Pediatric Ophthalmology Publications
PURPOSE: To review the available evidence on the ocular safety and efficacy of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents for the treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) compared with laser photocoagulation therapy. METHODS: A literature search of the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases was conducted last on September 6, 2016, with no date restrictions and limited to articles published in English. This search yielded 311 citations, of which 37 were deemed clinically relevant for full-text review. Thirteen of these were selected for inclusion in this assessment. The panel methodologist assigned ratings to the selected articles according to the level of evidence. RESULTS: Of the 13 citations, 6 articles on 5 randomized clinical trials provided level II evidence supporting the use of anti-VEGF agents, either as monotherapy or in combination with laser therapy. The primary outcome for these articles included recurrence of ROP and the need for retreatment (3 articles), retinal structure (2 articles), and refractive outcome (1 article). Seven articles were comparative case series that provided level III evidence. The primary outcomes included the effects of anti-VEGF treatment on development of peripheral retinal vessels (1 article), refractive outcomes (1 article), or both structural and refractive or visual outcomes (5 articles). CONCLUSIONS: Current level II and III evidence indicates that intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy is as effective as laser photocoagulation for achieving regression of acute ROP. Although there are distinct ocular advantages to anti-VEGF pharmacotherapy for some cases (such as eyes with zone I disease or aggressive posterior ROP), the disadvantages are that the ROP recurrence rate is higher, and vigilant and extended follow-up is needed because retinal vascularization is usually incomplete. After intravitreal injection, bevacizumab can be detected in serum within 1 day, and serum VEGF levels are suppressed for at least 8 to 12 weeks. The effects of lowering systemic VEGF levels on the developing organ systems of premature infants are unknown, and there are limited long-term data on potential systemic and neurodevelopmental effects after anti-VEGF use for ROP treatment. Anti-VEGF agents should be used judiciously and with awareness of the known and unknown or potential side effects.
Importance: Pyogenic granulomas, acquired vascular lesions, form on the ocular or palpebral surface related to inflammation from chalazia, trauma, or surgery. They can be unsightly, spontaneously bleed, and cause irritation to patients. Observations: A case series is presented of 4 consecutive children with acquired ocular surface pyogenic granulomas treated at Boston Children's Hospital from 2014 to 2016 with only topical timolol, 0.5%, twice daily for a minimum of 21 days. In all cases, complete resolution occurred within the treatment period with no recurrence for at least 3 months. There were no adverse effects from the timolol during follow-up. Conclusions and Relevance: This case series of 4 children, while limited to no greater than 12 weeks of follow-up and without control children, suggests that ocular surface pyogenic granulomas respond to topical timolol treatment, which has a lower adverse-effect profile than conventional topical steroid treatments or other medical or surgical therapies. If confirmed in larger studies with longer follow-up and controls, this may be the desired treatment modality.
PURPOSE: To determine whether botulinum toxin is as effective as strabismus surgery in the treatment of acute-onset comitant esotropia in children. DESIGN: Retrospective, nonrandomized, comparative clinical study. METHODS: Setting: Tertiary care pediatric hospital. STUDY POPULATION: Forty-nine children with acute-onset comitant esotropia. INTERVENTION: Treatment with either botulinum toxin ("chemodenervation group") or standard incisional strabismus surgery ("surgery group"). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Success rate at 6 months (total horizontal deviation of 10 prism diopters or less and evidence of binocular single vision). RESULTS: There were 16 patients in the chemodenervation group and 33 patients in the surgery group. The success rate was not significantly different at 6 months (81% vs 61%, P = .20) or at 18 months (67% vs 58%, P = .74). The median angle of deviation and median stereoacuity were not significantly different at 6 or 18 months. The chemodenervation procedure was not inferior to incisional strabismus surgery at 6 months. The duration of general anesthesia (5 vs 71 min, P < .001) and time in the post-anesthesia care unit (37 vs 93 min, P < .001) were significantly shorter in the chemodenervation group. Botulinum toxin injection payment averaged $874 per procedure compared with $2783 for strabismus surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Botulinum toxin is at least as effective as surgery in the treatment of acute-onset comitant esotropia at 6 months while reducing the duration of general anesthesia and healthcare costs.
PURPOSE: We report for the first time electroretinographic (ERG) evidence of progressive retinal abnormalities in a girl who presented in infancy with ocular features of albinism and gradually developed choroidal sclerosis and patchy retinal atrophy leading to a diagnosis of Knobloch syndrome (KS, OMIM 267750, COL18A1). METHODS: At age 2 months, nystagmus and esotropia prompted ophthalmic evaluation. The appearance of choroidal sclerosis and atrophic retinal patches led to further evaluation at age 8 years. Genetics consultation was obtained in infancy and again at age 8 years as retinal findings evolved. Full field ERG responses in both scotopic and photopic conditions were recorded at both ages and compared to those in healthy control subjects. RESULTS: At age 2 months ERG response parameters were within normal limits for age and tyrosinase (TYR) gene sequencing revealed one novel mutation, p.S466F, and the temperature-sensitive polymorphism, p.R402Q, suggesting the diagnosis of oculocutaneous albinism type 1 (OCA1). At age 8 years, there was significant attenuation of both scotopic and photopic ERG responses. Genetic re-analysis led to the identification of a homozygous mutation, c.3213dupC, in the COL18A1 gene, thus confirming the diagnosis of Knobloch syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Our patient with Knobloch syndrome developed abnormal ERG responses similar to those found in col18a1 knockout mice. Thus, we have documented progressive attenuation of the scotopic and photopic responses in KS.
Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a group of severe inherited retinal dystrophies that lead to early childhood blindness. In the last decade, interest in LCA has increased as advances in genetics have been applied to better identify, classify, and treat LCA. To date, 23 LCA genes have been identified. Gene replacement in the RPE65 form of LCA represents a major advance in treatment, although limitations have been recognized. In this article, we review the clinical and genetic features of LCA and evaluate the evidence available for gene therapy in RPE65 disease.
Duane syndrome is a congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder involving absent or anomalous innervation of the lateral and medial rectus muscles that is sometimes associated with other manifestations of dysinnervation. We describe a patient with right esotropic Duane syndrome with a long-standing retroauricular tugging sensation in right gaze who was noted to have prominent ipsilateral oculo-auricular phenomenon, representing either abnormal enhancement of existing innervation or an uncommon dysinnervation. After successful strabismus surgery the tugging sensation improved but the phenomenon could still be elicited.