Oculoplastics

Oculoplastics Publications

Cohen LM, Habib LA, Yoon MK. Post-traumatic enophthalmos secondary to orbital fat atrophy: a volumetric analysis. Orbit 2019;:1-6.Abstract
: To investigate via volumetric analysis whether orbital fat atrophy occurs in late post-traumatic enophthalmos.: An IRB-approved retrospective cohort study identified patients with diagnoses of both orbital fracture and enophthalmos with a CT orbits >3 months after injury. Exclusion criteria were surgical repair, other orbital disease or surgery, adjacent sinus disease, and an abnormal contralateral orbit. Images were analyzed using OsiriX imaging software (v.9.0.2, Pixmeo, Switzerland). Total orbital volume and orbital fat volume for the fractured and normal contralateral orbits were measured via three-dimensional volume rendering assisted region-of-interest computation. Enophthalmos was measured radiographically. Paired samples -tests were used to compare orbital fat and total orbital volumes between the fractured and normal contralateral orbits.: Thirteen patients met the inclusion criteria. The numbers of patients with each fracture pattern were floor (4), medial wall (4), floor/medial wall (3), zygomaticomaxillary complex (floor+lateral wall) (1), zygomaticomaxillary complex+medial (inferior/medial/lateral walls) (1). Mean time from injury to CT scan was 21.8 ± 16.3 months. Comparing the fractured and normal contralateral orbits, there was a statistically significant decrease in orbital fat volume (mean difference 0.9 ml (14.2%), = .0002) and increase in total orbital volume (mean difference 2.0 ml (7.0%), = .0001). One ml orbital volume change was responsible for 0.83 mm enophthalmos.: In addition to an increase in total orbital volume, orbital fat loss occurs with late post-traumatic enophthalmos due to unrepaired fractures. This suggests correction of bony change alone may be insufficient in some cases, and the use of custom implants may compensate for fat atrophy.
Gaier ED, Tarabishy S, Bayers C, Wolkow N, Gardiner M, Lefebvre DR, Grob S. Poor prognoses of open globe injuries with concomitant orbital fractures. Orbit 2019;:1-10.Abstract
: Orbital trauma, particularly with open globe injury, can have a wide range of visual outcomes, which can be difficult to predict at presentation. Clinical features on presentation may provide insight into visual prognosis. We hypothesized that patients with open globe injuries and concomitant orbital fractures have poorer visual outcomes than patients without orbital fractures. : We reviewed the charts of 77 patients with isolated open globe injuries (OG) and 76 patients with open globe injuries and concomitant orbital fractures (OGOF). Multivariate regression analysis was performed to assess the relative influence of individual presenting historical and clinical features on visual outcome. : OGOF patients were more likely to have sustained blunt trauma than a sharp, penetrating injury compared to OG patients. Ocular wound locations were more posterior and likely to involve multiple zones in OGOF compared to OG patients. Among OGOF patients, orbital floor fractures were the most common and roof fractures were the least common, but the latter was associated with presenting NLP vision and multiple zone involvement. The presence of an orbital fracture independently increased the odds of subsequent evisceration/enucleation (OR: 4.6, 95% CI 1.3-20.1, = .0246) and NLP vision (OR: 6.81, 95% CI 2.42-21.85, = .0005) when controlling for zone, mechanism of injury, uveal prolapse and demographic variables. : The presence of an orbital fracture independently confers a worse visual and ocular prognosis in patients with open globe injuries. Patients with open globe injuries in this category should be appropriately counseled.
El Rassi E, Adappa ND, Battaglia P, Castelnuovo P, Dallan I, Freitag SK, Gardner PA, Lenzi R, Lubbe D, Metson R, Moe KS, Muscatello L, Mustak H, Nogueira JF, Palmer JN, Prepageran N, Ramakirshnan VR, Sacks R, Snyderman CH, Stefko TS, Turri-Zanoni M, Wang EW, Zhou B, Bleier BS. Development of the international orbital Cavernous Hemangioma Exclusively Endonasal Resection (CHEER) staging system. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2019;9(7):804-812.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Orbital cavernous hemangiomas (OCH) are the most common adult orbital tumor and represent an ideal index lesion for endonasal orbital tumor surgery. In order to standardize outcomes reporting, an anatomic-based staging system was developed. METHODS: An international, multidisciplinary panel of 23 experts in orbital tumor surgery was formed. A modified Delphi method was used to develop the cavernous hemangioma exclusively endonasal resection (CHEER) staging system with a total of 2 rounds being completed. RESULTS: Tumors medial to a plane along the long axis of the optic nerve may be considered amenable for an exclusively endonasal resection. In select cases, tumors may extend inferolaterally if the tumor remains below a plane from the contralateral naris through the long axis of the optic nerve (ie, plane of resectability [POR]). This definition reached consensus with 91.3% of panelists in agreement. Five stages were designed based on increasing technical resection difficulty and potential for morbidity. Stages were based on the relationship of the tumor to the extraocular muscles, the inferomedial muscular trunk of the ophthalmic artery (IMT), and orbital foramina. Staging by anatomic location also reached consensus with 87.0% of panelists in agreement. Size was not included in the staging system due to the lack of agreement on the contribution of size to resection difficulty. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic orbital tumor surgery is a nascent field with a growing, yet heterogeneous, body of literature. The CHEER staging system is designed to facilitate international, high-quality, standardized studies establishing the safety, efficacy, and outcomes of endonasal resection of OCH.
