Pediatric Ophthalmology

Pediatric Ophthalmology Publications

Oke I, VanderVeen DK, McClatchey TS, Lambert SR, McClatchey SK, McClatchey SK. The accuracy of intraocular lens calculation varies by age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. J AAPOS 2022;Abstract
Refraction predictions from intraocular lens (IOL) calculation formulae are inaccurate in children. We sought to quantify the relationship between age and prediction error using a model derived from the biometry measurements of children enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) when they were ≤7 months of age. We calculated theoretical predicted refractions in diopters (D) using axial length, average keratometry, and IOL powers at each measurement time point using the Holladay 1 formula. We compared the predicted refraction to the actual refraction and calculated the absolute prediction error (APE). We found that the median APE was 1.60 D (IQR, 0.73-3.11 D) at a mean age (corrected for estimated gestational age) of 0.20 ± 0.14 years and decreased to 1.11 D (IQR, 0.42-2.20 D) at 10.60 ± 0.27 years. We analyzed the association of age with APE using linear mixed-effects models adjusting for axial length, average keratometry, and IOL power and found that as age doubled, APE decreased by 0.25 D (95% CI, 0.09-0.40 D). The accuracy of IOL calculations increases with age, independent of biometry measurements and IOL power.
Lundgren P, Morsing E, Hård A-L, Rakow A, Hellström-Westas L, Jacobson L, Johnson M, Holmström G, Nilsson S, Smith LE, Sävman K, Hellström A. National cohort of infants born before 24 gestational weeks showed increased survival rates but no improvement in neonatal morbidity. Acta Paediatr 2022;Abstract
AIM: To describe survival and neonatal morbidities in infants born before 24 weeks of gestation during a 12-year period. METHODS: Data were retrieved from national registries and validated in medical files of infants born before 24 weeks of gestation 2007-2018 in Sweden. Temporal changes were evaluated. RESULTS: In 2007-2018, 282 live births were recorded at 22 weeks and 460 at 23 weeks of gestation. Survival to discharge from hospital of infants born alive at 22 and 23 weeks increased from 20% to 38% (p = 0.006) and from 45% to 67% (p < 0.001) respectively. Caesarean section increased from 12% to 22% (p = 0.038) for infants born at 22 weeks. Neonatal morbidity rates in infants alive at 40 weeks of postmenstrual age (n = 399) were unchanged except for an increase in necrotising enterocolitis from 0 to 33% (p = 0.017) in infants born at 22 weeks of gestation. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia was more common in boys than girls, 90% versus 82% (p = 0.044). The number of infants surviving to 40 weeks doubled over time. CONCLUSION: Increased survival of infants born before 24 weeks of gestation resulted in increasing numbers of very immature infants with severe neonatal morbidities likely to have a negative impact on long-term outcome.
Gotti G, Stevenson K, Kay-Green S, Blonquist TM, Mantagos JS, Silverman LB, Place AE. Ocular abnormalities at diagnosis and after the completion of treatment in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2022;69(4):e29542.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Ocular abnormalities (OA) in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are common findings both at diagnosis and later in follow-up. The frequency, predictors, and prognostic impact of OA in the context of recent ALL protocols are not well characterized. PROCEDURE: Single-center retrospective analysis of the medical records of 224 patients with ALL enrolled on Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) ALL Consortium Protocol 05-001. RESULTS: Overall, 217 (98%) patients had at least one ophthalmic exam. Retinal hemorrhages were the most frequent abnormalities at diagnosis (11%) and cataracts at later time points (13%). OA at diagnosis were associated with age ≥10 years and with the severity of anemia and thrombocytopenia; they were also univariately associated with lower 5-year event-free survival (EFS) (high risk [HR] = 3.09 [95% CI: 1.38-6.94]; p = .006), but not in a disease-free survival (DFS) model adjusted for end-induction minimal residual disease (p = .82). The cumulative incidence of cataract was 13.1% ± 2.8% at 43 months from diagnosis; its development was associated with high presenting white blood cell count (≥50,000/μl) (p = .010), male sex (p = .036), higher risk group (p = .025), and cranial radiation (p = .004). Cataract was associated with decreased visual acuity. CONCLUSIONS: OA at diagnosis, present in 12% of patients, were associated with older age, anemia, and thrombocytopenia and did not carry a significant prognostic impact. Cataracts were detected in over 10% of patients and were associated with decreased visual acuity, thus supporting routine screening after completion of therapy, especially for those treated with high-risk protocols.
