Pediatric Ophthalmology

Pediatric Ophthalmology Publications

Hutchinson AK, Kraker RT, Pineles SL, VanderVeen DK, Wilson LB, Galvin JA, Lambert SR. Ophthalmic Technology Assessment: The Use of Beta-Blockers for the Treatment of Periocular Hemangiomas in Infants. Ophthalmology 2018;Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To review the published literature assessing the efficacy of beta-blockers for the treatment of periocular hemangioma in infants. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted in May 2018 in PubMed with no date restrictions and limited to studies published in English and in the Cochrane Library database without any restrictions. The combined searches yielded 437 citations. Of these,16 articles were deemed appropriate for inclusion in this assessment and assigned a level of evidence rating by the panel methodologist. RESULTS: None of the 16 studies included in this assessment were rated level I, 3 were rated level II, and 13 were rated level III. The most common treatment regimen was 2 mg/kg daily oral propranolol, but intralesional and topical beta-blockers were also used. Treatment effect was most often measured in terms of reduction in the size of the lesions, which occurred in the majority of patients. Beta-blockers were consistently shown to reduce astigmatism, but this reduction was shown to be statistically significant in only 2 series. The effect of beta-blockers on amblyopia was not adequately documented. Beta-blockers were generally well tolerated and had mild side effects (fatigue, gastrointestinal upset/diarrhea, restlessness/sleep disturbances, minor wheezing, and cold extremities). Complications severe enough to require cessation of treatment occurred in only 2 patients out of a total of 229 who received beta-blockers. CONCLUSIONS: There is limited evidence to support the safety and efficacy of both topical and systemic beta-blockers to promote regression of periocular hemangiomas. Additional research may confirm the best dosage and route of administration to maximize efficacy in reducing induced astigmatism and amblyopia associated with periocular hemangiomas while minimizing side effects.
Raghuram A, Gowrisankaran S, Swanson E, Zurakowski D, Hunter DG, Waber DP. Frequency of Visual Deficits in Children With Developmental Dyslexia. JAMA Ophthalmol 2018;Abstract
Importance: Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a specific learning disability of neurobiological origin whose core cognitive deficit is widely believed to involve language (phonological) processing. Although reading is also a visual task, the potential role of vision in DD has been controversial, and little is known about the integrity of visual function in individuals with DD. Objective: To assess the frequency of visual deficits (specifically vergence, accommodation, and ocular motor tracking) in children with DD compared with a control group of typically developing readers. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective, uncontrolled observational study was conducted from May 28 to October 17, 2016, in an outpatient ophthalmology ambulatory clinic among 29 children with DD and 33 typically developing (TD) children. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were frequencies of deficits in vergence (amplitude, fusional ranges, and facility), accommodation (amplitude, facility, and accuracy), and ocular motor tracking (Developmental Eye Movement test and Visagraph eye tracker). Results: Among the children with DD (10 girls and 19 boys; mean [SD] age, 10.3 [1.2] years) and the TD group (21 girls and 12 boys; mean [SD] age, 9.4 [1.4] years), accommodation deficits were more frequent in the DD group than the TD group (16 [55%] vs 3 [9%]; difference = 46%; 95% CI, 25%-67%; P < .001). For ocular motor tracking, 18 children in the DD group (62%) had scores in the impaired range (in the Developmental Eye Movement test, Visagraph, or both) vs 5 children in the TD group (15%) (difference, 47%; 95% CI, 25%-69%; P < .001). Vergence deficits occurred in 10 children in the DD group (34%) and 5 children in the TD group (15%) (difference, 19%; 95% CI, -2.2% to 41%; P = .08). In all, 23 children in the DD group (79%) and 11 children in the TD group (33%) had deficits in 1 or more domain of visual function (difference, 46%; 95% CI, 23%-69%; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that deficits in visual function are far more prevalent in school-aged children with DD than in TD readers, but the possible cause and clinical relevance of these deficits are uncertain. Further study is needed to determine the extent to which treating these deficits can improve visual symptoms and/or reading parameters.