Charles NC, Jakobiec FA, Ma L, Belinsky I. Angiofibroma of the Eyelid: A Rare Clinical and Histologic Variant. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2019;35(4):e199-e102.Abstract
A flesh-colored, supraciliary lesion of the left upper eyelid in a 47-year-old man was excised for cosmetic reasons. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry demonstrated CD34-positive benign spindle cells, factor XIIIa-positive dendritic cells, and CD163-positive histiocytes, all dispersed within a diffuse collagenous background. Prominent loose perivascular cuffs of fibroblastic cells and collagen surrounded small blood vessels. Interpreted as an angiofibroma, the histopathology bore resemblance to that of a single previously-reported forearm lesion termed a "dermal fibroma with a distinctive perivascular cell arrangement." The lesion represents the first eyelid example of an unusual variant of angiofibroma.
Cohen LM, Shaye DA, Yoon MK. Isolated Orbital Floor Fracture Management: A Survey and Comparison of American Oculofacial and Facial Plastic Surgeon Preferences. Craniomaxillofac Trauma Reconstr 2019;12(2):112-121.Abstract
This article aimed to characterize, compare, and contrast the management of isolated orbital floor fractures among oculofacial and facial plastic surgeons in the United States. An anonymous 17-question multiple-choice web-based survey was distributed to all 590 members of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (ASOPRS) and all 1,300 members of the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (AAFPRS) using each society's email database from November 2016 to January 2017. Two-hundred twenty-five oculofacial and 135 facial plastic surgeons completed the survey. The most important indications for surgery among both oculofacial and facial plastic surgeons were motility restriction, enophthalmos, and diplopia at 2 weeks. The most common preferred time to surgical intervention was 8 to 14 days; however, facial plastic surgeons were more likely to operate after 4 to 7 days (  < 0.001). The most common choices of orbital implant material were porous polyethylene and porous polyethylene plus titanium for both oculofacial and facial plastic surgeons, nylon for oculofacial surgeons, and titanium for facial plastic surgeons. The majority rarely/never used intraoperative computed tomography imaging or navigation. Facial plastic surgeons were more likely to perform postoperative imaging (  < 0.001). We report results of the first survey of isolated orbital floor fracture management among oculofacial and facial plastic surgeons in the United States. This survey characterizes practice patterns and areas of similarities/differences among oculofacial and facial plastic surgeons in the management of isolated orbital floor fractures, which may help define the current standard of care.
Banks C, Scangas GA, Husain Q, Hatton MP, Fullerton Z, Metson R. The role of routine nasolacrimal sac biopsy during endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy. Laryngoscope 2019;Abstract
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Most patients who undergo endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) have a diagnosis of idiopathic nasolacrimal duct obstruction. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of routine biopsy of the lacrimal sac performed at time of DCR on subsequent patient diagnosis and treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. METHODS: The histopathology of nasolacrimal specimens (n = 769), obtained from 654 consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic DCR by a single surgeon over a 30-year period, were reviewed. Specific focus included the identification of unanticipated pathologic findings as they related to pertinent patient demographics, clinical presentation, radiologic findings, and intraoperative observations. RESULTS: The study population was 69.6% female, with an average age of 56.1 ± 18.2 years. Pathological findings of tissue from the nasolacrimal sac, which was routinely sampled in all cases, showed inflammation (n = 566 [73.6%]), normal histology (n = 147 [19.1%]), granulomas (n = 8 [1.0%]), and neoplastic process (n = 7 [0.9%]). Patient history, preoperative CT scan, and/or intraoperative findings alerted the surgeon to the possibility of an unusual diagnosis in 12 of the 15 patients. An unsuspected neoplastic or granulomatous cause of lacrimal obstruction was identified on intraoperative biopsy in three patients (0.46%.) CONCLUSIONS: Although neoplastic and granulomatous diseases are relatively rare causes of lacrimal obstruction necessitating DCR surgery, they may be identified by through patient evaluation in most cases and by routine intraoperative biopsy of the lacrimal sac in all cases. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 2019.
