Oculoplastics

Oculoplastics Publications

Liou V, Yoon M. Comparative Incidence of Periocular Surgical Site Infections with Increased Surgical Mask Use during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2021;:1-6.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of surgical mask use on infection rates for office-based periocular surgeries during the pandemic. METHODS: An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review of medical records identified patients who had an office-based oculofacial plastic surgery procedure during the pandemic between March and December 2020. Statistical analysis was used to compare this group to patients that underwent procedures between March and December 2019, prior to the pandemic when neither surgeon nor patient wore a surgical mask. RESULTS: The study consisted of 680 patients. Thirty-one different types of procedures were encountered. The incidence of infections in 2020 compared to 2019 was not statistically significant (1.12% (n = 3) versus 1.21% (n = 5), p = 1). All patients with infections were treated with oral antibiotics and improved without long-term complications. CONCLUSIONS: Periocular surgical site infections are uncommon, and the wearing of surgical masks by patient and surgeon during our office-based oculofacial procedures did not change the incidence of SSIs.
Wai KM, Locascio JJ, Wolkow N. Bacterial dacryoadenitis: clinical features, microbiology, and management of 45 cases, with a recent uptick in incidence. Orbit 2021;:1-9.Abstract
PURPOSE: To review the clinical features, microbiology, management, and incidence of bacterial dacryoadenitis at our institution. METHODS: This was a case series examining patients with bacterial dacryoadenitis from 2004 to 2020. Charts were reviewed for demographics, comorbidities, presenting symptoms and signs, radiology, microbiology, and management. Main outcomes included need for surgical intervention or inpatient admission. RESULTS: Forty-five patients with bacterial dacryoadenitis had a mean age of 46.1 years. Presenting symptoms included eyelid edema (100%), extraocular motility restriction (53.3%), and purulent discharge (75.5%). Based on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, 9 (20.5%) patients presented with definite abscess and 15 (34%) presented with a phlegmon or early abscess. Eleven patients (24.4%) required surgical drainage. Twenty patients (44.4%) required admission, for an average stay of 4 days (range 2-8 days). Common organisms included Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. Presence of an early abscess or phlegmon correlated with need for drainage (p < 0.01). Extraocular motility restriction correlated with need for drainage (p = 0.02) and admission (p = 0.05). The incidence of bacterial dacryoadenitis at our institution increased as a percentage of confirmed dacryoadenitis cases; from 2004 to 2010 the incidence was 0 to 9.1% per year, while from 2010 to 2019 the incidence ranged from 7.7 to 36.2%. In 2019, our institution had 17 cases (incidence 36.2%) of bacterial dacryoadenitis. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial dacryoadenitis is a major cause of dacryoadenitis, and its incidence may be increasing. It can resolve with minimal complications if managed appropriately, although some patients may require surgical drainage or admission for intravenous antibiotics.
Barrantes PC, Zhou P, MacDonald SM, Ioakeim-Ioannidou M, Lee NG. Granular Cell Tumor of the Orbit: Review of the Literature and a Proposed Treatment Modality. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2021;Abstract
PURPOSE: To document a unique case of granular cell tumor of the orbit, located lateral to and abutting the optic nerve, that benefited from treatment with proton beam irradiation, with a comprehensive review of the literature on granular cell tumor of the orbit. METHODS: Clinicopathologic case report with detailed imaging features and histopathologic and immunohistochemical evaluation for cytoplasmic tumor biomarkers differentiating granular cell tumor (GCT) from it mimicking lesions with relevant literature citations. The authors reviewed 20 cases of orbital GCT from 2011 to 2020 in addition to 40 cases from 1948 to 2011 and included a summary of imaging and clinical features, outcomes, and recommended treatment modalities. RESULTS: A 32-year-old man with 1-year history of left retrobulbar pain and diplopia on lateral gaze, intermittent left eyelid swelling, and a tonic left pupil was found to have a fusiform intraconal mass extending toward the orbital apex and abutting the optic nerve. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical investigations collectively supplied data diagnostic of a GCT with an initial low proliferation rate. GCT is a soft tissue neoplasm that originates in the nervous system and can occur anywhere in the body. This enhancing tumor is isointense to gray matter on T1-weighted MRI, hypointense on T2. After an incisional biopsy, the patient's symptoms persisted, and follow-up imaging several months later revealed further growth of the mass. The impossibility of complete surgical removal prompted the decision to treat with proton beam radiation therapy, which resulted in substantial regression in the size of the residual tumor. Most frequently involving the inferior rectus muscle (42%), orbital GCT is usually benign with only 4 reported cases of malignant orbital GCT (7%). Wide surgical resection with complete removal is usually curative for benign orbital GCT, and proton beam radiation therapy can aid in tumor shrinkage. CONCLUSIONS: GCT should be considered in the differential diagnosis when encountering patients with mass lesions involving the extraocular muscles, peripheral nerves, or less frequently, the optic nerve or orbital apex. Immunohistochemical analysis of biopsied tissue is required for the definitive diagnosis of GCT. Consideration of adjuvant therapies such as proton beam radiation therapy may be appropriate in cases of incomplete surgical resection of benign GCT. Proton beam radiation therapy can be an excellent therapeutic option for symptomatic relief and residual tumor size reduction with an acceptable toxicity profile.