Wallace DK, Dean TW, Hartnett ME, Kong L, Smith LE, Hubbard BG, McGregor ML, Jordan CO, Mantagos IS, Bell EF, Kraker RT, Kraker RT. A Dosing Study of Bevacizumab for Retinopathy of Prematurity: Late Recurrences and Additional Treatments. Ophthalmology 2018;Abstract
PURPOSE: Intravitreal bevacizumab is increasingly used to treat severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), but it enters the bloodstream, and there is concern that it may alter development of other organs. Previously we reported short-term outcomes of 61 infants enrolled in a dose de-escalation study, and we report the late recurrences and additional treatments. DESIGN: Masked, multicenter, dose de-escalation study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 61 premature infants with type 1 ROP. METHODS: If type 1 ROP was bilateral at enrollment, then the study eye was randomly selected. In the study eye, bevacizumab intravitreal injections were given at de-escalating doses of 0.25 mg, 0.125 mg, 0.063 mg, or 0.031 mg; if needed, fellow eyes received 1 dose level higher: 0.625 mg, 0.25 mg, 0.125 mg, or 0.063 mg, respectively. After 4 weeks, additional treatment was at the discretion of the investigator. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Early and late ROP recurrences, additional treatments, and structural outcomes after 6 months. RESULTS: Of 61 study eyes, 25 (41%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 29%-54%) received additional treatment: 3 (5%; 95% CI, 1%-14%) for early failure (within 4 weeks), 11 (18%; 95% CI, 9%-30%) for late recurrence of ROP (after 4 weeks), and 11 (18%; 95% CI, 9%-30%) for persistent avascular retina. Re-treatment for early failure or late recurrence occurred in 2 of 11 eyes (18%; 95% CI, 2%-52%) treated with 0.25 mg, 4 of 16 eyes (25%; 95% CI, 7%-52%) treated with 0.125 mg, 8 of 24 eyes (33%; 95% CI, 16%-55%) treated with 0.063 mg, and 0 (0%; 95% CI, 0%-31%) of 10 eyes treated with 0.031 mg. By 6 months corrected age, 56 of 61 study eyes had regression of ROP with normal posterior poles, 1 study eye had developed a Stage 5 retinal detachment, and 4 infants had died of preexisting medical conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal structural outcomes are very good after low-dose bevacizumab treatment for ROP, although many eyes received additional treatment.
Wan MJ, Chiu H, Shah AS, Hunter DG. Long-term Surgical Outcomes for Large-angle Infantile Esotropia. Am J Ophthalmol 2018;189:155-159.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report the long-term surgical outcomes for a cohort of children with large-angle infantile esotropia. DESIGN: Multicenter, nonrandomized clinical study. METHODS: Setting: Two tertiary-care pediatric hospitals. STUDY POPULATION: Children with large-angle (≥55 prism diopters) infantile esotropia. INTERVENTION: Surgical treatment of infantile esotropia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Success rate at final follow-up (postoperative deviation ≤ 10 prism diopters and no need for retreatment). RESULTS: A total of 88 patients with large-angle infantile esotropia were treated during the 13-year study period. Treatment was bilateral medial rectus muscle recessions in 70 patients, botulinum toxin-augmented surgery in 15 patients, and 3-muscle surgery in 3 patients. After a mean follow-up of 40 months, 20 patients (23%) had a successful outcome compared to 68 treatment failures (77%). Of the 68 treatment failures, 59 had residual or recurrent esotropia and 9 had sequential exotropia. On multivariate logistic regression, treatment modality was the only factor significantly associated with a successful outcome. Specifically, patients treated with botulinum toxin-augmented surgery were more likely to have a successful outcome compared to patients treated with bilateral medial rectus muscle recessions. For the 26 patients (30%) who underwent retreatment, the mean number of procedures was 2.1, and 7 (27%) had a deviation of ≤10 prism diopters at final follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The overall success rate for treatment of large-angle infantile esotropia was poor in this cohort, with most failures owing to recurrent or residual esotropia. Botulinum toxin-augmented surgery was associated with a higher success rate at final follow-up.
Nilsson AK, Löfqvist C, Najm S, Hellgren G, Sävman K, Andersson MX, Smith LEH, Hellström A. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids decline rapidly in milk from mothers delivering extremely preterm indicating the need for supplementation. Acta Paediatr 2018;107(6):1020-1027.Abstract
AIM: Our aim was to perform an in-depth analysis of the composition of fatty acids in milk from mothers delivering extremely preterm babies. We investigated longitudinal changes in milk fatty acid profiles and the relationship between several types of fatty acids, including omega-3 and omega-6. METHODS: Milk samples were collected at three stages of lactation from 78 mothers who delivered at less than 28 weeks of pregnancy at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden, from April 2013 to September 2015. Fatty acid composition was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A reduction in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) was observed during the lactation period. The concentrations of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid declined from medians of 0.34 to 0.22 mol% and 0.29 to 0.15 mol%, respectively, between postnatal day 7 and a postmenstrual age of 40 weeks. Strong correlations were found between the intermediates of several classes of fatty acids, including omega-3, omega-6 and omega-9. CONCLUSION: A rapid reduction in LCPUFA content in the mother's milk during the lactation period emphasises the importance of fatty acid supplementation to infants born extremely preterm, at least during the period corresponding to the third trimester, when rapid development of the brain and adipose tissue requires high levels of LCPUFAs.
