Pediatric Ophthalmology

Pediatric Ophthalmology Publications

Abu-El-Haija A, McGowan C, Vanderveen D, Bodamer O. Autosomal-dominant WFS1-related disorder-Report of a novel WFS1 variant and review of the phenotypic spectrum of autosomal recessive and dominant forms. Am J Med Genet A 2020;Abstract
Wolfram syndrome was initially reported as an autosomal recessive (AR), progressive neurodegenerative disorder that leads to diabetes insipidus, childhood onset diabetes mellitus (DM), optic atrophy, and deafness (D) also known as DIDMOAD. However, heterozygous dominant pathogenic variants in Wolfram syndrome type 1 (WFS1) may lead to distinct, allelic conditions, described as isolated sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), syndromic SNHL, congenital cataracts, or early onset DM. We report a family with a novel dominant, likely pathogenic variant in WFS1 (NM_006005.3) c.2605_2616del12 (p.Ser869_His872del), resulting in cataracts, SNHL, and DM in a female and her mother. A maternal aunt had cataracts, DM, and SNHL but was not tested for the familial WFS1 mutation. Both the mother and maternal aunt had early menopause by age 43 years and infertility which may be a coincidental finding that has not been associated with autosomal dominant AD WFS1-related disorder to the best of our knowledge. Screening at risk individuals in families with the AR Wolfram syndrome, for DM, SNHL, and for cataracts is indicated.
Cakir B, Hellström W, Tomita Y, Fu Z, Liegl R, Winberg A, Hansen-Pupp I, Ley D, Hellström A, Löfqvist C, Smith LEH. IGF1, serum glucose, and retinopathy of prematurity in extremely preterm infants. JCI Insight 2020;5(19)Abstract
BACKGROUNDHyperglycemia, insulin insensitivity, and low IGF1 levels in extremely preterm infants are associated with an increased risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), but the interactions are incompletely understood.METHODSIn 117 extremely preterm infants, serum glucose levels and parenteral glucose intake were recoded daily in the first postnatal week. Serum IGF1 levels were measured weekly. Mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy alone versus oxygen-induced retinopathy plus streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia/hypoinsulinemia were assessed for glucose, insulin, IGF1, IGFBP1, and IGFBP3 in blood and liver. Recombinant human IGF1 was injected to assess the effect on glucose and retinopathy.RESULTSThe highest mean plasma glucose tertile of infants positively correlated with parenteral glucose intake [r(39) = 0.67, P < 0.0001]. IGF1 plasma levels were lower in the high tertile compared with those in low and intermediate tertiles at day 28 (P = 0.038 and P = 0.03). In high versus lower glucose tertiles, ROP was more prevalent (34 of 39 versus 19 of 39) and more severe (ROP stage 3 or higher; 71% versus 32%). In oxygen-induced retinopathy, hyperglycemia/hypoinsulinemia decreased liver IGF1 expression (P < 0.0001); rh-IGF1 treatment improved normal vascular regrowth (P = 0.027) and reduced neovascularization (P < 0.0001).CONCLUSIONIn extremely preterm infants, high early postnatal plasma glucose levels and signs of insulin insensitivity were associated with lower IGF1 levels and increased ROP severity. In a hyperglycemia retinopathy mouse model, decreased insulin signaling suppressed liver IGF1 production, lowered serum IGF1 levels, and increased neovascularization. IGF1 supplementation improved retinal revascularization and decreased pathological neovascularization. The data support IGF1 as a potential treatment for prevention of ROP.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov NCT02760472 (Donna Mega).FUNDINGThis study has been supported by the Swedish Medical Research Council (14940, 4732, 20144-01-3, and 21144-01-3), a Swedish government grant (ALFGB2770), Lund medical faculty grants (ALFL, 11615 and 11601), the Skåne Council Foundation for Research and Development, the Linnéa and Josef Carlsson Foundation, the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, the NIH/National Eye Institute (EY022275, EY017017, EY017017-13S1, and P01 HD18655), European Commission FP7 project 305485 PREVENT-ROP, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (CA-1940/1-1), and Stiftelsen De Blindas Vänner.
