Pediatric Ophthalmology

Pediatric Ophthalmology Publications

Sun Y, Smith LEH. Retinal Vasculature in Development and Diseases. Annu Rev Vis Sci 2018;4:101-122.Abstract
The retina is one of the most metabolically active tissues in the body, consuming high levels of oxygen and nutrients. A well-organized ocular vascular system adapts to meet the metabolic requirements of the retina to ensure visual function. Pathological conditions affect growth of the blood vessels in the eye. Understanding the neuronal biological processes that govern retinal vascular development is of interest for translational researchers and clinicians to develop preventive and interventional therapeutics for vascular eye diseases that address early drivers of abnormal vascular growth. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the cellular and molecular processes governing both physiological and pathological retinal vascular development, which is dependent on the interaction among retinal cell populations, including neurons, glia, immune cells, and vascular endothelial cells. We also review animal models currently used for studying retinal vascular development.
Rhiu S, Michalak S, Phanphruk W, Hunter DG. Anomalous vertical deviations in attempted abduction occur in the majority of patients with esotropic Duane syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 2018;Abstract
PURPOSE: To describe a phenomenon, depression in attempted abduction, not previously recognized as a feature of Duane syndrome (DS). DESIGN: Retrospective, observational case series METHODS: Setting: Institutional practice PATIENT POPULATION: Patients diagnosed with esotropic DS at Boston Children's Hospital from 2002-2015. Patients with clinical photographs documenting horizontal gaze were included. Patients with prior strabismus surgery were excluded. OBSERVATION PROCEDURES: Patients were classified into 3 groups according to their vertical eye position in attempted abduction: midline group, depression group and elevation group. Group assignment was performed by 3 independent ophthalmologists. Baseline characteristics, eye movement, and ocular deviation were compared among the 3 groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Horizontal and vertical deviation on attempted abduction in the DS eye RESULTS: Depression in attempted abduction was present in 74/113 unilateral patients (66%) and 18/42 gradable eyes (43%) of bilateral patients. Abduction limitation was significantly less severe in the midline group (median: -3.0) than in the depression group (median: -4.0) (P=0.01). Vertical deviation in attempted abduction was more severe in the elevation group than in the depression group (P=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Depression of the eye in attempted abduction has not been widely described, yet it is present in the majority of DS patients. It is more likely to occur with more severe abduction limitation. This phenomenon is likely another form of dysinnervation in DS, the result either of anomalous vertical rectus muscle activation or asymmetric lateral rectus muscle innervation during attempted abduction. Awareness of vertical deviation in attempted abduction may facilitate surgical planning in affected patients.
Strauss RW, Muñoz B, Ahmed MI, Bittencourt M, Schönbach EM, Michaelides M, Birch D, Zrenner E, Ervin A-M, Charbel Issa P, Kong J, Wolfson Y, Shah M, Bagheri S, West S, Scholl HPN, Scholl HPN. The Progression of the Stargardt Disease Type 4 (ProgStar-4) Study: Design and Baseline Characteristics (ProgStar-4 Report No. 1). Ophthalmic Res 2018;:1-10.Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To describe the design and baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in the multicenter, prospective natural history study of Stargardt disease type 4. METHODS: Fifteen eligible patients aged 6 years and older at baseline, harboring disease-causing variants in the PROM1 gene, and with specified ocular lesions were enrolled. They were examined at baseline using a standard protocol, with 6 monthly follow-up visits for a 2-year period including best-corrected ETDRS visual acuity, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), mesopic and scotopic microperimetry (MP). Areas of definitely decreased FAF (DDAF) and questionably decreased FAF were outlined and quantified on FAF images. RESULTS: Amongst the 15 patients (29 eyes) that were enrolled at 5 centers in the USA and Europe, 10 eyes (34.5%) had areas of DDAF with an average lesion area of 3.2 ± 3.5 mm2 (range 0.36-10.39 mm2) at baseline. The mean retinal sensitivity of the posterior pole derived from mesopic MP was 8.8 ± 5.8 dB. CONCLUSIONS: Data on disease progression in PROM1-related retinopathy from this study will contribute to the characterization of the natural history of disease and the exploration of the utility of several modalities to track progression and therefore to potentially be used in future interventional clinical trials.
