AIM: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of the modified skin re-draping epicanthoplasty procedure for correction of recurrent lower lid epiblepharon in Chinese children. METHODS: From 2016 to 2018, 18 children (10 males and 8 females, average age 6.2±1.7y; 30 eyes) with recurrent epiblepharon who attended Beijing Children's Hospital were included in the study. All the children had undergone lower eyelid surgery for epiblepharon. Surgical design included using an additional incision along the upper palpebral margin, to avoid vertical scarring on the upper lid. The re-draping method was used to correct recurrent epiblepharon. Follow-up ranged from 3 to 24mo. Postoperative surgical outcomes, complications, and subjective satisfaction were evaluated. RESULTS: Complete correction of cilia touching the cornea was observed in all patients during an average follow-up of 7.1mo. No "dog ears" or obvious scars were formed after surgery. All parents were satisfied with the cosmetic results and none complained. Mean astigmatism decreased from 2.39±0.79 diopter (D) preoperatively to 2.19±0.79 D at 6mo after surgery; however, the difference was not significant. Best-corrected visual acuity improved, although the change in mean visual acuity was not significant. No recurrence occurred during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: This surgical modified skin re-draping technique is effective and highly satisfactory for correction of recurrent epiblepharon. The approach is characterized by a simple design, a straightforward procedure, inconspicuous scarring, and good postoperative appearance.
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical and pathologic features of a case of epibulbar proliferative fasciitis and to compare it with other focal or diffuse myxoid lesions. METHODS: A clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical analysis was performed. The clinical history, photographic documentation, history, and referred slides were reanalyzed. Additional immunohistochemical stains were performed at our institution. RESULTS: A 68-year-old woman developed over a week a brightly vascularized and focally hemorrhagic placoid lesion on the temporal side of the OS. She had had earlier augmentation breast surgery that had been mistakenly initially reported to us to be for breast carcinoma. Hematoxylin- and eosin-stained reactions revealed microscopically a spindle cell lesion with an intact nonkeratinizing epithelium and a background myxoid stroma with prominent capillaries and a light dispersion of small T-cell lymphocytes. Most striking among the spindle cells were some widely separated large atypical cells. The atypical cells were cytokeratin positive, but an expansive panel of immunohistochemical stains for breast carcinoma was negative. The lesion was diagnosed as proliferative fasciitis and has not recurred after 1-year follow up. CONCLUSION: A rapidly evolving conjunctival lesion is unlikely to be a primary or metastatic carcinoma. In the current case, the large ganglioform or rhabdomyoblast-like cells displayed diffuse cytokeratin positivity, still consistent with a mesenchymal or connective tissue cell lineage. Cytokeratin expression has been a finding previously reported in connective tissue tumors and in lymphoma cells. While the current lesion clinically resembles a conventional nodular fasciitis, the presence of the large atypical cells can lead to the misdiagnosis of a sarcoma, which typically displays a much higher Ki-67 proliferation index in comparison with nodular/proliferative fasciitis.
Importance: Orbital fractures are common in ocular trauma, and there is a need to develop predictive tools to estimate risk of concurrent ocular injury. Objective: To identify clinical and radiographic features that are associated with increased risk of substantial ocular injury in the setting of orbital fracture. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective consecutive case series of patients who sustained orbital fractures between 2012 and 2018. Examinations were done at 1 of 2 level 1 trauma centers in the emergency or inpatient setting. A total of 430 consecutive patients (500 eyes) between 2012 and 2017 met inclusion criteria for the training sample. After building a predictive model, 88 additional consecutive patients (97 eyes) between 2017 and 2018 who met inclusion criteria were collected as a test sample. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measure was substantial ocular injury distinct from orbital fracture. Results: The mean age of our patient population was 53.5 years (range, 16-100 years). The overall rate of substantial ocular injury was 20.4%, and the rate of injury requiring immediate ophthalmic attention was 14.4%. Five variables were found to be associated with increased risk of substantial ocular injury: blunt trauma with a foreign object (odds ratio [OR], 19.4; 95% CI, 6.3-64.1; P < .001), inability to count fingers (OR, 10.1; 95% CI, 2.8-41.1; P = .002), roof fracture (OR, 9.1; 95% CI, 2.8-30.0; P = .002), diplopia on primary gaze (OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 1.7-25.1; P = .003), and conjunctival hemorrhage or chemosis (OR, 4.2; 95% CI, 2.2-8.5; P < .001). The results were translated into a bedside tool that was tested in an independent group of eyes (n = 97) and found to be associated with substantial ocular injury with a 95% sensitivity (95% CI, 77.2-99.9), 40% specificity (95% CI, 28.9-52.0), 31.8% positive predictive value (95% CI, 27.5-36.5), and 96.8% negative predictive value (95% CI, 81.3-99.5). Conclusions and Relevance: A minority of patients with an orbital fracture had a substantial ocular injury. Certain radiographic and clinical findings were associated with substantial ocular injury. Testing of the algorithm in prospective longitudinal settings appears warranted.