for the Group WCPEDI, Pineles SL, Repka MX, Liu GT, Waldman AT, Borchert MS, Khanna S, Heidary G, Graves JS, Shah VS, Kupersmith MJ, Kraker RT, Wallace DK, Cotter SA, Holmes JM. Assessment of Pediatric Optic Neuritis Visual Acuity Outcomes at 6 Months. JAMA Ophthalmol 2020;Abstract
Importance: Optic neuritis (ON) in children is uncommon. There are limited prospective data for visual acuity (VA) outcomes, associated diseases, and neuroimaging findings. Prospective data from a large sample would be useful for counseling families on treatment decisions and prognosis. Objective: To prospectively study children with a first episode of ON, describe VA after 6 months, and ascertain the network's (Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group and Neuro-Ophthalmology Research Disease Investigator Consortium) ability to enroll pediatric patients with ON prospectively. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nonrandomized cohort study was conducted from September 20, 2016, to July 20, 2018, at 23 sites in the United States and Canada in pediatric ophthalmology or neuro-ophthalmology clinics. A total of 44 children (aged 3-15 years) presented with a first episode of ON (visual loss, pain on eye movements, or both) within 2 weeks of symptom onset and at least 1 of the following in the affected eye: a distance high-contrast VA (HCVA) deficit of at least 0.2 logMAR below age-based norms, diminished color vision, abnormal visual field, or optic disc swelling. Exclusion criteria included preexisting ocular abnormalities or a previous episode of ON. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were monocular HCVA and low-contrast VA at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were neuroimaging, associated diagnoses, and antibodies for neuromyelitis optica and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. Results: A total of 44 children (mean age [SD], 10.2 [3.5] years; 26 boys [59%]; 23 White individuals [52%]; 54 eyes) were enrolled in the study. Sixteen patients (36%) had bilateral ON. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed white matter lesions in 23 children (52%). Of these children, 8 had myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-associated demyelination (18%), 7 had acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (16%), 5 had multiple sclerosis (11%), and 3 had neuromyelitis optica (7%). The baseline mean HCVA was 0.95 logMAR (20/200), which improved by a mean 0.76 logMAR (95% CI, 0.54-0.99; range, -0.70 to 1.80) to 0.12 logMAR (20/25) at 6 months. The baseline mean distance low-contrast VA was 1.49 logMAR (20/640) and improved by a mean 0.72 logMAR (95% CI, 0.54-0.89; range, -0.20 to 1.50) to 0.73 logMAR (20/100) at 6 months. Baseline HCVA was worse in younger participants (aged <10 years) with associated neurologic autoimmune diagnoses, white matter lesions, and in those of non-White race and non-Hispanic ethnicity. The data did not suggest a statistically significant association between baseline factors and improvement in HCVA. Conclusions and Relevance: The study network did not reach its targeted enrollment of 100 pediatric patients with ON over 2 years. This indicates that future treatment trials may need to use different inclusion criteria or plan a longer enrollment period to account for the rarity of the disease. Despite poor VA at presentation, most children had marked improvement by 6 months. Associated neurologic autoimmune diagnoses were common. These findings can be used to counsel families about the disease.
