Diabetic Eye Disease

Diabetic Eye Disease Publications

Sun JK, Josic K, Melia M, Glassman AR, Bailey C, Chalam KV, Chew EY, Cukras C, Grover S, Jaffe GJ, Lee R, Nielsen JS, Thompson DJS, Wiley HE, Ferris FL, Ferris FL. Conversion of Central Subfield Thickness Measurements of Diabetic Macular Edema Across Cirrus and Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography Instruments. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021;10(14):34.Abstract
Purpose: Develop equations to convert Cirrus central subfield thickness (CST) to Spectralis CST equivalents and vice versa in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods: The DRCR Retina Network Protocol O data were split randomly to train (70% sample) and validate (30% sample) conversion equations. Data from an independent study (CADME) also validated the equations. Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement between predicted and observed values evaluated the equations. Results: Protocol O included 374 CST scan pairs from 187 eyes (107 participants). The CADME study included 150 scan pairs of 37 eyes (37 participants). Proposed conversion equations are Spectralis = 40.78 + 0.95 × Cirrus and Cirrus = 1.82 + 0.94 × Spectralis regardless of age, sex, or CST. Predicted values were within 10% of observed values in 101 (90%) of Spectralis and 99 (88%) of Cirrus scans in the validation data; and in 136 (91%) of the Spectralis and 148 (99%) of the Cirrus scans in the CADME data. Adjusting for within-eye correlations, 95% of conversions are estimated to be within 17% (95% confidence interval, 14%-21%) of CST on Spectralis and within 22% (95% confidence interval, 18%-28%) of CST on Cirrus. Conclusions: Conversion equations developed in this study allow the harmonization of CST measurements for eyes with DME using a mix of current Cirrus and Spectralis device images. Translational Relevance: The CSTs measured on Cirrus and Spectralis devices are not directly comparable owing to outer boundary segmentation differences. Converting CST values across spectral domain optical coherence tomography instruments should benefit both clinical research and standard care efforts.
Fonda SJ, Bursell S-E, Lewis DG, Clary D, Shahon D, Silva PS. Prevalence of Diabetic Eye Diseases in American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) as Identified by the Indian Health Service's National Teleophthalmology Program Using Ultrawide Field Imaging (UWFI). Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2021;:1-9.Abstract
PURPOSE: Estimates of diabetic eye disease in American Indian and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) vary over time, region, and methods. This article reports recent prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) in AI/AN served by the Indian Health Services' (IHS) teleophthalmology program, as identified using ultrawide field imaging (UWFI). METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of 2016-2019 clinical data (n = 53,900). UWF images were acquired by certified imagers using a validated protocol, and graded by licensed, certified optometrists supervised by an ophthalmologist. Graders evaluated the extent/severity of retinal lesions in comparison to standard photographs. DR lesions predominantly in any peripheral field were considered "predominantly peripheral lesions" (PPL). The analyses calculated prevalence of any DR, any DME, DR and DME severity, sight-threatening disease, and PPL. RESULTS: Patients averaged 56 years of age with a 68 mmol/mol A1c and 55% had had diabetes for 5+ years. Prevalence of any DR, any DME, and sight-threatening disease was 28.6%, 3.0%, and 3.0%. In patients with mild nonproliferative DR, PPL was seen in 25.3%. PPL suggested a more severe level of DR in 8.7% of patients. DR increased with age. DME decreased with age. Males and patients in the Nashville IHS area had more diabetic eye disease. CONCLUSION: AI/AN have a high burden of diabetes and its complications. The IHS is resource-constrained, making accurate disease estimates necessary for resource allocation and budget justifications to Congress. These data update the estimates of diabetic eye disease in Indian Country and suggest that UWFI identifies early DR.