Grundy SJ, Tshering L, Wanjala SW, Diamond MB, Audi MS, Prasad S, Shinohara RT, Rogo D, Wangmo D, Wangdi U, Aarayang A, Tshering T, Burke TF, Mateen FJ. Retinal Parameters as Compared with Head Circumference, Height, Weight, and Body Mass Index in Children in Kenya and Bhutan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018;99(2):482-488.Abstract
The retina shares embryological derivation with the brain and may provide a new measurement of overall growth status, especially useful in resource-limited settings. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides detailed quantification of retinal structures. We enrolled community-dwelling children ages 3-11 years old in Siaya, Kenya and Thimphu, Bhutan in 2016. We measured head circumference (age < 5 years only), height, and weight, and standardized these by age and gender. Research staff performed OCT (; Optovue, Inc., Fremont, CA), measuring the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) thicknesses. A neuro-ophthalmologist performed quality control for centration, motion artifact, and algorithm-derived quality scores. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the relationship between anthropometric and retinal measurements. Two hundred and fifty-eight children (139 females, average age 6.4 years) successfully completed at least one retinal scan, totaling 1,048 scans. Nine hundred and twenty-two scans (88.0%) were deemed usable. Fifty-three of the 258 children (20.5%) were able to complete all six scans. Kenyan children had a thinner average GCC ( < 0.001) than Bhutanese children after adjustment for age and gender, but not RNFL ( = 0.70). In models adjusting for age, gender, and study location, none of standardized height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were statistically significantly associated with RNFL or GCC. We determined that OCT is feasible in some children in resource-limited settings, particularly those > 4 years old, using the device. We found no evidence for GCC or RNFL as a proxy for height-, weight-, or BMI-for-age. The variation in mean GCC thickness in Asian versus African children warrants further investigation.
Shaaban S, MacKinnon S, Andrews C, Staffieri SE, Maconachie GDE, Chan W-M, Whitman MC, Morton SU, Yazar S, Macgregor S, Elder JE, Traboulsi EI, Gottlob I, Hewitt AW, Hewitt AW, Hunter DG, Mackey DA, Engle EC. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies a Susceptibility Locus for Comitant Esotropia and Suggests a Parent-of-Origin Effect. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018;59(10):4054-4064.Abstract
Purpose: To identify genetic variants conferring susceptibility to esotropia. Esotropia is the most common form of comitant strabismus, has its highest incidence in European ancestry populations, and is believed to be inherited as a complex trait. Methods: White European American discovery cohorts with nonaccommodative (826 cases and 2991 controls) or accommodative (224 cases and 749 controls) esotropia were investigated. White European Australian and United Kingdom cohorts with nonaccommodative (689 cases and 1448 controls) or accommodative (66 cases and 264 controls) esotropia were tested for replication. We performed a genome-wide case-control association study using a mixed linear additive model. Meta-analyses of discovery and replication cohorts were then conducted. Results: A significant association with nonaccommodative esotropia was discovered (odds ratio [OR] = 1.41, P = 2.84 × 10-09) and replicated (OR = 1.23, P = 0.01) at rs2244352 [T] located within intron 1 of the WRB (tryptophan rich basic protein) gene on chromosome 21 (meta-analysis OR = 1.33, P = 9.58 × 10-11). This single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is differentially methylated, and there is a statistically significant skew toward paternal inheritance in the discovery cohort. Meta-analysis of the accommodative discovery and replication cohorts identified an association with rs912759 [T] (OR = 0.59, P = 1.89 × 10-08), an intergenic SNP on chromosome 1p31.1. Conclusions: This is the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify significant associations in esotropia and suggests a parent-of-origin effect. Additional cohorts will permit replication and extension of these findings. Future studies of rs2244352 and WRB should provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms underlying comitant strabismus.