Escuder AG, Kazlas MA, Heidary G, Hunter DG, Zurakowski D, Dagi LR. Incidence of symptomatic vertical and torsional diplopia after superior rectus transposition for esotropic Duane syndrome and abducens nerve palsy. J AAPOS 2020;Abstract
PURPOSE: To report the incidence of symptomatic vertical and torsional diplopia after superior rectus transposition (SRT) for esotropic Duane syndrome and abducens nerve palsy. METHODS: The medical records of patients with esotropic Duane syndrome or abducens nerve palsy seen at Boston Children's Hospital (2006-2018) and treated with unilateral SRT with or without augmentation was performed. The primary outcome was incidence of postoperative vertical or torsional diplopia in primary position. The secondary outcome was induced vertical deviation in affected side gaze. RESULTS: A total of 69 patients met inclusion criteria: 32 with abducens nerve palsy and 37 with esotropic Duane syndrome. Vertical alignment changed in both hyper- and hypotropic directions. Median pre- and postoperative vertical deviation in primary gaze was 1.1 (10th-90th percentile, 0-6 hypertropia) and 0.4 (10th-90th percentile, 6 hypotropia to 8 hypertropia), respectively. Postoperative vertical diplopia occurred in 7%, including 4 of 49 treated with loop myopexy (8%), 1 of 13 without augmentation (8%), and 0 of 7 treated with sclera-fixated augmentation. All but one was successfully treated with prism or secondary surgery. Intorsional change predominated, but no patient had torsional diplopia post adjustment. Vertical misalignment in affected side gaze increased from 19% to 45% after SRT (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this largest-to-date review of patients treated with SRT, with or without MR recession, no patient developed persistent torsional diplopia, while 7% developed symptomatic vertical diplopia in primary position, similar to the reported incidence after balanced vertical rectus transposition. Vertical misalignment in affected side gaze increased, however fusion is already limited by unresolved esotropia in this field.
VanderVeen DK, Drews-Botsch CD, Nizam A, Bothun ED, Wilson LB, Wilson EM, Lambert SR, Lambert SR. Outcomes of Secondary Intraocular Lens Implantation in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. J Cataract Refract Surg 2020;Abstract
PURPOSE: To report outcomes of secondary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) SETTING:: Multicenter clinical practice DESIGN:: Secondary analysis of patients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial METHODS:: Details regarding all secondary IOL surgeries conducted in children enrolled in the IATS were compiled. We evaluated visual outcomes, refractive outcomes, and adverse events at age 10 ½ years. Comparisons were made to eyes that remained aphakic and to eyes randomized to primary IOL placement. RESULTS: 55/57 patients randomized to aphakia with contact lens correction were seen for the 10 ½ year study visit; 24/55 eyes (44%) had secondary IOL surgery. Median age at IOL surgery was 5.4 years (range 1.7 to 10.3 years). Mean absolute prediction error was 1.0 ± 0.7D. At age 10 ½ years, the median log MAR VA was 0.9 (range 0.2 to 1.7), similar to VA in the 31 eyes still aphakic (0.8, range 0.1 to 2.9); the number of eyes with stable or improved VA scores between the 4 ½ and 10 ½ year study visits was also similar (78% secondary IOL eyes, 84% aphakic eyes). For eyes undergoing IOL implantation after the 4.5 year study visit (n=22), the mean refraction at age 10 ½ years was -3.2 ±2.7D (range -9.9D to 1.1D), compared to -5.5 ±6.6 D (n=53, range -26.5 to 3.0D) in eyes with primary IOL (p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Delayed IOL implantation allows a more predictable refractive outcome at age 10 ½ years, though the range of refractive error is still large.
Akula JD, Arellano IA, Swanson EA, Favazza TL, Bowe TS, Munro RJ, Ferguson DR, Hansen RM, Moskowitz A, Fulton AB. The Fovea in Retinopathy of Prematurity. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2020;61(11):28.Abstract
Purpose: Because preterm birth and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are associated with poor visual acuity (VA) and altered foveal development, we evaluated relationships among the central retinal photoreceptors, postreceptor retinal neurons, overlying fovea, and VA in ROP. Methods: We obtained optical coherence tomograms (OCTs) in preterm born subjects with no history of ROP (none; n = 61), ROP that resolved spontaneously without treatment (mild; n = 51), and ROP that required treatment by laser ablation of the avascular peripheral retina (severe; n = 22), as well as in term born control subjects (term; n = 111). We obtained foveal shape descriptors, measured central retinal layer thicknesses, and demarcated the anatomic parafovea using automated routines. In subsets of these subjects, we obtained OCTs eccentrically through the pupil (n = 46) to reveal the fiber layer of Henle (FLH) and obtained adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmograms (AO-SLOs) of the parafoveal cones (n = 34) and measured their spacing and distribution. Results: Both VA and foveal depth decreased with increasing ROP severity (term, none, mild, severe). In severe subjects, foveae were broader than normal and the parafovea was significantly enlarged compared to every other group. The FLH was thinner than normal in mild (but not severe) subjects. VA was associated with foveal depth more than group. Density of parafoveal cones did not differ significantly among groups. Conclusions: Foveal structure is associated with loss of VA in ROP. The preserved FLH in severe (relative to mild) eyes suggests treatment may help cone axon development. The significantly larger parafovea and increased outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness in ROP hint that some developmental process affecting the photoreceptors is not arrested in ROP but rather is supranormal.