, Kim JE, Glassman AR, Josic K, Melia M, Aiello LP, Baker C, Eells JT, Jampol LM, Kern TS, Marcus D, Martin DF, Salehi-Had H, Shah SN, Stockdale CR, Sun JK, Sun JK. A Randomized Trial of Photobiomodulation Therapy for Center-Involved Diabetic Macular Edema with Good Visual Acuity (Protocol AE). Ophthalmol Retina 2021;Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine if treatment with a photobiomodulation (PBM) device results in greater improvement in central subfield thickness as compared with placebo in eyes with center-involved diabetic macular edema (CI-DME) and good vision DESIGN: Phase 2 randomized clinical trial PARTICIPANTS: Participants had CI-DME and visual acuity (VA) 20/25 or better in the study eye and were recruited from 23 clinical sites in the US. METHODS: One eye of each participant was randomly assigned 1:1 to a 670-nm light-emitting PBM eye patch or an identical device emitting broad-spectrum white light at low power. Treatment was applied for 90 seconds twice daily for 4 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Change in central subfield thickness (CST) on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) at 4 months. RESULTS: From April 2019 to February 2020, 135 adults were randomly assigned to either PBM (N = 69) or placebo (N = 66); median age was 62, 37% were female and 82% were white. Median device compliance was 92% with PBM and 95% with placebo. OCT CST increased from baseline to 4 months by a mean (SD) of 13 (53) μm in PBM eyes and 15 (57) μm in placebo eyes (mean difference (95% CI) = -2 (-20 to 16) μm; p = .84). CI-DME, based on DRCR Retina Network sex and machine-based thresholds, was present in 61 (90%) of PBM eyes and 57 (86%) of placebo eyes at 4 months (adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) = 1.30 (0.44 to 3.83); p = .63). Visual acuity decreased by a mean (SD) of -0.2 (5.5) letters and -0.6 (4.6) letters in the PBM and placebo groups, respectively (difference (95% CI) = 0.4 (-1.3 to 2.0) letters; p = .64). There were eight adverse events possibly related to the PBM device, and two adverse events possibly related to the placebo device. None were serious. CONCLUSIONS: PBM as given in this study, while safe and well tolerated, was not found to be effective for the treatment of CI-DME in eyes with good vision.
Maguire MG, Liu D, Bressler SB, Friedman SM, Melia M, Stockdale CR, Glassman AR, Sun JK, Sun JK. Lapses in Care Among Patients Assigned to Ranibizumab for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy: A Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Ophthalmol 2021;139(12):1266-1273.Abstract
Importance: The follow-up schedule for individuals with eyes treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) requires that patients return frequently for monitoring and repeated treatment. The likelihood that a patient will comply should be a consideration in choosing a treatment approach. Objective: To describe completion of scheduled examinations among participants assigned to intravitreous injections of ranibizumab for PDR in a multicenter randomized clinical trial. Design, Setting, and Participants: This post hoc analysis evaluates data from a randomized clinical trial conducted at 55 US sites among 305 adults with proliferative diabetic retinopathy enrolled between February and December 2012. Both eyes were enrolled for 89 participants (1 eye to each study group), with a total of 394 study eyes. The final 2-year visit was completed in January 2015. Data were analyzed from April 2019 to July 2021. Interventions: Ranibizumab injections for PDR or macular edema. Main Outcomes and Measures: A long lapse in care of 8 or more weeks past a scheduled examination, dropout from follow-up, visual acuity at 5 years. Results: Among 170 participants, the median age was 51 years, and 44.7% were female. Through 5 years of follow-up, 94 of 170 participants (55.3%) had 1 or more long lapse in care. Median time to the first long lapse was 210 weeks, and 69 of 94 participants (73.4%) returned for examination after the first long lapse. Fifty of 170 participants (29.4%) dropped out of follow-up by 5 years. Among the 120 participants who completed the 5-year examination, median change from baseline in visual acuity was -2 letters for participants who had 1 or more long lapse compared with +5 letters for those without a long lapse (P = .02). After multivariable adjustment, the odds ratio (95% CI) for baseline associations with 1 or more long lapse was 1.21 (1.03-1.43) for each 5-letter decrement in visual acuity score, 2.19 (1.09-4.38) for neovascularization of the disc and elsewhere, and 3.48 (1.38-8.78) for no prior laser treatment for diabetic macular edema. Conclusions and Relevance: Over 5 years, approximately half of the participants assigned to ranibizumab for PDR had a long lapse in care despite substantial effort by the DRCR Retina Network to facilitate timely completion of examinations. The likelihood of a long lapse in care during long-term follow-up needs to be considered when choosing treatment for PDR. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01489189.
Li Y, Mitchell W, Elze T, Zebardast N. Association Between Diabetes, Diabetic Retinopathy, and Glaucoma. Curr Diab Rep 2021;21(10):38.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The strength of the relationship between diabetes, diabetic retinopathy (DR), and glaucoma remains controversial. We review evidence supporting and refuting this association and explore mechanistic pathological and treatment relationships linking these diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: While studies have shown diabetes/DR may increase the risk for glaucoma, this remains inconsistently demonstrated. Diabetes/DR may contribute toward glaucomatous optic neuropathy indirectly (either by increasing intraocular pressure or vasculopathy) or through direct damage to the optic nerve. However, certain elements of diabetes may slow glaucoma progression, and diabetic treatment may concurrently be beneficial in glaucoma management. Diabetes plays a significant role in poor outcomes after glaucoma surgery. While the relationship between diabetes/DR and glaucoma remains controversial, multiple mechanistic links connecting pathophysiology and management of diabetes, DR, and glaucoma have been made. However, a deeper understanding of the causes of disease association is needed.