Elhusseiny AM, Traish AS, Saeed HN, Mantagos IS. Topical cenegermin 0.002% for pediatric neurotrophic keratopathy. Eur J Ophthalmol 2022;:11206721221094783.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of cenegermin 0.002% ophthalmic drops in the management of pediatric neurotrophic keratopathy (NK). METHODS: Retrospective chart review of children under the age of 18 years diagnosed with NK at Boston Children's Hospital/Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and treated with topical cenegermin 0.002% ophthalmic solution between June 2018 and June 2021 was performed. Data collection included etiology of NK, age at time of initiation of topical cenegermin, laterality, ethnicity, gender, history of previous ocular therapy, pre- and post-therapy best corrected visual acuity, pre- and post-therapy cornea examination, any adverse events from topical cenegermin, associated ocular conditions, and history of ocular surgeries. RESULTS: The current study includes four eyes of four pediatric patients with a mean age of 4.5 ± 2.0 years at the time of initiation of topical cenegermin therapy. The mean time from NK diagnosis until start of topical cenegermin drops was 5.2 ± 4.3 months and mean follow-up time was 15 ± 9.6 months. In all four patients, marked improvement in epitheliopathy was demonstrated after completion of therapy. Best corrected visual acuity was measurable in 3 eyes of 3 patients, and it improved from a mean of 0.07 ± 0.01 to a mean of 0.29 ± 0.26 (P = 0.3). No adverse events related to cenegermin therapy were noted. CONCLUSION: Topical cenegermin was effective in improving corneal healing for pediatric NK.
Weakley DR, Nizam A, VanderVeen DK, Wilson EM, Kruger S, Lambert SR, Lambert SR. Myopic Shift at 10 Years Follow-up in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. Ophthalmology 2022;Abstract
We studied the myopic shift and anisometropia at 10.6 (+/-0.3) years of age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. We found myopic shift continues in the operated eye from 5-10.5 years at a lower rate than that prior to age five years while anisometropia increases proportionally. The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) is a randomized clinical trial initially designed to compare outcomes in infants under seven months of age who underwent primary implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL) versus being left aphakic and receiving a contact lens correction following cataract surgery in infancy.1 Patients were enrolled from 2004 through 2009 with the last 10-year follow-up exam completed in 2019. The study design was approved by the institutional review boards of the 12 participating sites and followed the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki. The off-label use of the AcrySof SN60AT and MA60AC IOLs (Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth Tx.) was covered under the United States Food and Drug Administration investigational device exemption. The trial is registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier, NCT00212134).