Raghuram A, Gowrisankaran S, Swanson E, Zurakowski D, Hunter DG, Waber DP. Frequency of Visual Deficits in Children With Developmental Dyslexia. JAMA Ophthalmol 2018;Abstract
Importance: Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a specific learning disability of neurobiological origin whose core cognitive deficit is widely believed to involve language (phonological) processing. Although reading is also a visual task, the potential role of vision in DD has been controversial, and little is known about the integrity of visual function in individuals with DD. Objective: To assess the frequency of visual deficits (specifically vergence, accommodation, and ocular motor tracking) in children with DD compared with a control group of typically developing readers. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective, uncontrolled observational study was conducted from May 28 to October 17, 2016, in an outpatient ophthalmology ambulatory clinic among 29 children with DD and 33 typically developing (TD) children. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were frequencies of deficits in vergence (amplitude, fusional ranges, and facility), accommodation (amplitude, facility, and accuracy), and ocular motor tracking (Developmental Eye Movement test and Visagraph eye tracker). Results: Among the children with DD (10 girls and 19 boys; mean [SD] age, 10.3 [1.2] years) and the TD group (21 girls and 12 boys; mean [SD] age, 9.4 [1.4] years), accommodation deficits were more frequent in the DD group than the TD group (16 [55%] vs 3 [9%]; difference = 46%; 95% CI, 25%-67%; P < .001). For ocular motor tracking, 18 children in the DD group (62%) had scores in the impaired range (in the Developmental Eye Movement test, Visagraph, or both) vs 5 children in the TD group (15%) (difference, 47%; 95% CI, 25%-69%; P < .001). Vergence deficits occurred in 10 children in the DD group (34%) and 5 children in the TD group (15%) (difference, 19%; 95% CI, -2.2% to 41%; P = .08). In all, 23 children in the DD group (79%) and 11 children in the TD group (33%) had deficits in 1 or more domain of visual function (difference, 46%; 95% CI, 23%-69%; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that deficits in visual function are far more prevalent in school-aged children with DD than in TD readers, but the possible cause and clinical relevance of these deficits are uncertain. Further study is needed to determine the extent to which treating these deficits can improve visual symptoms and/or reading parameters.
Hutchinson AK, Kraker RT, Pineles SL, VanderVeen DK, Wilson LB, Galvin JA, Lambert SR. Ophthalmic Technology Assessment: The Use of Beta-Blockers for the Treatment of Periocular Hemangiomas in Infants. Ophthalmology 2018;Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To review the published literature assessing the efficacy of beta-blockers for the treatment of periocular hemangioma in infants. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted in May 2018 in PubMed with no date restrictions and limited to studies published in English and in the Cochrane Library database without any restrictions. The combined searches yielded 437 citations. Of these,16 articles were deemed appropriate for inclusion in this assessment and assigned a level of evidence rating by the panel methodologist. RESULTS: None of the 16 studies included in this assessment were rated level I, 3 were rated level II, and 13 were rated level III. The most common treatment regimen was 2 mg/kg daily oral propranolol, but intralesional and topical beta-blockers were also used. Treatment effect was most often measured in terms of reduction in the size of the lesions, which occurred in the majority of patients. Beta-blockers were consistently shown to reduce astigmatism, but this reduction was shown to be statistically significant in only 2 series. The effect of beta-blockers on amblyopia was not adequately documented. Beta-blockers were generally well tolerated and had mild side effects (fatigue, gastrointestinal upset/diarrhea, restlessness/sleep disturbances, minor wheezing, and cold extremities). Complications severe enough to require cessation of treatment occurred in only 2 patients out of a total of 229 who received beta-blockers. CONCLUSIONS: There is limited evidence to support the safety and efficacy of both topical and systemic beta-blockers to promote regression of periocular hemangiomas. Additional research may confirm the best dosage and route of administration to maximize efficacy in reducing induced astigmatism and amblyopia associated with periocular hemangiomas while minimizing side effects.