Bresler SC, Simon C, Shields CL, McHugh JB, Stagner AM, Patel RM. Conjunctival Melanocytic Lesions. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2021;Abstract
CONTEXT.—: Conjunctival melanocytic lesions consist of a variety of neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions. These include benign processes such as primary intraepithelial hypermelanosis and melanocytic hyperplasia, secondary forms of intraepithelial hypermelanosis and melanocytic hyperplasia, melanocytic nevi, melanocytic proliferations with malignant potential, and melanoma. OBJECTIVE.—: To provide a concise yet comprehensive resource regarding the histopathologic diagnosis of conjunctival melanocytic lesions. We aim to detail and clarify the numerous classification schemes that exist for junctional melanocytic proliferations of the conjunctiva (known as primary acquired melanosis or PAM; also termed conjunctival melanocytic intraepithelial neoplasia or C-MIN). Although not uniformly adopted, C-MIN is classified by using a numeric system based on a defined set of criteria. A less complex scheme (conjunctival melanocytic intraepithelial lesion or CMIL) has recently been proposed by the World Health Organization. Additionally, we aim to update the reader regarding molecular features and prognostic indicators. DATA SOURCES.—: Peer-reviewed literature and archived cases for illustration. CONCLUSIONS.—: Accurate histologic classification is essential, as PAM/C-MIN/CMILs that have a significant potential to progress to invasive melanoma may be clinically indistinguishable from low-risk lesions. Conjunctival melanoma (CM) more closely resembles cutaneous melanoma in terms of its pathogenesis and molecular features, compared to melanoma arising at other mucosal sites or to uveal melanoma. Depth of invasion and ulceration status, among other factors, have emerged as important prognostic indicators in CM. Sentinel lymph node biopsy may provide further prognostic information. Lastly, integration of pathologic and clinical findings is essential at this anatomically sensitive location to determine appropriate clinical management.
Yoon MK, Habib LA. Spheno-Orbital Dermoid Masquerading as Recurrent Orbital Abscess. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2021;Abstract
A 10-month-old girl presented with eyelid edema and erythema that did not improve with systemic antibiotics. Due to a lack of improvement, MRI was performed to avoid ionizing radiation from CT. An orbital abscess was recognized and drained. However, the abscess recurred 2 times. CT scan was performed and a tract in the sphenoid bone helped to diagnose a congenital dural sinus tract with dermoid. Definitive surgery was performed with neurosurgery to remove the entire tract including cutaneous connection. CT scan proved critical to diagnosis and should be considered in infants in select cases despite the concern for ionizing radiation in this vulnerable age group.