for the Group WCPEDI, Hartnett EM, Wallace DK, Dean TW, Li Z, Boente CS, Dosunmu EO, Freedman SF, Golden RP, Kong L, Prakalapakorn GS, Repka MX, Smith LE, Wang H, Kraker RT, Cotter SA, Holmes JM. Plasma Levels of Bevacizumab and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor After Low-Dose Bevacizumab Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants. JAMA Ophthalmol 2022;140(4):337-344.Abstract
Importance: Intravitreal bevacizumab effectively treats severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), but it enters the bloodstream and may reduce serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), potentially causing detrimental effects on developing organs in the premature infant. Objective: To evaluate the association of intravitreal bevacizumab with plasma bevacizumab and VEGF concentrations at 2 and 4 weeks after predefined, de-escalating doses of intravitreal bevacizumab were administered to infants with severe ROP. Design, Setting, and Participants: This phase 1 dose de-escalation case series study was conducted at 10 US hospitals of ophthalmology institutions from May 21, 2015, to May 7, 2019. Blood samples were collected 2 and 4 weeks after intravitreal bevacizumab injection. Participants included 83 premature infants with type 1 ROP in 1 or both eyes and no previous ROP treatment. Data were analyzed from April 2017 to August 2021. Interventions: Study eyes received a single bevacizumab injection of 0.250 mg, 0.125 mg, 0.063 mg, 0.031 mg, 0.016 mg, 0.008 mg, 0.004 mg, or 0.002 mg. When the fellow eye required treatment, one dose higher was administered. Total dose administered at baseline was defined as the sum of doses given to each eye within 3 days of initial study-eye injection. Main Outcomes and Measures: Plasma bevacizumab concentration at 2 and 4 weeks after injection and the percentage change in plasma VEGF concentrations from pretreatment levels. Results: A total of 83 infants (mean [SD] age, 25 [2] weeks; 48 boys [58%]) were included in this study. Higher doses of bevacizumab administered at baseline were associated with higher plasma bevacizumab concentrations at 2 weeks (ρ, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.31-0.70) and 4 weeks (ρ, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.18-0.64). Plasma VEGF concentrations decreased by 50% or more from pretreatment levels in 40 of 66 infants (61%) at 2 weeks and 31 of 61 infants (51%) at 4 weeks, but no association was observed between the total dose of bevacizumab administered at baseline and percentage change in plasma VEGF concentrations 2 weeks (ρ, -0.04; 95% CI, -0.28 to 0.20) or 4 weeks (ρ, -0.17; 95% CI, -0.41 to 0.08) after injection. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this phase 1 dose de-escalation case series study revealed that bevacizumab doses as low as 0.002 mg were associated with reduced plasma VEGF levels for most infants at 2 and 4 weeks after intravitreal administration; however, no association was observed between total bevacizumab dose administered and reductions in plasma VEGF levels from preinjection to 2 weeks or 4 weeks. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of low-dose bevacizumab on neurodevelopment and retinal structure.
Tam EK, Elhusseiny AM, Shah AS, Mantagos IS, VanderVeen DK. Etiology and outcomes of childhood glaucoma at a tertiary referral center. J AAPOS 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To describe the etiology, clinical features, and outcomes for a large contemporary cohort of children presenting with glaucoma at a tertiary referral center. METHODS: The medical records of patients presenting to Boston Children's Hospital from January 2014 to July 2019 with a diagnosis of childhood glaucoma were retrospectively reviewed. Data regarding etiology, treatment, and visual and anatomic outcomes were collected; visual acuity outcomes were analyzed by laterality and diagnosis categories, using the Childhood Glaucoma Research Network (CGRN) classifications. RESULTS: A total of 373 eyes of 246 patients (51% males) diagnosed with glaucoma before 18 years of age were identified. Mean follow-up was 7.04 ± 5.61 years; 137 cases were bilateral. The mean age at diagnosis was 4.55 ± 5.20 years. The most common diagnoses were glaucoma following cataract surgery (GFCS, 36.5%) and primary congenital glaucoma (PCG, 29.0%). Overall, 164 eyes (44.0%) underwent at least one glaucoma surgery. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was ≤21 mm Hg with or without glaucoma medications in 300 eyes (80.4%) at the last follow-up visit. Poor final best-corrected visual acuity (≤20/200) was found in 110 eyes; patients with poor final visual acuity tended to have poor visual acuity at presentation. The most common reason for poor vision was amblyopia. Uncontrolled IOP was an uncommon cause for vision loss. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood glaucoma can be challenging to manage, but poor vision usually results from amblyopia or presence of other ocular abnormalities or syndromes rather than glaucomatous optic neuropathy.