Testi I, Agrawal R, Mahajan S, Agarwal A, Gunasekeran DV, Raje D, Aggarwal K, Murthy SI, Westcott M, Chee S-P, McCluskey P, Ho SL, Teoh S, Cimino L, Biswas J, Narain S, Agarwal M, Mahendradas P, Khairallah M, Jones N, Tugal-Tutkun I, Babu K, Basu S, Carreño E, Lee R, Al-Dhibi H, Bodaghi B, Invernizzi A, Goldstein DA, Herbort CP, Barisani-Asenbauer T, González-López JJ, Androudi S, Bansal R, Moharana B, Esposti SD, Tasiopoulou A, Nadarajah S, Agarwal M, Abraham S, Vala R, Singh R, Sharma A, Sharma K, Zierhut M, Kon OM, Cunningham ET, Kempen JH, Nguyen QD, Pavesio C, Gupta V. The Collaborative Ocular Tuberculosis Study (COTS)-1: A Multinational Descriptive Review of Tubercular Uveitis in Paediatric Population. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2020;:1-7.Abstract
PURPOSE: To examine disease profile of tubercular uveitis (TBU) in Paediatric population. METHODS: Among 945 patients of the retrospective multinational study by the Collaborative Ocular Tuberculosis Study (COTS)-1, 29 Paediatric patients diagnosed with TBU were analyzed. RESULTS: Mean age of disease presentation was 12.8 (range 4-18 years), with predominance of males (n = 14/20; 70.0%) and Asian ethnicity (n = 25/29; 86.2%). Posterior uveitis (n = 14/28; 50%) was the most frequent uveitis phenotype, with choroidal involvement occurring in 64.7% (n = 11/17). Incidence of optic disc edema and macular edema was higher in children (n = 8/18; 44.4% and n = 5/18; 27.8%, respectively) than in adults (n = 160/942; 16.9% and n = 135/942; 14.3%, respectively). Comparison of optic disc edema between subgroups showed a significant difference (). All patients received oral corticosteroids, most of them with antitubercular therapy. Treatment failure developed in 4.8% (n = 1/21). CONCLUSIONS: Children have a more severe inflammatory response to the disease, and an intensive anti-inflammatory therapeutic regimen is required to achieve a positive treatment outcome.
Barrero-Castillero A, Corwin BK, VanderVeen DK, Wang JC. Workforce Shortage for Retinopathy of Prematurity Care and Emerging Role of Telehealth and Artificial Intelligence. Pediatr Clin North Am 2020;67(4):725-733.Abstract
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is the leading cause of childhood blindness in very-low-birthweight and very preterm infants in the United States. With improved survival of smaller babies, more infants are at risk for ROP, yet there is an increasing shortage of providers to screen and treat ROP. Through a literature review of new and emerging technologies, screening criteria, and analysis of a national survey of pediatric ophthalmologists and retinal specialists, the authors found the shortage of ophthalmology workforce for ROP a serious and growing concern. When used appropriately, emerging technologies have the potential to mitigate gaps in the ROP workforce.