Dohlman JC, Habib LA, Freitag SK. Punctal agenesis: Embryology, presentation, management modalities and outcomes. Ann Anat 2019;224:113-116.Abstract
Punctal agenesis is defined as the absence of the punctum occurring secondary to a failure of embryogenesis. This review synthesizes existing data on the embryology, anatomy, clinical presentation, symptomatology, management options and treatment outcomes of punctal agenesis. A foundational knowledge of the underlying embryologic and anatomical abnormalities is fundamental to understanding its clinical presentation and assists in choosing an appropriate management strategy. Existing outcomes data is generally favorable and suggests management with a step-wise approach can alleviate symptoms in patients across a spectrum of disease.
Wladis EJ, Aakalu VK, Tao JP, Sobel RK, Freitag SK, Foster JA, Mawn LA. Monocanalicular Stents in Eyelid Lacerations: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2019;126(9):1324-1329.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy and complication rates of monocanalicular stents in the setting of canalicular lacerations. METHODS: A literature search was performed in May 2018 in the PubMed database to identify all English-language reports of monocanalicular stenting to address canalicular lacerations. Studies that did not include at least 10 patients with at least 3 months of follow-up evaluation after surgery were excluded. Ninety-nine articles were identified, and 15 of these met criteria for data abstraction and were included in this assessment. The panel methodologist (V.K.A.) evaluated the quality of evidence and assigned a level-of-evidence rating to each of these studies. RESULTS: All 15 studies were rated as level III evidence. Anatomic and functional success rates after surgery ranged from 68% to 100% and 79% to 100%, respectively. Stents were generally well tolerated, although extrusion rates varied from 0% to 29%. CONCLUSIONS: Only level III evidence was available, and studies were not powered to detect differences between groups for rare complications or failure. Monocanalicular stents seem to be efficacious and well tolerated in the management of canalicular lacerations. Potential complications include extrusion (most commonly), tube displacement, granuloma, ectropion, slit punctum, fistula, and infection. Further comparative studies would help to identify the optimal time for device removal and to directly compare monocanalicular with bicanalicular stents.
Wolkow N, Jakobiec FA, Habib LA, Freitag SK. Orbital Nasal-Type Extranodal Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma: An Ongoing Diagnostic Challenge Further Confounded by Small-Cell Predominance. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2019;35(5):478-483.Abstract
PURPOSE: To highlight the histopathologic diagnostic challenges of small-cell predominant extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENTNKT) of the orbit. METHODS: Retrospective chart review and histopathologic study with immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization of 3 cases. RESULTS: Three cases of ENTNKT presented to the Mass Eye and Ear emergency room as orbital cellulitis over 1 year. The first case was unusual in that there was a predominance of small cells, giving the ENTNKT the histopathologic appearance of a nonmalignant inflammatory process. This challenging case is juxtaposed alongside 2 other cases, which exhibited the more typical lymphomatous microscopic appearance. DISCUSSION: ENTNKT can extend into the orbit from the adjacent sinuses or rarely arise primarily in the orbit. A diagnosis is typically made with a biopsy. Occasionally, however, the histopathologic diagnosis can be elusive when a predominance of small lymphomatous cells that are virtually indistinguishable from non-neoplastic inflammatory cells is present. Demonstration of CD56 positivity by immunostaining and in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus are essential in confirming the diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: ENTNKT should be considered both in the clinical and histopathologic differential diagnoses of orbital infections and idiopathic inflammations (pseudotumor).
Sheptulin V, Fedorov A, Prause J, Fay A, Grusha Y. Hyaluronic Acid Gel Biodegradation After Intrapalpebral and Intraorbital Injection in Experimental Study. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2019;35(6):558-561.Abstract
PURPOSE: Amid the increasing clinical application of hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers in the ocular adnexa is a paucity of histological data concerning the fate of the injected material. The current study documents the in vivo biodegradation of HA deposited in the eyelid and orbit. METHODS: The study included 22 chinchilla rabbits. The right upper eyelid of 12 rabbits received a single 0.2 ml Restylane (Galderma, Uppsala, Sweden) subcutaneous injection. In 10 different rabbits, the right orbit was injected with 1.0 ml Restylane SubQ (Galderma, Uppsala, Sweden) in the extraconal space. The rabbits in the eyelid group were euthanized at 2 weeks, 1 month, 2, 4, 6, and 9 months, while the rabbits in the orbit group were euthanized at 1 month, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Histological analysis was performed on the harvested samples. RESULTS: In the eyelid, the HA assumed a sponge-like structure that diminished gradually over time. At 9 months, the injected HA partially persisted, mainly in the peripheral areas of injection. A similar histologic pattern was observed in the injected orbits, with slow changes persisting at the eighteenth month. In both cohorts, clear signs of collagen deposition and pseudocapsule formation were observed around HA droplets, with no signs inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: HA injected subcutaneously into the eyelid and orbit of rabbits undergoes slow and gradual biodegradation, with HA persisting to no less than 9 months in the eyelid and 18 months in orbit. Neocollagen synthesis and lack of hyaluronidase activity could explain the unexpectedly prolonged HA persistence.