PURPOSE: To document a unique case of a corneal/conjunctival epithelial inclusion cyst located in the orbicularis oculi muscle with a comprehensive review of variant conjunctival cysts and simulating conditions. METHODS: Clinicopathologic case report with detailed histopathologic and immunohistochemical evaluation for cytokeratins combined with a tabulation of mimicking lesions and relevant literature citations. RESULTS: A 59-year-old man experienced severe blunt left periorbital trauma that resulted in a limbal partial-thickness corneal wound with an associated epithelial abrasion and a full-thickness eyelid laceration extending from the superior fornix to the margin. Several months after surgical repair of the eyelid a cyst appeared in the superior pretarsal skin. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical investigations supplied data suggesting that the cyst had a high probability of a corneoscleral limbal stem cell origin. Distinctive features of the lesion are contrasted with those of allied or simulating cysts. CONCLUSIONS: Stem cells are now believed to be located at the corneoscleral limbus, in the inferior fornix, in the medial canthal region, and at the eyelid margin where transitions from conjunctival epithelium to epidermal epithelium occur. Due to their replicative, hardy and robust nature, stem cells displaced to alien environments are most likely to survive and produce cysts. The cyst's corneal-type cytologic characteristics, the absence of goblet cells, and the expression of a broad spectrum of cytokeratin biomarkers in the current case give support to the proposal that limbal stem cells in the region of the corneal laceration were displaced to the eyelid orbicularis muscle and were responsible for this most extraordinary cyst. Comparison with other epithelial cystic linings lends further evidence for this conclusion.
BACKGROUND: The Cavernous Hemangioma Exclusively Endonasal Resection (CHEER) classification system was developed to standardize prospective outcome analysis following orbital cavernous hemangioma (OCH) resection. The goal of this study was to retroactively apply the CHEER system to all prior existing reports of endoscopic resection of primary benign orbital tumors (BOTs) to: (1) compare patient presentations, perioperative characteristics, and outcomes between OCH and other BOTs; and (2) determine whether the CHEER categorization regime could be expanded to other BOTs. METHODS: A systematic review of studies reporting exclusively endoscopic resections of OCH and other BOTs (eg, solitary fibrous tumor, schwannoma, and meningioma) was performed. Patient, tumor characteristics, and operative outcomes were recorded. All tumors with adequate reporting were retrospectively assigned a CHEER stage. Outcomes were compared using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: Ninety-three studies met inclusion criteria, and sufficient data were available in 36 studies, comprising 105 tumors (n = 87 OCHs; n = 18 other BOTs). Baseline patient and tumor characteristics, as well as intraoperative and short-term postoperative outcomes were not significantly different between OCHs and other BOTs. Long-term outcomes (eg, visual deficits, diplopia, eye position, and recurrence) also did not differ when controlling for CHEER stage. CONCLUSION: This review represents the largest collection of outcomes data following exclusively endoscopic endonasal resection of BOTs. Short-term and long-term outcomes appear similar between OCHs and other BOTs. These results suggest that exclusively endoscopic resection of orbital tumors may be effective in a range of benign pathologies. Furthermore, these results support a broader application of the CHEER system to other benign primary orbital tumors.
