Oculoplastics Publications

Wolkow N, Jakobiec FA, Habib LA, Freitag SK. Orbital Nasal-Type Extranodal Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma: An Ongoing Diagnostic Challenge Further Confounded by Small-Cell Predominance. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2019;Abstract
PURPOSE: To highlight the histopathologic diagnostic challenges of small-cell predominant extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENTNKT) of the orbit. METHODS: Retrospective chart review and histopathologic study with immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization of 3 cases. RESULTS: Three cases of ENTNKT presented to the Mass Eye and Ear emergency room as orbital cellulitis over 1 year. The first case was unusual in that there was a predominance of small cells, giving the ENTNKT the histopathologic appearance of a nonmalignant inflammatory process. This challenging case is juxtaposed alongside 2 other cases, which exhibited the more typical lymphomatous microscopic appearance. DISCUSSION: ENTNKT can extend into the orbit from the adjacent sinuses or rarely arise primarily in the orbit. A diagnosis is typically made with a biopsy. Occasionally, however, the histopathologic diagnosis can be elusive when a predominance of small lymphomatous cells that are virtually indistinguishable from non-neoplastic inflammatory cells is present. Demonstration of CD56 positivity by immunostaining and in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus are essential in confirming the diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: ENTNKT should be considered both in the clinical and histopathologic differential diagnoses of orbital infections and idiopathic inflammations (pseudotumor).
Sheptulin V, Fedorov A, Prause J, Fay A, Grusha Y. Hyaluronic Acid Gel Biodegradation After Intrapalpebral and Intraorbital Injection in Experimental Study. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2019;Abstract
PURPOSE: Amid the increasing clinical application of hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers in the ocular adnexa is a paucity of histological data concerning the fate of the injected material. The current study documents the in vivo biodegradation of HA deposited in the eyelid and orbit. METHODS: The study included 22 chinchilla rabbits. The right upper eyelid of 12 rabbits received a single 0.2 ml Restylane (Galderma, Uppsala, Sweden) subcutaneous injection. In 10 different rabbits, the right orbit was injected with 1.0 ml Restylane SubQ (Galderma, Uppsala, Sweden) in the extraconal space. The rabbits in the eyelid group were euthanized at 2 weeks, 1 month, 2, 4, 6, and 9 months, while the rabbits in the orbit group were euthanized at 1 month, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Histological analysis was performed on the harvested samples. RESULTS: In the eyelid, the HA assumed a sponge-like structure that diminished gradually over time. At 9 months, the injected HA partially persisted, mainly in the peripheral areas of injection. A similar histologic pattern was observed in the injected orbits, with slow changes persisting at the eighteenth month. In both cohorts, clear signs of collagen deposition and pseudocapsule formation were observed around HA droplets, with no signs inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: HA injected subcutaneously into the eyelid and orbit of rabbits undergoes slow and gradual biodegradation, with HA persisting to no less than 9 months in the eyelid and 18 months in orbit. Neocollagen synthesis and lack of hyaluronidase activity could explain the unexpectedly prolonged HA persistence.
Choung H, Reshef ER, Tanking T, Freitag SK. A conjunctival-sparing surgical technique for lower eyelid cicatricial entropion repair in ocular cicatricial pemphigoid. Orbit 2019;:1-8.Abstract
PURPOSE: To present five cases of lower eyelid cicatricial entropion secondary to ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (OCP) successfully repaired with a conjunctival-sparing surgical technique. METHODS: The records of one surgeon (SKF) were reviewed to identify patients with lower eyelid cicatricial entropion secondary to OCP who underwent repair with a conjunctival-sparing technique between September 1, 2016 and October 18, 2017. The medical records were reviewed and extracted data included: age, gender, past medical history, current medical and OCP status, clinical examination, details of entropion repair surgery, and outcome. RESULTS: Five patients (three female, two male) were included with ages ranging from 44 to 93 years. All had biopsy proven OCP, which was in remission at the time of surgery, and all were currently receiving immunomodulatory medications. All patients were symptomatic from cicatricial entropion secondary to OCP and underwent successful lower eyelid entropion repair with a conjunctival-sparing technique described herein, involving infraciliary rotation with suture fixation of the orbicularis muscle to the tarsus. Other contributing mechanisms of eyelid malposition including horizontal eyelid laxity and orbicularis oculi override were addressed simultaneously with lateral tarsal plication or orbicularis muscle debulking, resulting in 100% anatomic success and relief of symptoms with no cases of OCP reactivation, and with good durability with an average 13.9 months follow up (range 6.5-22 months). CONCLUSIONS: Successful repair of lower eyelid cicatricial entropion in immunomodulated patients with OCP can be achieved without disease reactivation using a surgical technique that spares the conjunctiva and lower eyelid retractors.