Cui Y, Zhu Y, Lu ES, Le R, Laíns I, Katz R, Wang JC, Garg I, Lu Y, Zeng R, Eliott D, Vavvas DG, Husain D, Miller JW, Kim LA, Wu DM, Miller JB. Widefield Swept-Source OCT Angiography Metrics Associated with the Development of Diabetic Vitreous Hemorrhage: A Prospective Study. Ophthalmology 2021;128(9):1312-1324.Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate the association among widefield swept-source (SS) OCT angiography (OCTA) metrics and systemic parameters and vitreous hemorrhage (VH) occurrence in eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-five eyes from 45 adults with PDR, with no history of VH, followed up for at least 3 months. METHODS: All patients underwent widefield SS OCTA (Montage 15 × 15 mm and high-definition (HD)-51 line scan) imaging. Images were evaluated independently by 2 graders for quantitative and qualitative widefield SS OCTA metrics defined a priori. Systemic and ocular parameters and widefield SS OCTA metrics were screened using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator and logistic or Cox regression for variable selection. Firth's bias-reduced logistic regression models (outcome, occurrence of VH) and Cox regression models (outcome, time to occurrence of VH) were used to identify parameters associated with VH occurrence. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Occurrence of VH. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 363 days (range, 28-710 days), 13 of 55 PDR eyes (24%) demonstrated VH during the follow-up period. Presence of extensive neovascularizations (odds ratio, 8.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-58.56; P = 0.02), defined as neovascularizations with total area of more than 4 disc diameters, and forward neovascularizations (odds ratio, 5.42; 95% CI, 1.26-35.16; P = 0.02) that traversed the posterior hyaloid face into the vitreous were associated with the occurrence of VH. The presence of flat neovascularizations (odds ratio, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.04-1.01; P = 0.05) confined to the posterior hyaloid face was associated with a lower risk of VH with borderline significance. Similarly, presence of extensive neovascularizations (hazard ratio, 18.24; 95% CI, 3.51-119.47; P < 0.001) and forward neovascularizations (hazard ratio, 9.60; 95% CI, 2.07-68.08; P = 0.002) was associated significantly with time to development of VH. CONCLUSIONS: Widefield SS OCTA is useful for evaluating neovascularizations and their relationship with the vitreous. The presence of forward and extensive neovascularizations was associated with the occurrence of VH in patients with PDR. Larger samples and longer follow-up are needed to verify the risk factors and imaging biomarkers for diabetic VH.
Ehlers JP, Yeh S, Maguire MG, Smith JR, Mruthyunjaya P, Jain N, Kim LA, Weng CY, Flaxel CJ, Schoenberger SD, Kim SJ. Intravitreal Pharmacotherapies for Diabetic Macular Edema: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2021;Abstract
PURPOSE: To review the evidence on the safety and efficacy of current anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and intravitreal corticosteroid pharmacotherapies for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). METHODS: Literature searches were last conducted on May 13, 2020, in the PubMed database with no date restrictions and limited to articles published in English. The combined searches yielded 230 citations, of which 108 were reviewed in full text. Of these, 31 were deemed appropriate for inclusion in this assessment and were assigned a level of evidence rating by the panel methodologist. RESULTS: Only the 21 articles with level I evidence were included in this assessment. Seventeen articles provided level I evidence for 1 or more anti-VEGF pharmacotherapies, including ranibizumab (14), aflibercept (5), and bevacizumab (2) alone or in combination with other treatments for DME. Level I evidence was identified in 7 articles on intravitreal corticosteroid therapy for treatment of DME: triamcinolone (1), dexamethasone (4), and fluocinolone acetonide (2). CONCLUSIONS: Review of the available literature indicates that intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents and corticosteroids are efficacious treatments for DME. Elevated intraocular pressure and cataract progression are important potential complications of corticosteroid therapy. Further evidence is required to assess the comparative efficacy of these therapies. Given the limited high-quality comparative efficacy data, choice of therapy must be individualized for each patient and broad therapeutic access for patients is critical to maximize outcomes.