: To compare the incidence of lower eyelid malposition following repair of isolated orbital floor fractures with that of complex orbitofacial fractures (defined as multi-wall fractures or prior orbital fracture repairs requiring revision) by oculofacial plastic surgeons via a transconjunctival or swinging eyelid approach. : Retrospective review of 175 patients who underwent surgical repair of orbital fractures at our institution. The primary outcomes were the occurrence of lower eyelid malposition (ectropion, entropion, and eyelid retraction) and the need for subsequent surgical correction. : Of 95 patients with isolated orbital floor fractures, 4 developed eyelid malposition (4.2%), 1 of which required surgical repair (1.1%). Of 80 patients with complex orbitofacial fractures (48 multi-wall fractures, 32 secondary revisions), 10 had pre-operative eyelid malposition and were excluded from further analysis. Fourteen of the remaining 70 patients developed postoperative eyelid malposition (20%), 3 of which required surgical repair (4.3%). The difference in the occurrence of eyelid malposition between groups was statistically significant ( = .001), but the difference in rates of those requiring subsequent repair was not ( = .182). There was no statistically significant difference in the occurrence of eyelid malposition when considering other surgical factors including lateral canthotomy, conjunctival closure, implant material, or anterior rim screws. : The incidence of lower eyelid malposition following orbital fracture repair via a fornix-based approach was significantly higher for the repair of complex orbitofacial fractures than for isolated floor fractures. However, very few patients in either group required surgical repair for eyelid malposition. Surgical factors including implant material did not affect outcomes.
Canthoplasty as a cosmetic procedure appears to be on the rise in the West. Online search query data offers a powerful tool for analyzing population trends, including changes in patient interest in surgical procedures. Cosmetic surgeons can utilize the internet to increase patient education and interest, as well as to provide information and address misinformation. In this study we sought to verify the increase in cosmetic canthoplasty, for the first time, through analysis of Internet search data, and to establish trends in the interest of Internet users for cosmetic canthoplasty. These trends were subsequently compared with trends in literature publication to establish whether there is a correlation between patient and surgeon interest in the procedure.
A yellow cyst of the caruncle in a 68-year-old man displayed the characteristic sebaceous glands and sebocytes of steatocystoma within the cyst wall, with a unique configuration of multiple branching compartments. The cyst lining was of trichilemmal character, lacking a keratohyalin granular layer, and replicated the immunohistochemical characteristics of a previously reported caruncular steatocystoma with the exception of a positive trichilemmal marker, calretinin, in the present case. Four previous cases of caruncular steatocystoma have been described, only one of which incorporated immunohistochemical analysis. Steatocystoma develops from a sebaceous gland duct, which displayed in this case multiple chambers subdividing what is usually a single round lumen.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Orbital disease represents a diverse spectrum of pathology and can result in a variety of neuro-ophthalmic manifestations. The aim of this review is to provide updates on recent advances in our understanding of orbital disease secondary to thyroid eye disease, myositis, IgG4-related disease, sarcoidosis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis and various tumours. RECENT FINDINGS: With regards to thyroid eye disease, there have been recent advances in the development of steroid-sparing therapies, new modalities for objectively monitoring disease activity and increased understanding of the role of environmental risk factors. There has been interest in characterizing the clinical course and underlying mechanism of optic nerve disease secondary to orbital disorders, which has led to advances in how we monitor for and prevent permanent vision loss. Increased knowledge of orbital tumour subtype histopathology and the development of novel classification systems has had prognostic value and aided medical decision-making. SUMMARY: Orbital disease occurs secondary to a wide variety of diseases and can lead to neuro-ophthalmic manifestations with significant morbidity. Advances in our understanding of different subtypes of orbital disease have improved our ability to treat these potentially debilitating conditions.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Imaging is essential in the diagnostic work-up of patients with orbital lesions. The position of an orbital lesion relative to the inferomedial muscular trunk of the ophthalmic artery determines endoscopic resectability, anticipated technical difficulty, and patient morbidity. Although the inferomedial muscular trunk is not readily identifiable on preoperative imaging, we hypothesize that it is spatially approximate to the location where the ophthalmic artery crosses the optic nerve. Our aim was to determine whether the ophthalmic artery-optic nerve crosspoint anatomically approximates the inferomedial muscular trunk in a cadaver study and can be appreciated on imaging of known posteromedial orbital lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dissection was performed on 17 fresh-frozen cadaver orbits to assess the relationship between the inferomedial muscular trunk and ophthalmic artery-optic nerve crosspoint. Retrospective review of imaging in 9 patients with posteromedial orbital lesions assessed posteromedial orbital compartment characteristics and the ability to locate the ophthalmic artery-optic nerve crosspoint. RESULTS: In our cadaver study, the mean distance between the ophthalmic artery-optic nerve crosspoint and the inferomedial muscular trunk was 1.21 ± 0.64 mm. Retrospectively, the ophthalmic artery-optic nerve crosspoint was identifiable in 9/9 patients, whereas the inferomedial muscular trunk was not identifiable in any patient. Total or partial effacement of the posteromedial intraconal fat triangle was observed in 9/9 patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study of neurovascular relationships within the posteromedial orbit demonstrates that the ophthalmic artery-optic nerve crosspoint closely approximates the inferomedial muscular trunk and can be seen in patients with posteromedial orbital lesions. Posteromedial intraconal fat effacement may help to localize these lesions. These findings may facilitate multidisciplinary communication and help predict lesion resectability and patient outcomes.