Charles NC, Jakobiec FA, Ma L, Belinsky I. Steatocystoma Simplex of the Caruncle: Case Report and Immunohistologic Study. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2019;35(2):e45-e47.Abstract
A yellow cystic lesion of the caruncle in a 23-year-old woman proved to be a solitary steatocystoma, a rare occurrence in that location. While the histopathologic diagnosis was evident from clusters of sebaceous cells within the cyst wall, a panel of immunohistochemical stains further distinguished the lesion from a keratinous cyst. The most useful stains for differentiating the two conditions were carcinoembryonic antigen, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratins 17 and 19, and calretinin. Only three previous cases of caruncular steatocystoma simplex have been reported, none of which included immunohistochemical studies. The current findings support the origin of the cyst from the small duct that connects the unilobular sebaceous gland associated with vellus hairs to the follicular canal.
Homer N, Glass LR, Lee GN, Lefebvre DR, Sutula FC, Freitag SK, Yoon MK. Assessment of Infraorbital Hypesthesia Following Orbital Floor and Zygomaticomaxillary Complex Fractures Using a Novel Sensory Grading System. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2019;35(1):53-55.Abstract
PURPOSE: Introduction of a novel sensory grading system to assess the incidence and long-term recovery of infraorbital hypesthesia following orbital floor and inferior orbital rim fractures. METHODS: Patients who presented for evaluation of orbital floor and/or zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures between January 2015 and April 2016 were analyzed. Two-point subjective infraorbital sensory grading in 5 discrete anatomic areas was performed. Fractures were repaired based on traditional criteria; hypesthesia was not an indication for surgery. The sensory grading system was repeated a mean 21.7 months (range 18-28) after initial fracture. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients (mean 41.8 years) participated in the initial symptom grading, and 42 patients (67.7%) completed the 2-year follow-up. Overall, 20 of 42 patients (47.6%) had some infraorbital hypesthesia. There were fewer with isolated orbital floor fractures versus ZMC fractures (31.8% vs. 68.4%; p = 0.019). Two years postinjury, 9.1% and 40.0% with isolated floor and ZMC fractures, respectively, had persistent sensory disturbance (p = 0.0188). Of patients with sensory disturbance on presentation, 71.4% with isolated floor fractures and 38.5% with ZMC fractures experienced complete sensory recovery (p = 0.1596). Patients with isolated floor fractures had improved recovery after surgery (100% vs. 33.3% recovery; p = 0.0410). Patients with ZMC fractures showed no difference in sensory prognosis between those repaired and observed. CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, isolated orbital floor fractures carried a good infraorbital sensory prognosis, further improved by surgical repair. Zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures portended a worse long-term sensory outcome, unaffected by management strategy. This study validates the novel sensory grading system in post-fracture analysis.