Charles NC, Stagner AM, Raju LV, Belinsky I. Conjunctival Exophytic Schneiderian-type Papillomas: A Rare Occurrence. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2021;Abstract
Conjunctival papillomas are common tumors that exhibit an exophytic growth pattern, comprised of multiple filiform fronds of squamous epithelium that contain fibrovascular cores. The inverted (endophytic) variety of papilloma, often termed "Schneiderian," rarely occurs on the conjunctiva, with only 15 cases reported to date. Endophytic and exophytic papillomas are well described arising in the sinonasal Schneiderian epithelium where a low rate of malignant transformation may occur in the endophytic type; malignant transformation in exophytic sinonasal papillomas is exceedingly rare. The authors describe 2 cases of exophytic conjunctival papillomas with the morphology of a sinonasal or Schneiderian-type papilloma. Both were pink, sessile acquired growths in women in the sixth decade of life involving the inferior conjunctival fornix or nasal limbus. Nonkeratinizing squamous epithelium along with numerous goblet cells, intraepithelial mucinous cysts, and microabscesses were present. Immunohistochemistry showed reactivity for cytokeratin 7 and wild-type staining for p16 and p53, paralleling the findings in common conjunctival papillomas; both were also driven by low-risk human papillomavirus.
Habib LA, North VS, Freitag SK, Yoon MK, Lefebvre DR, Lee NG. Medical comorbidities and orbital implant exposure. Acta Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate medical conditions and systemic therapies associated with orbital implant exposure in patients with anophthalmic sockets. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients who underwent enucleation or evisceration at a single centre between January 1, 2008 and March 1, 2018. Medical comorbidities, including peripheral or coronary artery disease, rheumatologic conditions, diabetes, malignancy and history of smoking were recorded. Use of immunomodulatory and anticoagulation therapy at the time of eye removal was noted. Patients were divided into two groups-those with implant exposure and those without. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to compare groups. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-nine patients underwent eye removal surgery over a ten-year period. Implant exposure was seen in 20 (8.7%) patients. Univariate analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between groups in rates of smoking, malignancy, and immunomodulatory therapy at the time of surgery. A history of smoking (HR = 11.72; 95% CI: 2.95, 46.53; p = 0.0001) and immunomodulatory therapy (HR = 8.02; 95% CI: 1.96, 32.87; p = 0.004) were independent predictors of exposure. The probability of exposure was 81.2% when all three risk factors were present versus 4.4% when none were present (c-index = 0.737, 95% CI: 0.608, 0.865; p < 0.001). The model was a good fit to the data (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test p = 0.475). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking and immunomodulatory therapy were associated with orbital implant exposure in patients with anophthalmic sockets. This is the first report examining medical comorbidities in patients with orbital implant exposure. Understanding the pathophysiology of implant exposure is crucial to preoperative planning and postoperative care.
McCoskey M, Neerukonda VK, Hatton MP, Wolkow N. Eccrine poroma of the eyelid. Orbit 2021;:1.Abstract
Clinical and histopathologic case of an eyelid eccrine poroma, a benign adnexal neoplasm rarely found on the periorbital skin.
Green MB, Daly MK, Laver NMV, Lefebvre DR. Adult-onset asthma and periocular xanthogranuloma - A rare infiltrative disease of the orbit and eyelid. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2021;22:101043.Abstract
Purpose: To present a case of adult onset asthma with periocular xanthogranuloma (AAPOX), and discuss existing literature on adult orbital xanthogranulomatous diseases (AOXGDs) and their treatment. Observations: A 63 year old male presented with progressive bilateral eyelid swelling with overlying yellow plaques associated with asthma. CT scan showed periorbital swelling with enlargement of the superior and lateral rectus muscles bilaterally. Biopsy demonstrated orbital xanthogranulomatous disease with increased IgG4 plasma cells. The patient was treated with intralesional triamcinolone, oral prednisone, and cyclophosphamide without significant improvement. Surgical debulking was eventually performed which improved his external symptoms until he was lost to follow up 15 months later. Conclusions and Importance: AOXGDs are a group of rare infiltrative diseases of the eyelids and orbit that can be associated with significant systemic morbidities. While they all have similar underlying histopathologic features, appreciating the clinical difference between these diseases is important in understanding patient prognosis and ensuring appropriate clinical monitoring. There is also growing research demonstrating that AAPOX, along with other AOXGDs, may represent part of a continuum of IgG4 related disease, similar to what is seen in this case. There is currently no reliably effective treatment for AOXGDs, and additional research into the management of these diseases is necessary.