Choung H, Reshef ER, Tanking T, Freitag SK. A conjunctival-sparing surgical technique for lower eyelid cicatricial entropion repair in ocular cicatricial pemphigoid. Orbit 2019;:1-8.Abstract
PURPOSE: To present five cases of lower eyelid cicatricial entropion secondary to ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (OCP) successfully repaired with a conjunctival-sparing surgical technique. METHODS: The records of one surgeon (SKF) were reviewed to identify patients with lower eyelid cicatricial entropion secondary to OCP who underwent repair with a conjunctival-sparing technique between September 1, 2016 and October 18, 2017. The medical records were reviewed and extracted data included: age, gender, past medical history, current medical and OCP status, clinical examination, details of entropion repair surgery, and outcome. RESULTS: Five patients (three female, two male) were included with ages ranging from 44 to 93 years. All had biopsy proven OCP, which was in remission at the time of surgery, and all were currently receiving immunomodulatory medications. All patients were symptomatic from cicatricial entropion secondary to OCP and underwent successful lower eyelid entropion repair with a conjunctival-sparing technique described herein, involving infraciliary rotation with suture fixation of the orbicularis muscle to the tarsus. Other contributing mechanisms of eyelid malposition including horizontal eyelid laxity and orbicularis oculi override were addressed simultaneously with lateral tarsal plication or orbicularis muscle debulking, resulting in 100% anatomic success and relief of symptoms with no cases of OCP reactivation, and with good durability with an average 13.9 months follow up (range 6.5-22 months). CONCLUSIONS: Successful repair of lower eyelid cicatricial entropion in immunomodulated patients with OCP can be achieved without disease reactivation using a surgical technique that spares the conjunctiva and lower eyelid retractors.
Charles NC, Jakobiec FA, Ma L, Belinsky I. Steatocystoma Simplex of the Caruncle: Case Report and Immunohistologic Study. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2019;35(2):e45-e47.Abstract
A yellow cystic lesion of the caruncle in a 23-year-old woman proved to be a solitary steatocystoma, a rare occurrence in that location. While the histopathologic diagnosis was evident from clusters of sebaceous cells within the cyst wall, a panel of immunohistochemical stains further distinguished the lesion from a keratinous cyst. The most useful stains for differentiating the two conditions were carcinoembryonic antigen, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratins 17 and 19, and calretinin. Only three previous cases of caruncular steatocystoma simplex have been reported, none of which included immunohistochemical studies. The current findings support the origin of the cyst from the small duct that connects the unilobular sebaceous gland associated with vellus hairs to the follicular canal.
Homer N, Glass LR, Lee GN, Lefebvre DR, Sutula FC, Freitag SK, Yoon MK. Assessment of Infraorbital Hypesthesia Following Orbital Floor and Zygomaticomaxillary Complex Fractures Using a Novel Sensory Grading System. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2019;35(1):53-55.Abstract
PURPOSE: Introduction of a novel sensory grading system to assess the incidence and long-term recovery of infraorbital hypesthesia following orbital floor and inferior orbital rim fractures. METHODS: Patients who presented for evaluation of orbital floor and/or zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures between January 2015 and April 2016 were analyzed. Two-point subjective infraorbital sensory grading in 5 discrete anatomic areas was performed. Fractures were repaired based on traditional criteria; hypesthesia was not an indication for surgery. The sensory grading system was repeated a mean 21.7 months (range 18-28) after initial fracture. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients (mean 41.8 years) participated in the initial symptom grading, and 42 patients (67.7%) completed the 2-year follow-up. Overall, 20 of 42 patients (47.6%) had some infraorbital hypesthesia. There were fewer with isolated orbital floor fractures versus ZMC fractures (31.8% vs. 68.4%; p = 0.019). Two years postinjury, 9.1% and 40.0% with isolated floor and ZMC fractures, respectively, had persistent sensory disturbance (p = 0.0188). Of patients with sensory disturbance on presentation, 71.4% with isolated floor fractures and 38.5% with ZMC fractures experienced complete sensory recovery (p = 0.1596). Patients with isolated floor fractures had improved recovery after surgery (100% vs. 33.3% recovery; p = 0.0410). Patients with ZMC fractures showed no difference in sensory prognosis between those repaired and observed. CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, isolated orbital floor fractures carried a good infraorbital sensory prognosis, further improved by surgical repair. Zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures portended a worse long-term sensory outcome, unaffected by management strategy. This study validates the novel sensory grading system in post-fracture analysis.

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