Wang JC, Elliott AT. Acute transient large-angle exotropia caused by traumatic orbital contusion. Orbit 2018;:1-3.Abstract
We report an unusual case of acute large-angle left exotropia associated with blunt orbital trauma in a healthy 8-year-old boy. Examination revealed a large-angle left exotropia with limitation in adduction of the left eye. Microhyphema and commotio retinae of the left eye were also present. High-resolution orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated perimuscular and intramuscular edema mostly involving the left medial rectus muscle but also involving the left lateral rectus muscle. The extraocular muscle insertions were intact. Complete resolution of the strabismus and adduction limitation occurred within 24 hours of starting systemic steroid therapy. This case highlights the utility of high-resolution imaging to assess for injury to the extraocular muscles. If disinsertion, transection, or rupture of the muscle is not present on imaging, resolution may occur with systemic steroid therapy and surgical intervention is not needed.
Löfqvist CA, Najm S, Hellgren G, Engström E, Sävman K, Nilsson AK, Andersson MX, Hård A-L, Smith LEH, Hellström A. Association of Retinopathy of Prematurity With Low Levels of Arachidonic Acid: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Ophthalmol 2018;136(3):271-277.Abstract
Importance: Mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy fed matched diets except for ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) vs ω-6 LC-PUFAs demonstrate relative antiangiogenic and neuroprotective associations of ω-3 LC-PUFAs. However, supplementing preterm infants with LC-PUFAs has been inconsistent in reducing major preterm morbidities. However, few studies measured serum lipid levels after supplementation. Objective: To examine the associated risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) from the levels of circulating ω-3 and ω-6 LC-PUFAs. Design, Setting, and Participants: This longitudinal clinical study was a further analysis of serum lipid levels from a randomized controlled trial cohort of 90 infants born at gestational age (GA) less than 28 weeks. From April 4, 2013, to September 22, 2015, cord blood samples, followed by venous blood samples, were obtained at birth and at 1, 7, 14, and 28 days after birth and then at postmenstrual age (PMA) 32, 36, and 40 weeks at the neonatal intensive care unit at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Göteborg, Sweden. Main Outcomes and Measures: Serum phospholipid fatty acids were transmethylated and measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Mann-Whitney test, logistic regression Spearman rank correlation, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were used to compare differences between infants with no ROP and infants who developed ROP. Results: Serum levels from 78 infants (43 male [55%]; mean [SD] GA, 25.5 [1.4] weeks) with a known ROP outcome were evaluated. Lower area under the curve (AUC) of arachidonic acid (AA) (20:4 ω-6) was seen in infants with a later diagnosis of ROP compared with infants with no ROP in the first month of life (mean, 34.05 [95% CI, 32.10-36.00] vs 37.15 [95% CI, 34.85-39.46]; P < .05). In addition, lower levels of AA at 32 weeks' PMA were seen in infants with later severe ROP compared with in those without ROP (mean, 7.06 [95% CI, 6.60-7.52] vs 8.74 [95% CI, 7.80-9.67]; P < .001). In logistic modeling, low postnatal serum levels of AA and GA at birth identified with a sensitivity greater than 90% of infants who developed ROP. Conclusions and Relevance: Low postnatal levels of the ω-6 LC-PUFAs (AA) are strongly associated with ROP development. Evaluating postnatal AA fraction after birth in addition to GA may be useful for ROP prediction. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02760472.