Morsing E, Lundgren P, Hård A-L, Rakow A, Hellström-Westas L, Jacobson L, Johnson M, Nilsson S, Smith LEH, Sävman K, Hellström A. Neurodevelopmental disorders and somatic diagnoses in a national cohort of children born before 24 weeks of gestation. Acta Paediatr 2022;Abstract
AIM: This study investigated childhood diagnoses in children born extremely preterm before 24 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Diagnoses of neurodevelopmental disorders and selected somatic diagnoses were retrospectively retrieved from national Swedish registries for children born before 24 weeks from 2007 to 2018. Their individual medical files were also examined. RESULTS: We studied 383 children born at a median of 23.3 (range 21.9-23.9) weeks, with a median birthweight of 565 (range 340-874) grams. Three-quarters (75%) had neurodevelopmental disorders, including speech disorders (52%), intellectual disabilities (40%), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (30%), autism spectrum disorders (24%), visual impairment (22%), cerebral palsy (17%), epilepsy (10%) and hearing impairment (5%). More boys than girls born at 23 weeks had intellectual disabilities (45% vs. 27%, p < 0.01) and visual impairment (25% vs. 14%, p < 0.01). Just over half of the cohort (55%) received habilitation care. The majority (88%) had somatic diagnoses, including asthma (63%) and failure to thrive/short stature (39%). CONCLUSION: Most children born before 24 weeks had neurodevelopmental disorders and/or additional somatic diagnoses in childhood and were referred to habilitation services. Clinicians should be aware of the multiple health and developmental problems affecting these children. Resources are needed to identify their long-term support needs at an early stage.
Pivodic A, Smith LEH, Hård A-L, Löfqvist C, Almeida AC, Al-Hawasi A, Larsson E, Lundgren P, Sunnqvist B, Tornqvist K, Wallin A, Holmstrom G, Gränse L. Validation of DIGIROP models and decision support tool for prediction of treatment for retinopathy of prematurity on a contemporary Swedish cohort. Br J Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is currently diagnosed through repeated eye examinations to find the low percentage of infants that fulfil treatment criteria to reduce vision loss. A prediction model for severe ROP requiring treatment that might sensitively and specifically identify infants that develop severe ROP, DIGIROP-Birth, was developed using birth characteristics. DIGIROP-Screen additionally incorporates first signs of ROP in different models over time. The aim was to validate DIGIROP-Birth, DIGIROP-Screen and their decision support tool on a contemporary Swedish cohort. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the Swedish national registry for ROP (2018-2019) and two Swedish regions (2020), including 1082 infants born at gestational age (GA) 24 to <31 weeks. The predictors were GA at birth, sex, standardised birth weight and age at the first sign of ROP. The outcome was ROP treatment. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) with 95% CI were described. RESULTS: For DIGIROP-Birth, the AUC was 0.93 (95% CI 0.90 to 0.95); for DIGIROP-Screen, it ranged between 0.93 and 0.97. The specificity was 49.9% (95% CI 46.7 to 53.0) and the sensitivity was 96.5% (95% CI 87.9 to 99.6) for the tool applied at birth. For DIGIROP-Screen, the cumulative specificity ranged between 50.0% and 78.7%. One infant with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome who fulfilled criteria for ROP treatment and had no missed/incomplete examinations was incorrectly flagged as not needing screening. CONCLUSIONS: DIGIROP-Birth and DIGIROP-Screen showed high predictive ability in a contemporary Swedish cohort. At birth, 50% of the infants born at 24 to <31 weeks of gestation were predicted to have low risk of severe ROP and could potentially be released from ROP screening examinations. All routinely screened treated infants, excluding those screened for clinical indications of severe illness, were correctly flagged as needing ROP screening.
