Oculoplastics Publications

Ma L, Jakobiec FA, Wolkow N, Dryja TP, Borodic GE. Multiple Eyelid Cysts (Apocrine and Eccrine Hidrocystomas, Trichilemmal Cyst, and Hybrid Cyst) in a Patient With a Prolactinoma. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2018;Abstract
A 53-year-old man presented with smooth-domed, variegated cysts (polycystic disease) of all 4 eyelids, worse on the left side. Some of the cysts were clear, while others were creamy-white colored. In addition, multiple, very fine vesicopapules were noted along the eyelid margins. Histopathologic examination revealed a trichilemmal cyst, several pure apocrine hidrocystomas displaying multiple chambers, a hybrid cyst, and many small eccrine cysts of the deep dermis. The apocrine lesions, including the small ones at the eyelid margins, predominated. Smooth muscle actin sometimes positively stained outer myoepithelial cells in some of the apocrine cysts, which helped to distinguish them from eccrine cysts. Most noteworthy was the fact that the patient had been diagnosed with a prolactinoma 20 years earlier. There is only 1 previous report of multiple apocrine cysts and an antecedent prolactinoma in the dermatologic literature. This syndrome should be separated from that of Schöpf-Schulz-Passarge, which manifests multiple small eyelid apocrine cysts and other ectodermal dysplasias without any association with neoplasia, and from that of focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz-Gorlin) syndrome with apocrine cysts but again without neoplasia.
Wolkow N, Jakobiec FA, Dryja TP, Lefebvre DR. Mild Complications or Unusual Persistence of Porcine Collagen and Hyaluronic Acid Gel Following Periocular Filler Injections. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2018;Abstract
The purpose of this study was to describe the histopathologic appearance of dermal eyelid fillers that were unexpectedly encountered in ophthalmic plastic surgery samples from patients with mild eyelid disfigurements, and to review eyelid cases with complications that had previously been described in the literature. A retrospective histopathologic study with Alcian blue, elastic, and Masson trichrome stains of 2 cases that were submitted to the Ocular Pathology Department was conducted, and a critical review of previously published cases of the histopathologic characteristics of dermal filler material in the periocular region was also conducted. Two periocular tissue samples were found to contain dermal filler material. In one case, porcine collagen appeared as amorphous or indistinctly microfibrillar aggregates that stained light blue with the Masson trichrome method. In the other case, hyaluronic acid gel appeared as vivid blue amorphous pools of material in extracellular locules after staining with the Alcian blue method. An inflammatory response was not observed in either case. Patients who undergo facial filler procedures may, at a later time, require a surgical excisional procedure from which a specimen is generated. Previously injected dermal filler that the patient neglected to mention may be present in the pathologic sample, potentially perplexing the unsuspecting pathologist. Both ophthalmic plastic surgeons and ocular pathologists should be aware of the histopathologic features of dermal fillers. It is helpful if a surgeon who submits a specimen to the pathology service makes note of any known prior use of facial filler material or is alert to its possible presence when unfamiliar foreign material is discovered in the dermis of the eyelids.
Wolkow N, Jakobiec FA, Yoon MK. Gelatin-Based Hemostatic Agents: Histopathologic Differences. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2018;Abstract
PURPOSE: To delineate the histopathologic appearance of gelatin-based hemostatic agents, Surgiflo, Gelfoam, and Floseal, which are used by ophthalmic plastic surgeons, and which may incidentally be found as foreign materials in histopathologic tissue samples. METHODS: Histopathologic analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, Masson trichrome, and elastin staining on tissue samples in which gelatin-based agents were found. To better characterize these materials, similar analyses were performed on in vitro samples of commonly used gelatin-based hemostatic agents. RESULTS: Surgiflo and Gelfoam are composed of small stellate pieces of gelatin with a smooth, homogeneous quality. In tissues, they are faintly positive with periodic acid-Schiff staining, amphophilic with Masson trichrome staining, and ink-black with elastin staining. Floseal has a distinctly different morphology of large rectangular sheets, yet almost identical in vitro staining properties. DISCUSSION: While the morphology of the gelatin-based hemostatic agents is consistent under various conditions, the staining properties of these materials differ based on whether they have been in contact with human tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Gelatin-derived hemostatic agents are best identified based on their morphologic characteristics. Elastin staining highlights these materials prominently within tissue samples and may be helpful in distinguishing them from other foreign materials.