Roelofs KA, Starks V, Yoon MK. Orbital Emphysema: A Case Report and Comprehensive Review of the Literature. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2019;35(1):1-6.Abstract
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to report a case of persistent and likely self-induced orbital emphysema (OE) following functional endoscopic sinus surgery with dislodgement of a previously placed orbital floor implant and to review the literature surrounding etiologies, pathophysiology, and management of OE. METHODS: Case report and review of the literature. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: While blunt trauma resulting in disruption of the medial orbital wall is the most common cause of OE, there are an additional 25 underlying etiologies reported in the current literature. Pathophysiology of OE is somewhat dependent on underlying etiology but often involves a 1-way ball valve mechanism such that air may enter the orbit but not exit. When sufficient air enters the orbit, complications secondary to increased intraorbital pressure, including central retinal artery occlusion and compressive optic neuropathy, can occur. Mild cases of OE are typically observed, with most resolving within 7 to 10 days. Moderate cases are often managed by lateral canthotomy and cantholysis with possible needle decompression. Severe cases may require urgent surgical decompression. While the majority of cases of OE are benign and self-limited, there have been 4 reports in the literature documenting significant vision loss. CONCLUSIONS: Although there is often a history of trauma in patients presenting with OE, many other underlying etiologies have been reported with several cases occurring spontaneously. As such, OE should be included on the differential for a patient presenting with a sudden onset of orbital signs.
Wolkow N, Weinberg DA, Bersani TA, Yoon MK, Lefebvre DR, Lee NG, Sutula FC, Mandeville JT, Hatton MP, Freitag SK. Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery in Patients 100 Years and Older. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2019;35(1):71-76.Abstract
PURPOSE: The centenarian population is growing and ophthalmic plastic surgeons are providing care to an increasing number of elderly patients. Outcomes of centenarians have not been previously studied in the ophthalmic plastic surgery literature. The goal of the current review was to examine the baseline characteristics, surgical problems, and outcomes of this select group of patients. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed. Patients who underwent ophthalmic plastic surgery at age 100 or older between January 2000 and June 2016 by a member of the New England Oculoplastics Society were included in the study. RESULTS: Fifteen patients met inclusion criteria. The majority (66%) were female. More than half (60%) presented with a surgical problem of an urgent nature. Most disorders involved the lacrimal system or eyelids, and many were the result of trauma or infection. There were no cases of orbital tumor or thyroid eye disease. There were no surgical or anesthesia-related complications. Most patients (80%) had no documented history of dementia, and only 1 was diabetic. Notably, 33% of patients presented with no light perception vision in at least 1 eye. CONCLUSIONS: Ophthalmic plastic surgery can be performed safely in select patients 100 years of age and older. Formal prospective studies are needed to improve surgical care in this group.
Homer N, Fay A. Management of Long-Standing Flaccid Facial Palsy: Periocular Considerations. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2018;51(6):1107-1118.Abstract
Ineffective eyelid closure can pose a serious risk of injury to the ocular surface and eye. In cases of eyelid paresis, systematic examination of the eye and ocular adnexa will direct appropriate interventions. Specifically, 4 distinct periorbital regions should be independently assessed: eyebrow, upper eyelid, ocular surface, and lower eyelid. Corneal exposure can lead to dehydration, thinning, scarring, infection, perforation, and blindness. Long-term sequelae following facial nerve palsy may also include epiphora, gustatory lacrimation, and synkinesis.
Grob SR, Wolkow N, Jakobiec FA, Lefebvre DR. Osseous cavernous hemangioma of the superior orbital rim. Orbit 2018;:1.Abstract
A 53-year-old male presented with a bony lesion over the superior orbital rim increasing in size over several months. CT imaging showed a circumscribed, osseous lesion involving the outer table of the right frontal bone and superior orbital rim with a honeycomb appearance. Anterior orbitotomy revealed an osseous lesion along the superior orbital rim with purple cavernous spaces. Histopathological examination demonstrated cavernous vascular channels with variably-sized lumens and variably-thickened vascular walls interspersed among bony trabeculae consistent with an osseous cavernous hemangioma.
