapillary annulus OCA1 demonstrated the best diagnostic capability for both glaucoma and early glaucoma. The diagnostic ability of RV is comparable with that of RNFL parameters in glaucoma but with lower artifact rates.
PurposeTo report surgical outcomes of microcatheter-assisted trabeculotomy following failed angle surgeries, and compare those with no previous angle surgery, in primary congenital glaucoma (PCG).MethodsThe early postoperative (12 months) results of 42 eyes of 36 patients who underwent microcatheter-assisted trabeculotomy by single surgeon for PCG were retrospectively analyzed. Group 1, 20 eyes of 16 patients, had no previous angle surgery. Group 2, 22 eyes of 20 patients, had one or two previous failed angle surgeries. Success was defined as an intraocular pressure (IOP) <21 mm Hg with at least a 30% reduction from preoperative IOP with (qualified success) or without (complete success) the use of antiglaucoma medication.ResultsMean IOP decreased from 31.5±7.2 mm Hg on 3 (median, range: 1-5) medications in Group 1 and 34.6±7.3 mm Hg on 3 (median, range: 1-4) medications in Group 2 preoperatively to 15.6±3.1 mm Hg on 0 (median, range: 0-4) medications in Group 1 and 16.0±4.6 mm Hg on 0 (median, range: 0-2) medications in Group 2 postoperatively at 12 months (both P<0.001), respectively. The mean percentage of IOP reduction from preoperative to last postoperative visit was 46.0±20.1% in Group 1 and 45.5±25.0% in Group 2, P=0.947. Qualified and complete successes were comparable between Group 1 and Group 2 (qualified success: 90.0% vs 77.3%, P=0.294; complete success: 78.9% vs 77.3%, P=0.853). Complications were minimal.ConclusionsMicrocatheter-assisted trabeculotomy achieved significant pressure-lowering effects with a reduction in medication use in PCG, and it represents a reasonable choice of initial and repeat surgical treatment for PCG.
Interventions in the treatment of mild to moderate glaucoma have evolved to include a group of procedures collectively named "Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgery (MIGS)." These procedures are less invasive than traditional filtering surgery and setons and offer the benefit of an improved side-effect profile. A review of current published literature has shown that these procedures offer lower intraocular pressure, decrease reliance on topical medications, have no negative effect on refractive outcomes, and can be safely done following failed tube surgery.