Spors B, Seemann J, Homer N, Fay A. Lymphatic malformation with acquired Horner syndrome in an infant. J Neurointerv Surg 2018;Abstract
An infant presented with right upper eyelid ptosis and was subsequently diagnosed with acquired Horner syndrome. Further evaluation revealed a right-sided cervicothoracic lymphatic malformation. At 13 weeks of age, the child underwent percutaneous intracystic sclerotherapy with a mixture of sodium tetradecyl sulphate and ethanol. Twenty-one weeks after initial treatment, ophthalmic examination showed complete resolution of the blepharoptosis and pupillary miosis. Percutaneous sclerotherapy not only effectively treated the space-occupying lymphatic malformation but also reversed the Horner syndrome that was presumably induced by neural tension (more likely) or compression.
Wolkow N, Jakobiec FA, Hatton MP. A Common Procedure With an Uncommon Pathology: Triamcinolone Acetonide Eyelid Injection. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2018;Abstract
Local corticosteroid injections are frequently employed by ophthalmologists to treat a variety of ocular, periocular, and orbital inflammatory conditions. Triamcinolone acetonide is a slowly dissolving crystalline corticosteroid that is often used for this purpose because of its prolonged anti-inflammatory effect. On occasion, previously injected corticosteroid material persists in tissues longer than anticipated, creating nodules that may masquerade as other disease conditions, or appearing incidentally in excised lesions on histopathologic examination. The histopathologic features of corticosteroid residues are unfamiliar to most ophthalmic pathologists and general pathologists. These features are described herein. Triamcinolone acetonide deposits in the skin appear as pale eosinophilic lakes of acellular frothy material on hematoxylin-eosin staining and are occasionally surrounded by a mild inflammatory reaction.
Wolkow N, Jakobiec FA, Yoon MK. Intratarsal Keratinous Eyelid Cysts in Gorlin Syndrome: A Review and Reappraisal. Surv Ophthalmol 2017;Abstract
A 38-year-old woman presented with multiple bilateral recurrent eyelid cysts. Her medical history was notable for Gorlin (nevoid basal cell carcinoma) syndrome. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical examinations revealed that the lesions were intratarsal keratinous cysts. They were similar in appearance to sporadic intratarsal keratinous cysts and closely resembled odontogenic keratocysts of the jaw. Eyelid cysts occur in up to 40 percent of patients with Gorlin syndrome; however, their description has been cursory and for the most part, outside of the ophthalmic literature. Although ophthalmologists are familiar with the periocular basal cell carcinomas that occur in patients with Gorlin syndrome, up to 10 percent of patients never develop a basal cell carcinoma, but may manifest other ophthalmic findings. Awareness of these other features may contribute to the earlier diagnosis of the syndrome. We discuss the clinical and histopathologic features of intratarsal keratinous cysts in Gorlin syndrome, comparing them to sporadic intratarsal keratinous cysts, other eyelid cysts, and jaw cysts that also characterize this syndrome. We briefly review the ocular and systemic manifestations of Gorlin syndrome and recent genetic and therapeutic developments so that the eyelid cysts may be appreciated within the appropriate context of Gorlin syndrome as a whole.
Starks V, Freitag SK. Postoperative Complications of Dermis-Fat Autografts in the Anophthalmic Socket. Semin Ophthalmol 2017;:1-4.Abstract
Reconstruction of the anophthalmic socket allows the use of an ocular prosthesis and rehabilitation of facial appearance. Dermis-fat grafting is one option in volume augmentation of the anophthalmic socket and presents unique benefits, including increased surface area within the socket and the ability to grow with pediatric patients. Postoperative complications of this procedure are relatively common. Minor complications, such as graft hirsutism, keratinization, and conjunctival cysts or granulomas, are managed easily by observation or simple intervention. Major complications, such as graft atrophy, infection, or ulceration, may prevent good prosthesis fit and may require return to the operating room.