Stahl A, Krohne TU, Eter N, Oberacher-Velten I, Guthoff R, Meltendorf S, Ehrt O, Aisenbrey S, Roider J, Gerding H, Jandeck C, Smith LEH, Walz JM, for and in of Group CARDSERP (CARE-ROP) S. Comparing Alternative Ranibizumab Dosages for Safety and Efficacy in Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Pediatr 2018;172(3):278-286.Abstract
Importance: Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies are a novel treatment option in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Data on dosing, efficacy, and safety are insufficient. Objective: To investigate lower doses of anti-VEGF therapy with ranibizumab, a substance with a significantly shorter systemic half-life than the standard treatment, bevacizumab. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized, multicenter, double-blind, investigator-initiated trial at 9 academic medical centers in Germany compared ranibizumab doses of 0.12 mg vs 0.20 mg in infants with bilateral aggressive posterior ROP; ROP stage 1 with plus disease, 2 with plus disease, or 3 with or without plus disease in zone I; or ROP stage 3 with plus disease in posterior zone II. Patients were recruited between September 2014 and August 2016. Twenty infants were screened and 19 were randomized. Interventions: All infants received 1 baseline ranibizumab injection per eye. Reinjections were allowed in case of ROP recurrence after at least 28 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the number of infants who did not require rescue therapy at 24 weeks. Key secondary end points included time-to-event analyses, progression of physiologic vascularization, and plasma VEGF levels. Stages of ROP were photodocumented and reviewed by an expert committee. Results: Nineteen infants with ROP were enrolled (9 [47.4%] female; median [range] postmenstrual age at first treatment, 36.4 [34.7-39.7] weeks), 3 of whom died during the study (1 in the 0.12-mg group and 2 in the 0.20-mg group). Of the surviving infants, 8 (88.9%) (17 eyes [94.4%]) in the 0.12-mg group and 6 (85.7%) (13 eyes [92.9%]) in the 0.20-mg group did not require rescue therapy. Both ranibizumab doses were equally successful in controlling acute ROP (Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel analysis; odds ratio, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.26-13.49; P = .53). Physiologic intraretinal vascularization was superior in the 0.12-mg group. The VEGF plasma levels were not systematically altered in either group. Conclusions and Relevance: This pilot study demonstrates that ranibizumab is effective in controlling acute ROP and that 24% of the standard adult dose (0.12 mg) appears equally effective as 40% (0.20 mg). Superior vascularization of the peripheral retina with 0.12 mg of ranibizumab indicates that the lower dose may be favorable. Unchanged plasma VEGF levels point toward a limited systemic drug exposure after ranibizumab. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02134457 and clinicaltrialsregister.eu Identifier: 2013-002539-13.
Zhang M, Gilbert AL, Hunter DG. Superior oblique myokymia treated with levobunolol. J AAPOS 2018;22(1):67-69.e2.Abstract
Superior oblique myokymia (SOM) is an uncommon condition of unclear etiology that results in episodes of oscillopsia and diplopia. There is no established treatment protocol for SOM. We present 2 cases of SOM successfully managed with topical levobunolol 0.5%; both patients responded to a short course of medication administration and required minimal ongoing therapy. Case 1 was a 69-year-old woman with left SOM who had previously undergone a left Harada-Ito procedure. Her SOM improved immediately on administration of levobunolol and was maintained at follow-up 1 year later. Case 2 was a 49-year-old man with right SOM that affected his ability to work. After 2 days of topical levobunolol 0.5% nightly in the right eye, SOM episodes ceased; he continues to use drops intermittently for occasional recurrences.
Lundgren P, Athikarisamy SE, Patole S, Lam GC, Smith LE, Simmer K. Duration of anaemia during the first week of life is an independent risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity. Acta Paediatr 2018;107(5):759-766.Abstract
AIM: This study evaluated the correlation between retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), anaemia and blood transfusions in extremely preterm infants. METHODS: We included 227 infants born below 28 weeks of gestation at King Edward Memorial Hospital, Perth, Australia, from 2014-2016. Birth characteristics and risk factors for ROP were retrieved, and anaemia and severe anaemia were defined as a haemoglobins of <110 g/L and <80 g/L, respectively. Logistic regression was used for the analysis. RESULTS: Retinopathy of prematurity treatment was needed in 11% of cases and the mean number of blood transfusions (p < 0.01), and mean number of weeks of anaemia (p < 0.001) and of severe anaemia (p < 0.05), had positive associations with ROP cases warranting treatment. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the best-fit model of risk factors included anaemic days during first week of life, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.46% and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.16-1.83 (p < 0.05), sepsis during the first 4 weeks of life (OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.10-9.00, p < 0.05) and days of ventilation (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The duration of anaemia during the first week of life was an independent risk factor for ROP warranting treatment and preventing early anaemia may decrease this risk.