Sobrin L, Susarla G, Stanwyck L, Rouhana JM, Li A, Pollack S, Igo RP, Jensen RA, Li X, Ng MCY, Smith AV, Kuo JZ, Taylor KD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Penman A, Chen CJ, Craig JE, Adler SG, Chew EY, Cotch MF, Yaspan B, Mitchell P, Wang JJ, Klein BEK, Wong TY, Rotter JI, Burdon KP, Iyengar SK, Segrè AV. Gene Set Enrichment Analyses Identify Pathways Involved in Genetic Risk for Diabetic Retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
PURPOSE: To identify functionally related genes associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) risk using gene set enrichment analyses (GSEA) applied to genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses. METHODS: We analyzed DR GWAS meta-analyses performed on 3,246 Europeans and 2,611 African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Gene sets relevant to five key DR pathophysiology processes were investigated: tissue injury, vascular events, metabolic events and glial dysregulation, neuronal dysfunction, and inflammation. Keywords relevant to these processes were queried in four pathway and ontology databases. Two GSEA methods, Meta-Analysis Gene set Enrichment of variaNT Associations (MAGENTA) and Multi-marker Analysis of GenoMic Annotation (MAGMA) were used. Gene sets were defined to be enriched for gene associations with DR if the P value corrected for multiple testing (Pcorr) was <.05. RESULTS: Five gene sets were significantly enriched for multiple modest genetic associations with DR in one method (MAGENTA or MAGMA) and also at least nominally significant (uncorrected P <.05) in the other method. These pathways were regulation of the lipid catabolic process (2-fold enrichment, Pcorr=.014); nitric oxide biosynthesis (1.92-fold enrichment, Pcorr=.022); lipid digestion, mobilization and transport (1.6-fold enrichment, P=.032); apoptosis (1.53-fold enrichment, P=.041); and retinal ganglion cell degeneration (2-fold enrichment, Pcorr=.049). The interferon gamma (IFNG) gene, previously implicated in DR by protein-protein interactions in our GWAS, was among the top ranked genes in the nitric oxide pathway (best variant P=.0001). CONCLUSIONS: These GSEA indicate that variants in genes involved in oxidative stress, lipid transport and catabolism and cell degeneration are enriched for genes associated with DR risk.
Ashraf M, Rageh A, Gilbert M, Tolls D, Fleming A, Souka A, El-Baha S, Cavallerano JD, Sun JK, Aiello LP, Silva PS. Factors Affecting Predominantly Peripheral Lesion Identification and Grading. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021;10(7):6.Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine factors affecting predominantly peripheral lesion (PPL) grading, such as qualitative versus quantitative assessment, device type, and severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in ultrawide field color images (UWF-CIs). Methods: Patients with DR had UWF-CI qualitatively graded for PPL using standardized techniques and had hemorrhages/microaneurysms (H/Mas) individually annotated for quantitative PPL grading on two different ultrawide field devices. Results: Among 791 eyes of 481 patients, 38.2% had mild nonproliferative DR (NPDR), 34.7% had moderate NPDR, and 27.1% had severe NPDR to proliferative DR (PDR). The overall agreement between qualitative and quantitative PPL grading was moderate (ĸ = 0.423, P < 0.001). Agreement rates were fair in eyes with mild NPDR (ĸ = 0.336, P < 0.001) but moderate in eyes with moderate NPDR (ĸ = 0.525, P < 0.001) and severe NPDR-PDR (ĸ = 0.409, P < 0.001). Increasing thresholds for quantitative PPL determination improved agreement rates, with peak agreements at H/Ma count differences of six for mild NPDR, five for moderate NPDR, and nine for severe NPDR-PDR. Based on ultrawide field device type (California = 412 eyes vs. 200Tx = 379 eyes), agreement between qualitative and quantitative PPL grading was moderate for all DR severities in both devices (ĸ = 0.369-0.526, P < 0.001) except for mild NPDR on the 200Tx, which had poor agreement (ĸ = 0.055, P = 0.478). Conclusions: Determination of PPL varies between standard qualitative and quantitative grading and is dependent on NPDR severity, device type, and magnitude of lesion differences used for quantitative assessment. Translational Relevance: Prior UWF studies have not accounted for imaging and grading factors that affect PPL, such factors need to be reviewed when assessing thresholds for DR progression rates.