Iao TWU, Rong SS, Ling AN, Brelén ME, Young AL, Chong KKL. Electrophysiological Studies in Thyroid Associated Orbitopathy: A Systematic Review. Sci Rep 2017;7(1):12108.Abstract
Dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) is the commonest cause of blindness in thyroid associated orbitopathy (TAO). While diagnosis remains clinical, objective tests for eyes with early or equivocal findings are lacking. Various electrophysiological studies (EPS) have been reported, yet the types and parameters useful for DON remain inconclusive. We performed a systematic literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane databases via the OVID platform up to August 20, 2017. 437 records were identified for screening and 16 original studies (1327 eyes, 787 patients) were eligible for review. Pattern visual evoked potential (pVEP) was the most frequently studied EPS. Eyes of TAO patients with DON showed delayed P100 latencies, decreased P100 amplitudes or delayed N75 latencies during pVEP, compared to those without or healthy controls. Due to study heterogeneity, no quantitative analysis was possible. This review highlights the most common type (pVEP) and useful parameters (P100 latency and amplitude) of EPS, and supports further research on them using standardized testing conditions.
Mueller SK, Miyake MM, Lefebvre DR, Freitag SK, Bleier BS. Long-term impact of endoscopic orbital decompression on sinonasal-specific quality of life. Laryngoscope 2017;Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Endoscopic orbital decompression (EOD) is the workhorse surgical intervention for severe thyroid eye disease in Graves disease. Although EOD is a safe and effective procedure. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of orbital decompression on long-term sinonasal-specific quality of life. METHODS: Retrospective study of 27 patients who underwent EOD by a single surgeon. The primary endpoint was change in preoperative 22-item Sinonasal Outcomes Test (SNOT-22) score at a minimum of 1 year. The secondary endpoint was to determine whether the performance of septoplasty for surgical access in patients without nasal obstruction impacted domain 1 (i.e., rhinologic domain) and total SNOT-22 scores. RESULTS: The mean follow-up was 25.7 ± 11.4 months. Domain 1 scores significantly increased at the first postoperative visit (P ≤ 0.01) and returned to baseline values between 1 and 3 months. At 1 year, significant improvements in both total score and domain 4 and 5 (psychological and sleep dysfunction, respectively) scores were seen (P < 0.01 for all scores). Septoplasty was not associated with a significant change in SNOT-22 score at 1 year (P = 0.48). CONCLUSION: Endoscopic orbital decompression is associated at 1 year with a significant improvement in sinonasal-specific quality of life, which is driven by the psychological and sleep dysfunction domains. Adjunctive septoplasty has no significant impact on SNOT-22 scores. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. Laryngoscope, 2017.
Charles NC, Jakobiec FA, Zakka FR, Haberman ID, Katikireddy KR, Jurkunas UV. Limbal Cysts: A Subset Exhibiting Cornea-Specific Cytokeratins. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017;Abstract
Two cases of limbal cysts lined by nonkeratinizing epithelium were studied with a panel of cytokeratins. One was a long-standing lesion in a 30-year-old man, whereas the other was excised from a 40-year-old man following pterygium surgery. Each cyst was immunostained with a panel of cytokeratins that were specific exclusively and separately for corneal and conjunctival epithelia. The epithelial lining of each cyst was CK12 positive for corneal epithelium and CK13 negative for conjunctival epithelium. It is hypothesized that a subset of corneoscleral cysts contain corneal epithelium, probably derived from a type of limbal stem cell differentiation.
Cohen LM, Elliott A, Freitag SK. Acquired Intermittent Pediatric Horner Syndrome due to Neuroblastoma. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017;Abstract
A 3-month-old male developed intermittent left upper eyelid ptosis at the age of 1 month that was gradually increasing in frequency and duration. Examination revealed anisocoria and left upper and lower eyelid ptosis, consistent with a left Horner syndrome. Imaging showed a mass in the left superior posterior mediastinum, which was resected, and pathology was consistent with neuroblastoma. Eight months thereafter, the patient underwent left upper eyelid ptosis repair. Cases of infantile acquired Horner syndrome due to neuroblastoma are rare. To the authors' knowledge, there has only been one case described that presented with intermittent symptoms. The authors report the second case of intermittent acquired Horner syndrome due to neuroblastoma. This case demonstrates the importance of recognizing that Horner syndrome may present with subtle and intermittent symptoms. In a pediatric patient, one should maintain suspicion for neuroblastoma.