Wallace DK, Dean TW, Hartnett ME, Kong L, Smith LE, Hubbard BG, McGregor ML, Jordan CO, Mantagos IS, Bell EF, Kraker RT, Kraker RT. A Dosing Study of Bevacizumab for Retinopathy of Prematurity: Late Recurrences and Additional Treatments. Ophthalmology 2018;Abstract
PURPOSE: Intravitreal bevacizumab is increasingly used to treat severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), but it enters the bloodstream, and there is concern that it may alter development of other organs. Previously we reported short-term outcomes of 61 infants enrolled in a dose de-escalation study, and we report the late recurrences and additional treatments. DESIGN: Masked, multicenter, dose de-escalation study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 61 premature infants with type 1 ROP. METHODS: If type 1 ROP was bilateral at enrollment, then the study eye was randomly selected. In the study eye, bevacizumab intravitreal injections were given at de-escalating doses of 0.25 mg, 0.125 mg, 0.063 mg, or 0.031 mg; if needed, fellow eyes received 1 dose level higher: 0.625 mg, 0.25 mg, 0.125 mg, or 0.063 mg, respectively. After 4 weeks, additional treatment was at the discretion of the investigator. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Early and late ROP recurrences, additional treatments, and structural outcomes after 6 months. RESULTS: Of 61 study eyes, 25 (41%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 29%-54%) received additional treatment: 3 (5%; 95% CI, 1%-14%) for early failure (within 4 weeks), 11 (18%; 95% CI, 9%-30%) for late recurrence of ROP (after 4 weeks), and 11 (18%; 95% CI, 9%-30%) for persistent avascular retina. Re-treatment for early failure or late recurrence occurred in 2 of 11 eyes (18%; 95% CI, 2%-52%) treated with 0.25 mg, 4 of 16 eyes (25%; 95% CI, 7%-52%) treated with 0.125 mg, 8 of 24 eyes (33%; 95% CI, 16%-55%) treated with 0.063 mg, and 0 (0%; 95% CI, 0%-31%) of 10 eyes treated with 0.031 mg. By 6 months corrected age, 56 of 61 study eyes had regression of ROP with normal posterior poles, 1 study eye had developed a Stage 5 retinal detachment, and 4 infants had died of preexisting medical conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal structural outcomes are very good after low-dose bevacizumab treatment for ROP, although many eyes received additional treatment.
Lambert SR, Kraker RT, Pineles SL, Hutchinson AK, Wilson LB, Galvin JA, VanderVeen DK. Contact Lens Correction of Aphakia in Children: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2018;125(9):1452-1458.Abstract
PURPOSE: To review the published literature to assess the visual outcomes and adverse events associated with the 2 most commonly used contact lenses for treating aphakia in children: silicone elastomer (SE) and rigid gas permeable (RGP). METHODS: Literature searches were last conducted in January 2018 in the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases with no date or language restrictions. These combined searches yielded 167 citations, 27 of which were reviewed in full text. Of these, 10 articles were deemed appropriate for inclusion in this assessment and subsequently assigned a level of evidence rating by the panel methodologist. RESULTS: The literature search identified 4 level II studies and 6 level III studies. There were insufficient data to compare visual outcomes for eyes treated using SE lenses versus RGP lenses. Silicone elastomer lenses have the advantage that they can be worn on an extended-wear basis, but they were associated with more adverse events than RGP lenses. These adverse events included microbial keratitis, corneal infiltrates, corneal edema, corneal scars, lenses adhering to the cornea, superficial punctate keratopathy, lid swelling, and conjunctival hyperemia. The lens replacement rate was approximately 50% higher for RGP lenses in the only study that directly compared SE and RGP lenses. CONCLUSIONS: Limited evidence was found in the literature on this topic. Silicone elastomer and RGP contact lenses were found to be effective for treating aphakia in children. Silicone elastomer lenses are easier to fit and may be worn on an extended-wear basis. Rigid gas permeable lenses must be removed every night and require a more customized fit, but they are associated with fewer adverse events. The choice of which lens a practitioner prescribes should be based on the particular needs of each patient.
Wan MJ, Chiu H, Shah AS, Hunter DG. Long-term Surgical Outcomes for Large-angle Infantile Esotropia. Am J Ophthalmol 2018;189:155-159.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report the long-term surgical outcomes for a cohort of children with large-angle infantile esotropia. DESIGN: Multicenter, nonrandomized clinical study. METHODS: Setting: Two tertiary-care pediatric hospitals. STUDY POPULATION: Children with large-angle (≥55 prism diopters) infantile esotropia. INTERVENTION: Surgical treatment of infantile esotropia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Success rate at final follow-up (postoperative deviation ≤ 10 prism diopters and no need for retreatment). RESULTS: A total of 88 patients with large-angle infantile esotropia were treated during the 13-year study period. Treatment was bilateral medial rectus muscle recessions in 70 patients, botulinum toxin-augmented surgery in 15 patients, and 3-muscle surgery in 3 patients. After a mean follow-up of 40 months, 20 patients (23%) had a successful outcome compared to 68 treatment failures (77%). Of the 68 treatment failures, 59 had residual or recurrent esotropia and 9 had sequential exotropia. On multivariate logistic regression, treatment modality was the only factor significantly associated with a successful outcome. Specifically, patients treated with botulinum toxin-augmented surgery were more likely to have a successful outcome compared to patients treated with bilateral medial rectus muscle recessions. For the 26 patients (30%) who underwent retreatment, the mean number of procedures was 2.1, and 7 (27%) had a deviation of ≤10 prism diopters at final follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The overall success rate for treatment of large-angle infantile esotropia was poor in this cohort, with most failures owing to recurrent or residual esotropia. Botulinum toxin-augmented surgery was associated with a higher success rate at final follow-up.