Chen T, Jin L, Zhu W, Wang C, Zhang G, Wang X, Wang J, Yang K, Cochrane GM, Lamoureux EL, Friedman DS, Gilbert S, Lansingh VC, Resnikoff S, Zhao J, Xiao B, He M, Congdon N. Knowledge, attitudes and eye health-seeking behaviours in a population-based sample of people with diabetes in rural China. Br J Ophthalmol 2021;105(6):806-811.Abstract
AIMS: To assess knowledge of diabetes and acceptance of eye care among people with diabetes in rural China, to improve service uptake. METHODS: Population-based study of people in Guangdong, China, with glycosylated haemoglobin A1c≥6.5% and/or known history of diabetes. Between August and November 2014, participants answered a questionnaire (based on Delphi process/previous focus groups) on medical history, demographic characteristics, self-rated health and vision, knowledge about diabetes and diabetic retinopathy, quality of local healthcare, barriers to treatment, likely acceptance of eye exams and treatment, and interventions rated most likely to improve service uptake. Presenting visual acuity was assessed, fundus photography performed and images graded by trained graders. Potential predictors of accepting care were evaluated and confounders adjusted for using logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 562 people (9.6% (256/5825), mean age 66.2±9.84 years, 207 (36.8%) men) had diabetes, 118 (22.3%) previously diagnosed. 'Very likely' or 'likely' acceptance of laser treatment (140/530=26.4%) was lower than for eye exams (317/530=59.8%, p<0.001). Predictors of accepting both exams and laser included younger age (p<.001) and prior awareness of diabetes diagnosis (p=0.004 and p=0.035, respectively). The leading barrier to receiving diabetes treatment was unawareness of diagnosis (409/454, 97.2%), while interventions rated most likely to improve acceptance of eye exams included reimbursement of travel costs (387/562, 73.0%), video or other health education (359/562, 67.7%) and phone call reminders (346/562, 65.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Improving diagnosis of diabetes, along with incentives, education and communication strategies, is most likely to enhance poor acceptance of diabetic eye care in this setting.
Chan CK, Mein CE, Glassman AR, Beaulieu WT, Calhoun CT, Jaffe GJ, Jampol LM, MacCumber MW, Maguire MG, Maturi RK, Salehi-Had H, Rofagha S, Sun JK, Martin DF, Martin DF. Pneumatic Vitreolysis with Perfluoropropane for Vitreomacular Traction with and without Macular Hole: DRCR Retina Network Protocols AG and AH. Ophthalmology 2021;128(11):1592-1603.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate pneumatic vitreolysis (PVL) in eyes with vitreomacular traction (VMT) with and without full-thickness macular hole (FTMH). DESIGN: Two multicenter (28 sites) studies: a randomized clinical trial comparing PVL with observation (sham injection) for VMT without FTMH (Protocol AG) and a single-arm study assessing PVL for FTMH (Protocol AH). PARTICIPANTS: Participants were adults with central VMT (vitreomacular adhesion was ≤3000 μm). In Protocol AG, visual acuity (VA) was 20/32 to 20/400. In Protocol AH, eyes had a FTMH (≤250 μm at the narrowest point) and VA of 20/25 to 20/400. METHODS: Pneumatic vitreolysis using perfluoropropane (C3F8) gas. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Central VMT release at 24 weeks (Protocol AG) and FTMH closure at 8 weeks (Protocol AH). RESULTS: From October 2018 through February 2020, 46 participants were enrolled in Protocol AG, and 35 were enrolled in Protocol AH. Higher than expected rates of retinal detachment and tear resulted in early termination of both protocols. Combining studies, 7 of 59 eyes (12% [95% CI, 6%-23%]; 2 eyes in Protocol AG, 5 eyes in Protocol AH) that received PVL developed rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (n = 6) or retinal tear (n = 1). At 24 weeks in Protocol AG, 18 of 23 eyes in the PVL group (78%) versus 2 of 22 eyes in the sham group (9%) achieved central VMT release without rescue vitrectomy (adjusted risk difference, 66% [95% CI, 44%-88%]; P< 0.001). The mean change in VA from baseline at 24 weeks was 6.7 letters in the PVL group and 6.1 letters in the sham group (adjusted difference, -0.8 [95% CI, -6.1 to 4.5]; P = 0.77). In Protocol AH, 10 of 35 eyes (29% [95% CI, 16%-45%]) achieved FTMH closure without rescue vitrectomy at 8 weeks. The mean change in VA from baseline at 8 weeks was -1.5 letters (95% CI, -10.3 to 7.3 letters). CONCLUSIONS: In most eyes with VMT, PVL induced hyaloid release. In eyes with FTMH, PVL resulted in hole closure in approximately one third of eyes. These studies were terminated early because of safety concerns related to retinal detachments and retinal tears.