Chiou CA, Reshef ER, Yoon MK. Shewanella algae Causing Pediatric Orbital Abscess With Leptomeningitis. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2022;Abstract
A 13-year-old boy presented with 3 days of left-sided periorbital pain, swelling, mucoid discharge, and fever to 103°F, with onset 1 day after swimming in the ocean. Within 12 hours, he experienced rapid clinical deterioration with formation of a superomedial subperiosteal abscess and an epidural abscess with leptomeningitis despite treatment with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. The patient underwent urgent left orbitotomy with abscess drainage and functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Intraoperative cultures grew Shewanella algae and Escherichia coli. The patient showed marked clinical improvement following surgical intervention and tailored antibiotic therapy. This is the first reported case of orbital abscess with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis due to infection with Shewanella algae.
Guadix SW, Valenti A, Zappi KE, Garton ALA, Yuan M, Buontempo M, Perera I, Souweidane MM, Imahiyerobo T, Hoffman CE. Examining the Role of Early Diagnostic Imaging for Craniosynostosis in the Era of Endoscopic Suturectomy: A Single Institution Experience. J Craniofac Surg 2022;Abstract
ABSTRACT: Endoscopic suturectomy is a minimally invasive surgical treatment for single-suture craniosynostosis in children between 1 and 4 months of age. This study sought to characterize the role played by diagnostic imaging in facilitating early surgical management with endoscopic suturectomy. The authors also characterized the overall diagnostic utility of imaging in patients assessed for abnormal head shape at their institution, regardless of surgical status. A retrospective cohort of children diagnosed with single-suture synostosis undergoing either primary endoscopic suturectomy or open calvarial reconstruction at the authors' institution from 1998 to 2018 was first reviewed. Of 132 surgical patients, 53 underwent endoscopic suturectomy and 79 underwent open repair. There was no difference in the proportion of endoscopic and open surgery patients imaged preoperatively before (24.5% versus 35.4%; P = 0.24) or after (28.3% versus 25.3%; P = 0.84) craniofacial assessment. Stratifying by historical epoch (1998-2010 versus 2011-2018), there was also no difference found between preoperative imaging rates (63.6% versus 56.4%; P = 0.35). In another cohort of 175 patients assessed for abnormal head shape, 26.9% were imaged to rule out craniosynostosis. Positive diagnostic imaging rates were recorded for suspected unicoronal (100%), metopic (87.5%), lambdoidal (75.0%), sagittal (63.5%), multi-suture (50%), and bicoronal (0%) synostosis. The authors conclude that the use of diagnostic imaging at their institution has not increased despite higher utilization of endoscopic suturectomy and need for expedient identification of surgical candidates. However, their results suggest that imaging may play a greater diagnostic role for suspected bicoronal, sagittal, and multi-sutural synostosis among sutural subtypes of synostosis.
Nwanaji-Enwerem JC, Gateman T, Whitecross S, Whitman MC. First Visit Characteristics Associated with Future Surgery in Intermittent Exotropia. J Binocul Vis Ocul Motil 2022;:1-7.Abstract
PURPOSE: Identify demographic and clinical characteristics at the first presentation associated with later having surgery for intermittent exotropia (IXT). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 228 children with IXT and 5+ years of follow-up. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from medical records. A total 97 participants who underwent surgery during follow-up were compared to 131 participants who did not. Best subset regression was used to identify first visit variables associated with later having strabismus surgery. Surgery was then regressed on the selected variables using logistic models. RESULTS: Age and control were the only first visit variables significantly associated with having surgery for IXT. Notably, neither angle of deviation nor stereopsis were associated with later surgery. In an adjusted logistic model, each one-month increase in age at presentation was associated with a 1% decrease in the odds of having surgery (OR = 0.991, 95% CI: 0.982-0.999, P = .04). Children with poor control at initial visit had almost five times greater odds of having surgery than those with good control (OR = 4.95, 95% CI: 2.31-10.98, P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Age and control of IXT are important factors at presentation associated with future surgical intervention for IXT. The magnitude of deviation and stereopsis was not significantly associated with future surgical treatment for IXT.

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