Nilsson AK, Löfqvist C, Najm S, Hellgren G, Sävman K, Andersson MX, Smith LEH, Hellström A. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids decline rapidly in milk from mothers delivering extremely preterm indicating the need for supplementation. Acta Paediatr 2018;107(6):1020-1027.Abstract
AIM: Our aim was to perform an in-depth analysis of the composition of fatty acids in milk from mothers delivering extremely preterm babies. We investigated longitudinal changes in milk fatty acid profiles and the relationship between several types of fatty acids, including omega-3 and omega-6. METHODS: Milk samples were collected at three stages of lactation from 78 mothers who delivered at less than 28 weeks of pregnancy at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden, from April 2013 to September 2015. Fatty acid composition was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A reduction in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) was observed during the lactation period. The concentrations of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid declined from medians of 0.34 to 0.22 mol% and 0.29 to 0.15 mol%, respectively, between postnatal day 7 and a postmenstrual age of 40 weeks. Strong correlations were found between the intermediates of several classes of fatty acids, including omega-3, omega-6 and omega-9. CONCLUSION: A rapid reduction in LCPUFA content in the mother's milk during the lactation period emphasises the importance of fatty acid supplementation to infants born extremely preterm, at least during the period corresponding to the third trimester, when rapid development of the brain and adipose tissue requires high levels of LCPUFAs.
Wang JC, Elliott AT. Acute transient large-angle exotropia caused by traumatic orbital contusion. Orbit 2018;:1-3.Abstract
We report an unusual case of acute large-angle left exotropia associated with blunt orbital trauma in a healthy 8-year-old boy. Examination revealed a large-angle left exotropia with limitation in adduction of the left eye. Microhyphema and commotio retinae of the left eye were also present. High-resolution orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated perimuscular and intramuscular edema mostly involving the left medial rectus muscle but also involving the left lateral rectus muscle. The extraocular muscle insertions were intact. Complete resolution of the strabismus and adduction limitation occurred within 24 hours of starting systemic steroid therapy. This case highlights the utility of high-resolution imaging to assess for injury to the extraocular muscles. If disinsertion, transection, or rupture of the muscle is not present on imaging, resolution may occur with systemic steroid therapy and surgical intervention is not needed.
Löfqvist CA, Najm S, Hellgren G, Engström E, Sävman K, Nilsson AK, Andersson MX, Hård A-L, Smith LEH, Hellström A. Association of Retinopathy of Prematurity With Low Levels of Arachidonic Acid: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Ophthalmol 2018;136(3):271-277.Abstract
Importance: Mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy fed matched diets except for ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) vs ω-6 LC-PUFAs demonstrate relative antiangiogenic and neuroprotective associations of ω-3 LC-PUFAs. However, supplementing preterm infants with LC-PUFAs has been inconsistent in reducing major preterm morbidities. However, few studies measured serum lipid levels after supplementation. Objective: To examine the associated risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) from the levels of circulating ω-3 and ω-6 LC-PUFAs. Design, Setting, and Participants: This longitudinal clinical study was a further analysis of serum lipid levels from a randomized controlled trial cohort of 90 infants born at gestational age (GA) less than 28 weeks. From April 4, 2013, to September 22, 2015, cord blood samples, followed by venous blood samples, were obtained at birth and at 1, 7, 14, and 28 days after birth and then at postmenstrual age (PMA) 32, 36, and 40 weeks at the neonatal intensive care unit at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Göteborg, Sweden. Main Outcomes and Measures: Serum phospholipid fatty acids were transmethylated and measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Mann-Whitney test, logistic regression Spearman rank correlation, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were used to compare differences between infants with no ROP and infants who developed ROP. Results: Serum levels from 78 infants (43 male [55%]; mean [SD] GA, 25.5 [1.4] weeks) with a known ROP outcome were evaluated. Lower area under the curve (AUC) of arachidonic acid (AA) (20:4 ω-6) was seen in infants with a later diagnosis of ROP compared with infants with no ROP in the first month of life (mean, 34.05 [95% CI, 32.10-36.00] vs 37.15 [95% CI, 34.85-39.46]; P < .05). In addition, lower levels of AA at 32 weeks' PMA were seen in infants with later severe ROP compared with in those without ROP (mean, 7.06 [95% CI, 6.60-7.52] vs 8.74 [95% CI, 7.80-9.67]; P < .001). In logistic modeling, low postnatal serum levels of AA and GA at birth identified with a sensitivity greater than 90% of infants who developed ROP. Conclusions and Relevance: Low postnatal levels of the ω-6 LC-PUFAs (AA) are strongly associated with ROP development. Evaluating postnatal AA fraction after birth in addition to GA may be useful for ROP prediction. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02760472.