Fu Z, Löfqvist CA, Liegl R, Wang Z, Sun Y, Gong Y, Liu C-H, Meng SS, Burnim SB, Arellano I, Chouinard MT, Duran R, Poblete A, Cho SS, Akula JD, Kinter M, Ley D, Hansen Pupp I, Talukdar S, Hellström A, Smith LEH. Photoreceptor glucose metabolism determines normal retinal vascular growth. EMBO Mol Med 2018;10(1):76-90.Abstract
The neural cells and factors determining normal vascular growth are not well defined even though vision-threatening neovessel growth, a major cause of blindness in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (and diabetic retinopathy), is driven by delayed normal vascular growth. We here examined whether hyperglycemia and low adiponectin (APN) levels delayed normal retinal vascularization, driven primarily by dysregulated photoreceptor metabolism. In premature infants, low APN levels correlated with hyperglycemia and delayed retinal vascular formation. Experimentally in a neonatal mouse model of postnatal hyperglycemia modeling early ROP, hyperglycemia caused photoreceptor dysfunction and delayed neurovascular maturation associated with changes in the APN pathway; recombinant mouse APN or APN receptor agonist AdipoRon treatment normalized vascular growth. APN deficiency decreased retinal mitochondrial metabolic enzyme levels particularly in photoreceptors, suppressed retinal vascular development, and decreased photoreceptor platelet-derived growth factor (Pdgfb). APN pathway activation reversed these effects. Blockade of mitochondrial respiration abolished AdipoRon-induced Pdgfb increase in photoreceptors. Photoreceptor knockdown of Pdgfb delayed retinal vascular formation. Stimulation of the APN pathway might prevent hyperglycemia-associated retinal abnormalities and suppress phase I ROP in premature infants.
Lundgren P, Hård A-L, Wilde Å, Löfqvist C, Smith LEH, Hellström A. Implementing higher oxygen saturation targets reduced the impact of poor weight gain as a predictor for retinopathy of prematurity. Acta Paediatr 2018;107(5):767-773.Abstract
AIM: This study evaluated poor weight gain as a risk factor for infants who required treatment for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), by comparing those born before and after the implementation of higher oxygen saturation (SpO ) targets at the Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. METHODS: We compared infants born at less than 31 weeks, who were screened and, or, treated for ROP: 127 in 2011-2012 when SpO targets were 88-92% and 142 in 2015-2016 when they were 91-95%. The subjects were reviewed for birth characteristics, weekly weight and ROP treatment. Data were analysed using the weight, insulin-like growth factor 1, neonatal, ROP (WINROP) prediction tool. RESULTS: The 2011-2012 infants who needed ROP treatment (12.6%) had significantly poorer postnatal weight gain than those who did not, but this was not seen in the treated (17.6%) and nontreated ROP groups in 2015-2016. WINROP sensitivity decreased from 87.5% in 2011-12 to 48% in 2015-2016. CONCLUSION: After the SpO target range was increased from 88-92% to 91-95%, postnatal weight gain was no longer a significant risk factor and WINROP lost its ability to predict ROP requiring treatment. Risk factors clearly change as neonatal care develops.
Yonekawa Y, Wu W-C, Nitulescu CE, Chan PRV, Thanos A, Thomas BJ, Todorich B, Drenser KA, Trese MT, Capone A. PROGRESSIVE RETINAL DETACHMENT IN INFANTS WITH RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY TREATED WITH INTRAVITREAL BEVACIZUMAB OR RANIBIZUMAB. Retina 2018;38(6):1079-1083.Abstract
PURPOSE: Fibrovascular contraction and tractional retinal detachment (TRD) are recognized complications associated with the use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents in vasoproliferative vitreoretinopathies. The authors characterize TRDs that developed after intravitreal bevacizumab or ranibizumab therapy for vascularly active retinopathy of prematurity. METHODS: This is an international, multicenter, interventional, retrospective, case series. Thirty-five eyes from 23 infants were included. Inclusion required anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment of Type 1 retinopathy of prematurity with progression to TRD. RESULTS: Mean gestational age was 26 ± 2 weeks, and mean birth weight was 873 ± 341 g. Mean postmenstrual age on the day of injection was 35 ± 2 weeks. Retinal detachment was noted a mean of 70 days (median, 34; range, 4-335) after injection. Eleven percent detached within 1 week, 23% within 2 weeks, and 49% within 4 weeks. The highest stage of retinopathy of prematurity noted was 4A in 29%, 4B in 37%, and 5 in 34% of eyes. Time to RD negatively correlated with postmenstrual age at the time of injection (Rho = -0.54; P < 0.01). Three TRD configurations were observed: 1) conventional peripheral elevated ridge or volcano-shaped Stage 5 detachment, 2) midperipheral detachment with tight circumferential vectors, and 3) very posterior detachment with prepapillary contraction. Full or partial reattachment was achieved with surgical intervention in 86% of eyes. CONCLUSION: Progressive atypical TRD may occur after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections for retinopathy of prematurity. The configuration of the detachment varies with the extent of primary retinal vascularization present at the time of treatment.

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