PURPOSE: To describe a surgical approach for the resection of schwannomas occurring in the medial aspect of the orbit and to review a series of patients who underwent this novel technique. METHODS: This retrospective, non-comparative case series presents the surgical technique and outcomes of patients who underwent removal of a medial orbital schwannoma via an endoscopic endonasal approach combined with a small-incision medial orbitotomy by a team of two surgeons (BSB and SKF). Patient demographics, pre- and post-operative clinical examination findings, visual field testing, and radiographic studies were reviewed. Operative reports were reviewed for technical details and complications. RESULTS: The patients included a 12 year-old male, 73 year-old female and 8 year-old male. Indications for surgery included: decreased visual acuity, diplopia, proptosis and Humphrey visual field (HVF) deficit, in the presence of a medial orbital biopsy-proven schwannoma. The surgical approach in all three patients was primarily endoscopic endonasal. Additionally, two had transcaruncular orbitotomies and one had a small-incision medial lid crease orbitotomy to assist with lateral tumor dissection. Tumor resection was complete in one case and near-total in two cases. There were no intra-operative surgical complications. Average resected specimen volume was 3.41 cm ± 2.20. All patients had post-operative improvement in visual acuity (VA) and proptosis. Post-operative follow-up intervals were 27.5 months, 12.3 months and 3.5 months, respectively. CONCLUSION: Resection of orbital schwannomas using an endoscopic endonasal approach with small-incision medial transorbital assistance is a safe and effective option for a multidisciplinary surgical team.
PURPOSE: Since the original description of "dacryadenoma" by Jakobiec and associates, the data on this unusual epibulbar lacrimal gland lesion remain sparse. The aim of this study was to characterize clinically, morphologically, and immunohistochemically this isolated epibulbar lacrimal gland lesion. DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series. METHODS: Institutional pathology records between 2000 and 2019 were searched for all cases of isolated epibulbar lacrimal gland lesions. Tissue from 3 normal lacrimal glands and 1 complex choristoma were included for comparative analysis. Clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings were recorded. RESULTS: Four patients with isolated epibulbar lacrimal gland lesions, 2 male and 2 female, with a median age of 18 years (range, 12-57) were identified. All patients presented with recent onset of unilateral pink-to-orange, well-circumscribed subepithelial juxtaforniceal (3/4, 75%), or nasal (1/4, 25%) bulbar conjunctival nodules, which were asymptomatic (3/4, 75%) or associated with foreign body sensation (1/4, 25%). When compared with the normal lacrimal gland and complex choristoma, all isolated epibulbar lacrimal gland lesions were composed predominantly of variably dilated, branching tubular structures with pseudo-apocrine snouts, and either totally absent (2/2, 50%) or rare (2/2, 50%) ducts and rare acinar zymogen granules (3/4, 75%). CONCLUSION: Our study confirms that a subset of isolated epibulbar lacrimal gland lesions differs morphologically and immunohistochemically from normal lacrimal gland tissue and the lacrimal gland in a complex choristoma. These differences range from subtle to overt, suggesting that isolated epibulbar lacrimal gland lesions may have originated from precursor cellular elements indigenous to the conjunctiva (hamartia) and grew into disorganized lacrimal gland tissue.
A 43-year-old woman was referred with a 10 month history of persistent pain in the left orbit. Two years prior, she experienced similar pain in the right orbit. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the time revealed an enlarged right medial rectus muscle. She was diagnosed with idiopathic orbital myositis and was successfully treated with oral corticosteroids. A year later, she developed symptoms in the left orbit with similar imaging findings. For ten months, she remained on high dose corticosteroids for presumed left medial rectus myositis before presenting to our service. Computed tomography (CT) imaging after corticosteroid taper revealed enlarged left medial rectus and left lateral rectus muscles. Orbital biopsy established a diagnosis of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), for which she was successfully treated with rituximab. This case underscores the importance of not only proceeding with biopsy in atypical cases of orbital myositis but to also taper steroids prior to biopsy.