Stahl A, Krohne TU, Eter N, Oberacher-Velten I, Guthoff R, Meltendorf S, Ehrt O, Aisenbrey S, Roider J, Gerding H, Jandeck C, Smith LEH, Walz JM, for and in of Group CARDSERP (CARE-ROP) S. Comparing Alternative Ranibizumab Dosages for Safety and Efficacy in Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Pediatr 2018;172(3):278-286.Abstract
Importance: Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies are a novel treatment option in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Data on dosing, efficacy, and safety are insufficient. Objective: To investigate lower doses of anti-VEGF therapy with ranibizumab, a substance with a significantly shorter systemic half-life than the standard treatment, bevacizumab. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized, multicenter, double-blind, investigator-initiated trial at 9 academic medical centers in Germany compared ranibizumab doses of 0.12 mg vs 0.20 mg in infants with bilateral aggressive posterior ROP; ROP stage 1 with plus disease, 2 with plus disease, or 3 with or without plus disease in zone I; or ROP stage 3 with plus disease in posterior zone II. Patients were recruited between September 2014 and August 2016. Twenty infants were screened and 19 were randomized. Interventions: All infants received 1 baseline ranibizumab injection per eye. Reinjections were allowed in case of ROP recurrence after at least 28 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the number of infants who did not require rescue therapy at 24 weeks. Key secondary end points included time-to-event analyses, progression of physiologic vascularization, and plasma VEGF levels. Stages of ROP were photodocumented and reviewed by an expert committee. Results: Nineteen infants with ROP were enrolled (9 [47.4%] female; median [range] postmenstrual age at first treatment, 36.4 [34.7-39.7] weeks), 3 of whom died during the study (1 in the 0.12-mg group and 2 in the 0.20-mg group). Of the surviving infants, 8 (88.9%) (17 eyes [94.4%]) in the 0.12-mg group and 6 (85.7%) (13 eyes [92.9%]) in the 0.20-mg group did not require rescue therapy. Both ranibizumab doses were equally successful in controlling acute ROP (Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel analysis; odds ratio, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.26-13.49; P = .53). Physiologic intraretinal vascularization was superior in the 0.12-mg group. The VEGF plasma levels were not systematically altered in either group. Conclusions and Relevance: This pilot study demonstrates that ranibizumab is effective in controlling acute ROP and that 24% of the standard adult dose (0.12 mg) appears equally effective as 40% (0.20 mg). Superior vascularization of the peripheral retina with 0.12 mg of ranibizumab indicates that the lower dose may be favorable. Unchanged plasma VEGF levels point toward a limited systemic drug exposure after ranibizumab. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02134457 and clinicaltrialsregister.eu Identifier: 2013-002539-13.
Zhang M, Gilbert AL, Hunter DG. Superior oblique myokymia treated with levobunolol. J AAPOS 2018;22(1):67-69.e2.Abstract
Superior oblique myokymia (SOM) is an uncommon condition of unclear etiology that results in episodes of oscillopsia and diplopia. There is no established treatment protocol for SOM. We present 2 cases of SOM successfully managed with topical levobunolol 0.5%; both patients responded to a short course of medication administration and required minimal ongoing therapy. Case 1 was a 69-year-old woman with left SOM who had previously undergone a left Harada-Ito procedure. Her SOM improved immediately on administration of levobunolol and was maintained at follow-up 1 year later. Case 2 was a 49-year-old man with right SOM that affected his ability to work. After 2 days of topical levobunolol 0.5% nightly in the right eye, SOM episodes ceased; he continues to use drops intermittently for occasional recurrences.

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