Bothun ED, Wilson EM, Yen KG, Anderson JS, Weil NC, Loh AR, Morrison D, Freedman SF, Plager DA, VanderVeen DK, Traboulsi EI, Hodge DO, Lambert SR, and (TAPS) TAPS. Outcomes of Bilateral Cataract Surgery in Infants 7 to 24 Months of Age: Toddler Aphakia and Pseudophakia Study (TAPS). Ophthalmology 2020;Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate outcomes of bilateral cataract surgery in children ages 7-24 months and compare rates of adverse events (AE) to other Toddler Aphakia and Pseudophakia Study (TAPS) registry outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective clinical study at 10 IATS sites. Statistical analyses comparing this cohort to previously reported TAPS registry cohorts. PARTICIPANTS: Children enrolled in the TAPS registry between 2004 and 2010. INTERVENTION: Children underwent bilateral cataract surgery with or without intraocular lens (IOL) placement at age 7-24 months with 5 years of post-surgical follow-up. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual acuity, occurrence of strabismus, adverse events (AE), reoperations. RESULTS: 40 children (76 eyes) who underwent bilateral cataract surgery with primary posterior capsulectomy were identified with a median age at cataract surgery of 13 months (7-23); 68% received a primary intraocular lens (IOL). Recurrent visual axis opacification (VAO) occurred in 7.5% and was associated only with the use of an IOL (Odds Ratio 6.10, p=0.005). Glaucoma suspect (GS) was diagnosed in 2.5%, but no child developed glaucoma. In this bilateral cohort, AEs (8/40, 20%), including glaucoma or GS and VAO, and reoperations occurred in a similar proportion to that of the published unilateral TAPS cohort. When analyzed with children 1-7 months at bilateral surgery, the incidence of AEs and glaucoma or GS correlated strongly with age at surgery (p=0.011/0.004) and glaucoma correlated with microcornea (p=0.040) but not with IOL insertion (p=0.15). CONCLUSIONS: Follow-up to age 5 years after bilateral cataract surgery in children 7-24 months reveals a low rate of VAO and very rare glaucoma or GS diagnosis compared to infants with cataracts operated < 7 months of age despite primary IOL implantation in most children in the 7-24 months group. The use of an IOL increases the risk of VAO irrespective of age at surgery.
Hellström A, Hellström W, Hellgren G, Smith LEH, Puttonen H, Fyhr I-M, Sävman K, Nilsson AK, Klevebro S. Docosahexaenoic Acid and Arachidonic Acid Levels Are Associated with Early Systemic Inflammation in Extremely Preterm Infants. Nutrients 2020;12(7)Abstract
Fetal and early postnatal inflammation have been associated with increased morbidity in extremely preterm infants. This study aimed to demonstrate if postpartum levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) were associated with early inflammation. In a cohort of 90 extremely preterm infants, DHA and AA in cord blood, on the first postnatal day and on postnatal day 7 were examined in relation to early systemic inflammation, defined as elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) and/or interleukin-6 (IL-6) within 72 h from birth, with or without positive blood culture. Median serum level of DHA was 0.5 mol% (95% CI (confidence interval) 0.2-0.9, = 0.006) lower than the first postnatal day in infants with early systemic inflammation, compared to infants without signs of inflammation, whereas levels of AA were not statistically different between infants with and without signs of inflammation. In cord blood, lower serum levels of both DHA (correlation coefficient -0.40; = 0.010) and AA (correlation coefficient -0.54; < 0.001) correlated with higher levels of IL-6. Levels of DHA or AA did not differ between infants with and without histological signs of chorioamnionitis or fetal inflammation. In conclusion, serum levels of DHA at birth were associated with the inflammatory response during the early postnatal period in extremely preterm infants.
Solyman O, Elhusseiny AM, Hashem HA. Severe bilateral ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum. J AAPOS 2020;Abstract
We present a case of bilateral ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum in 1-day-old girl and describe our surgical approach. The bands connecting the upper and lower eyelids of both eyes were severed using blunt scissors. Point bleeding at the cut bands stopped in 1-2 minutes, without the need for cauterization or compression. The patient was able to open her eyes shortly after the procedure, as she woke up from anesthesia. Examination under general anesthesia showed normal eye examination appropriate for age. Postoperatively, the patient maintained open palpebral fissures. Visual development over 3 years' follow-up was normal.

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