Chiou CA, Reshef ER, Freitag SK. Teprotumumab for the treatment of mild compressive optic neuropathy in thyroid eye disease: A report of two cases. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2021;22:101075.Abstract
Purpose: To report two cases of thyroid eye disease (TED) associated compressive optic neuropathy (CON) that resolved after treatment with teprotumumab. Observation: Two patients presented with active TED resulting in mild CON with the typical corresponding visual field (VF) defects. Both patients were initiated on intravenous (IV) corticosteroid therapy but despite treatment had persistent VF defects. Both patients were then treated with teprotumumab and demonstrated marked clinical improvement and complete resolution of TED-CON VF defects early in their infusion course. Conclusions and importance: These cases suggest that teprotumumab can be a rapid and effective treatment for TED-CON, and raises the question of whether it may be superior to IV corticosteroid therapy.
Tao JP, Aakalu VK, Freitag SK, Sobel RK, Foster JA, Wladis EJ, McCulley TJ, Yen MT. Homeopathic Agents or Vitamins in Reducing Ecchymosis after Oculofacial Surgery: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2021;Abstract
PURPOSE: To review the published literature to determine the efficacy and safety of homeopathic agents or vitamins in reducing ecchymosis after oculofacial surgery or laser surgery. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in the PubMed database initially in December 2019 and updated in March 2020 to identify all studies in the English language literature on the use of homeopathic agents or vitamins in oculofacial procedures, including laser surgery. The search yielded 124 citations, and 11 articles met all inclusion criteria for this assessment. A panel methodologist then assigned a level of evidence rating for each study. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria; 9 were rated level I, and 2 were rated level III. RESULTS: The agents studied in the articles identified included oral or topical Arnica montana (AM), oral Melilotus extract, topical vitamin K oxide, and topical AM combined with Rhododendron tomentosum. Metrics to describe ecchymosis varied. In 7 controlled studies, perioperative AM provided no or negligible benefit versus placebo. In 2 studies, vitamin K cream was equivalent to placebo. One study of oral Melilotus extract had less ecchymosis compared with controls in paranasal and eyelid ecchymosis at postoperative day (POD) 7, but not at PODs 1 and 4. A lone cohort study of combined topical AM and R. tomentosum lacked objective metrics and adequate controls. No serious side effects from administration of homeopathic agents or vitamins were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The current literature does not support the use of AM, vitamin K oxide, R. tomentosum, or Melilotus extract for reducing ecchymosis after oculofacial surgery or pulsed dye laser surgery.
Boal NS, Cretara EAZ, Bleier BS, Lam AC, Lefebvre DR. In vivo analysis of endocanalicular light pipe transillumination in endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy: Anatomic considerations and cautions for the transitioning. Orbit 2021;:1-5.Abstract
Purpose: Localization of the lacrimal sac is a critical step during endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (endo-DCR). A "light pipe" can be used to transilluminate the lacrimal sac endonasally. We hypothesized that this may misguide the surgeon learning endo-DCR to create an osteotomy mostly posterior to the maxillary line if only the bone overlying the transillumination was to be removed, as the thinner lacrimal bone will transmit light more readily than the thicker maxillary bone of the frontal process of the maxilla that forms the anterior lacrimal sac fossa.Methods: The charts of 32 patients with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction in whom a lighted system was used during endo-DCR at Massachusetts Eye and Ear from April 2015 through October 2016 were reviewed. Patients with prior history of lacrimal surgery or trauma directly to the lacrimal sac fossa were excluded. Location of the maximal point of transillumination in relation to the maxillary line was observed and noted intraoperatively.Results: Of a total of 39 endo-DCR surgeries performed, the intraoperative transillumination point was entirely posterior to the maxillary line in 32 instances (82%).Conclusions: Use of an endocanalicular light pipe preferentially illuminates posterior to the maxillary line endonasally. The anterior lacrimal sac fossa (maxillary line and anterior as visualized endonasally) is rarely transilluminated, likely due to thicker bone in that region. Surgeons learning how to perform endo-DCR using a light pipe should be aware of this phenomenon.

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