Pemberton JD, Salter M, Fay A, Thuro B, Spencer H, Dajani O. Investigation of goldmann perimetry in evaluation of patients for upper eyelid blepharoplasty. Orbit 2017;:1-5.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine if preoperative Goldmann Visual Field (GVF) testing in patients with functional dermatochalasis accurately depicts the postoperative superior visual field (SVF) outcome. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was done to compare preoperative and postoperative GVF field tests in patients undergoing upper eyelid blepharoplasty for treatment of dermatochalasis. This study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and approved by the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences institutional review board. A preoperative GVF was obtained with the eyelids in the natural position (untaped) and then again with excess skin elevated (taped). One month post-blepharoplasty, another GVF was conducted with eyelids untaped. The pre- and post GVF tests were analyzed to determine if preoperative testing accurately predicts the SVF improvement post-blepharoplasty. RESULTS: Forty-six eyelids (23 patients) who underwent blepharoplasty for dermatochalasis were included. The preoperative testing underestimated 76% (35/46) of cases by a mean of 61%; and overestimated the final outcome in 24% (11/46) of cases by mean of 23%. Overall, the preoperative GVF testing underestimated the postoperative outcome by a mean of 35%. CONCLUSION: Improvement of the SVF after a blepharoplasty is typically greater than the preoperative GVF testing predicts.
Mueller SK, Freitag SK, Lefebvre DR, Bleier BS. Endoscopic DCR using bipedicled interlacing mucosal flaps. Laryngoscope 2017;Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct is a relatively common condition that affects patients of all ages, races, and sexes. The surgical gold standard for complete nasolacrimal duct obstruction and dacryocystitis is dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). The purpose of this study was to describe a novel, bipedicled interlacing mucosal sparing flap technique for endoscopic DCR (eDCR). METHODS: A posteriorly based mucosal flap over the fundus is combined with a novel, anteriorly based mucosal flap over the intraosseus portion of the nasolacrimal duct (NLD). This exposes a wide area of the maxillary bone, allowing for exposure and identification of the NLD/sac complex in a safer, more inferior position. The interlacing mucosal flaps may be replaced at the conclusion of the procedure, thereby minimizing bone exposure and maintaining excellent long-term patency. RESULTS: The authors have utilized this technique in 55 procedures with 100% positive identification of the NLD and lacrimal sac, 0% complication rate, 100% anatomical patency rate, and 96.4% success rate after a minimal follow-up of 6 months. DISCUSSION: The bipedicled interlacing flap technique for eDCR provides for safe and reproducible identification of the NLD and lacrimal sac while minimizing bone exposure and restenosis rate. CONCLUSION: The bipedicled interlacing flap technique for eDCR provides for safe and reproducible identification of the NLD and lacrimal sac while minimizing bone exposure and restenosis rate. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: N/A Laryngoscope, 2017.
Wang Y, Jakobiec FA, Zakka FR, Lee NG. A Lacrimal Gland Choristoma of the Lacrimal Sac. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017;Abstract
Choristomatous lacrimal gland tissue has been detected in many different sites of the ocular adnexa, but has never before been convincingly described in the submucosa of the lacrimal sac. A 77-year-old woman with epiphora had a biopsy of the sac wall preformed during a dacryocystorhinostomy that contained such a lacrimal choristoma. Zymogen granules were found in the cytoplasm of the secretory cells with the periodic acid-Schiff reaction. No mucus-producing cells, as found in normal sac submucosal glands, were detected using the Alcian blue, mucicarmine, and Gomori methenamine silver histochemical stains. Gross cystic fluid protein-15 positivity was demonstrated immunohistochemically. The clinical implications of this choristoma are explored.