Li Z, Cestari DM, Fortin E. Thyroid eye disease: what is new to know?. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2018;29(6):528-534.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The pathophysiology of thyroid eye disease (TED) is still not fully understood. However, recently described risk factors and molecular findings have brought new insights into the mechanisms of TED and could lead to the emerging use of more targeted therapies. This article aims to review the clinical findings of TED, and the most recent advances in our understanding of the risk factors and therapeutic options for TED. RECENT FINDINGS: Smoking has been recently shown to have an impact on specific gene expression involved in several disease-related pathways, which seems to be reversible with smoking cessation. This finding further emphasizes the importance of smoking cessation in the prevention and treatment of TED. Selenium deficiency and high-serum cholesterol have been described to be potential independent risk factors for TED and their management could decrease the incidence and severity of TED. In terms of therapeutic options, immunomodulatory medications have shown some promising results for disease control in TED over the past years, but further randomized prospective studies with larger sample sizes are still needed to prove their efficacy. A new technique of P brachytherapy was shown to have quick therapeutic effects on TED without significant side effects and could be a promising therapy for selected cases of TED. SUMMARY: TED is one of the most common autoimmune inflammatory disorders of the orbit. Although its pathophysiology remains unclear, newly described genetic findings and risk factors could help in explaining its occurrence and guide future therapies. Immunosuppressant medications are increasingly used in the management of TED, but further studies are needed to confirm their effectiveness.
Shoji MK, Saeed HN, Habib LA, Freitag SK. Epibulbar Mass With Upper Eyelid Cleft and Focal Scalp Alopecia in a Neonate: A New Case of Oculoectodermal Syndrome. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2018;34(4):e133-e136.Abstract
A female neonate presented with a pedunculated left lateral epibulbar mass protruding through the eyelids that originated from the temporal cornea and superolateral bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva. She had a cleft in the ipsilateral central upper eyelid with horizontal kink of the tarsus lateral to the cleft and focal patches of alopecia on the scalp. Histopathology of the epibulbar mass revealed conjunctival epithelium with underlying connective tissue, cartilage, bone, adipose, and lacrimal gland consistent with epibulbar dermoid. Genetic testing of the surgical specimen was positive for a KRAS mutation at position 146. MRI showed subarachnoid asymmetry around the left temporal lobe and a C1-C2 enhancing lesion. These clinical and molecular findings suggest that this patient has a new clinical variant of oculoectodermal syndrome, a rare disorder associated with somatic KRAS gene mutations and characterized clinically by epibulbar dermoids, alopecia, aplasia cutis, brain anomalies, umbilical hernias, and congenital heart defects.
Cohen LM, Jiménez Pérez JC, Holbrook EH, Curry WT, Yoon MK. Meningoencephalocele and Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Complicating Orbital Decompression. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2018;34(3):e79-e81.Abstract
A 51-year-old man who had undergone right orbital decompression 5 months earlier developed a meningoencephalocele extending in the right sphenoid sinus through a skull base defect of the right ethmoid, sphenoid, and frontal bones. The authors report the third case to their knowledge of meningoencephalocele with cerebrospinal fluid leak after orbital decompression and discuss its management and measures that can be taken to prevent this rare but serious complication.
Lee NG, Habib L, Hall J, Freitag SK. Simultaneous ipsilateral transconjunctival repair of upper and lower eyelid retraction in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. Orbit 2018;:1-6.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report a simple, highly effective technique of simultaneous transconjunctival repair of upper and lower eyelid retraction in patients with thyroid eye disease (TED). METHODS: A retrospective interventional case review was conducted on 22 eyes of 19 TED patients. The lower eyelid was recessed with placement of a tarsoconjunctival spacer graft harvested from the upper eyelid. The upper eyelid was then recessed through the conjunctival incision used to harvest the tarsal graft. A temporary tarsorrhaphy was placed for 5-7 days. The postoperative outcome was assessed by measuring the margin reflex distance of the upper eyelid (MRD1), inferior scleral show (ISS), and lagophthalmos. RESULTS: The absolute change in MRD1 ranged from 0 to 5 mm with an average of 1.86 ± 1.34 mm. The absolute change in ISS ranged from 0 to 2 mm with an average of 1.3 ± 0.49 mm. One patient had postoperative lagophthalmos and 17 of 19 had improvement in their ocular surface exposure symptoms. None of the patients' grafts were observed to undergo absorption during the postoperative course. CONCLUSIONS: This technique of harvesting a free tarsoconjunctival graft from the upper eyelid as a posterior spacer for the lower while simultaneously recessing the upper eyelid through the same incision is an effective and durable method of correcting eyelid retraction in TED.