Oculoplastics Publications

Mueller SK, Freitag SK, Lefebvre DR, Bleier BS. Endoscopic DCR using bipedicled interlacing mucosal flaps. Laryngoscope 2017;Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct is a relatively common condition that affects patients of all ages, races, and sexes. The surgical gold standard for complete nasolacrimal duct obstruction and dacryocystitis is dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). The purpose of this study was to describe a novel, bipedicled interlacing mucosal sparing flap technique for endoscopic DCR (eDCR). METHODS: A posteriorly based mucosal flap over the fundus is combined with a novel, anteriorly based mucosal flap over the intraosseus portion of the nasolacrimal duct (NLD). This exposes a wide area of the maxillary bone, allowing for exposure and identification of the NLD/sac complex in a safer, more inferior position. The interlacing mucosal flaps may be replaced at the conclusion of the procedure, thereby minimizing bone exposure and maintaining excellent long-term patency. RESULTS: The authors have utilized this technique in 55 procedures with 100% positive identification of the NLD and lacrimal sac, 0% complication rate, 100% anatomical patency rate, and 96.4% success rate after a minimal follow-up of 6 months. DISCUSSION: The bipedicled interlacing flap technique for eDCR provides for safe and reproducible identification of the NLD and lacrimal sac while minimizing bone exposure and restenosis rate. CONCLUSION: The bipedicled interlacing flap technique for eDCR provides for safe and reproducible identification of the NLD and lacrimal sac while minimizing bone exposure and restenosis rate. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: N/A Laryngoscope, 2017.
Wang Y, Jakobiec FA, Zakka FR, Lee NG. A Lacrimal Gland Choristoma of the Lacrimal Sac. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017;Abstract
Choristomatous lacrimal gland tissue has been detected in many different sites of the ocular adnexa, but has never before been convincingly described in the submucosa of the lacrimal sac. A 77-year-old woman with epiphora had a biopsy of the sac wall preformed during a dacryocystorhinostomy that contained such a lacrimal choristoma. Zymogen granules were found in the cytoplasm of the secretory cells with the periodic acid-Schiff reaction. No mucus-producing cells, as found in normal sac submucosal glands, were detected using the Alcian blue, mucicarmine, and Gomori methenamine silver histochemical stains. Gross cystic fluid protein-15 positivity was demonstrated immunohistochemically. The clinical implications of this choristoma are explored.
Mueller SK, Freitag SK, Bleier BS. Morphometric Analysis of the Orbital Process of the Palatine Bone and its Relationship to Endoscopic Orbital Apex Surgery. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017;Abstract
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic approaches to the orbit improve the ability to directly access apical lesions while minimizing manipulation of normal structures. Inferomedial orbital access is limited by the orbital process of the palatine bone (OPPB) which prevents dissection and retraction in the inferolateral vector. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the morphometric characteristics of the OPPB and quantify the benefit of complete resection to surgical access. METHODS: Morphometric osteologic measurements of the OPPB were performed in 59 human skulls. A radius subtended by the OPPB was calculated to generate a hemispheric dissection corridor achievable by complete resection of the OPPB. Cadaveric and live surgical dissections were then performed on 15 orbits to develop discreet endoscopic surgical landmarks which could be used to both identify the OPPB and verify complete resection. RESULTS: The mean(± SD) radius of the OPPB was 0.47 ± 0.28 cm. Complete OPPB resection provided an additional 0.36 ± 0.42 cm of surgical exposure within the inferomedial apex. Relative to the Caucasian (n = 27) skulls, the radii in the Asian (n = 27) and African (n = 5) skulls were significantly smaller (p < 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). CONCLUSION: The OPPB significantly limits surgical access to the inferomedial orbital apex during endoscopic approaches. Complete surgical resection of the OPPB improves surgical exposure facilitating retraction of the inferior rectus muscle and circumferential dissection of lesions within this space. Knowledge of the morphology and clinical relevance of this structure provides an opportunity to improve surgical exposure for relevant pathologic assessment and optimize endoscopic surgical outcomes.
Mombaerts I, Bilyk JR, Rose GE, McNab AA, Fay A, Dolman PJ, Allen RC, Devoto MH, Harris GJ, of the Society EPO. Consensus on Diagnostic Criteria of Idiopathic Orbital Inflammation Using a Modified Delphi Approach. JAMA Ophthalmol 2017;Abstract
Importance: Current practice to diagnose idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI) is inconsistent, leading to frequent misdiagnosis of other orbital entities, including cancer. By specifying criteria, diagnosis of orbital inflammation will be improved. Objective: To define a set of criteria specific for the diagnosis of IOI. Design, Setting, and Participants: A 3-round modified Delphi process with an expert panel was conducted from June 8, 2015, to January 25, 2016. Fifty-three orbital scientist experts, identified through membership in the Orbital Society, were invited to participate in on online survey and they scored, using 5-point Likert scales, items that are eligible as diagnostic criteria from the literature and from personal experience. The items were clustered around the anatomic subtypes of IOI: idiopathic dacryoadenitis and idiopathic orbital fat inflammation (2 nonmyositic IOIs), and idiopathic orbital myositis (myositic IOI). Items with dissensus were rescored in the second round, and all items with consensus (median, ≥4; interquartile range, ≤1) were ranked by importance in the third round. Main Outcomes and Measures: Consensus on items to be included in the criteria. Results: Of the 53 experts invited to participate, a multinational panel of 35 (66%) individuals with a mean (SD) years of experience of 31 (11) years were included. Consensus was achieved on 7 of 14 clinical and radiologic items and 5 of 7 pathologic items related to diagnosis of nonmyositic IOI, and 11 of 14 clinical and radiologic items and 1 of 5 pathologic items for myositic IOI. There was agreement among panelists to focus on surgical tissue biopsy results in the diagnosis of nonmyositic IOI and on a trial with systemic corticosteroids in myositic IOI. Panelists agreed that a maximum number of 30 IgG4-positive plasma cells per high-power field in the orbital tissue is compatible with the diagnosis of IOI. Conclusions and Relevance: An international panel of experts endorsed consensus diagnostic criteria of IOI. These criteria define a level of exclusion suggested for diagnosis and include tissue biopsy for lesions not confined to the extraocular muscles. This consensus is a step toward developing guidelines for the management of IOI, which needs to be followed by validation studies of the criteria.
Jakobiec FA, Zakka FR, Lee NG. Exophytic Osteochondroma of the Brow. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017;Abstract
Most boney and cartilaginous lesions of the orbit and periorbital compartments are benign, grow endophytically, and are composed of dense lamellar bone (eburnated or ivory osteomas). An 87-year-old woman had a well-circumscribed, firm, round, and exophytic lesion of the brow region for at least 15 years. Excisional surgery disclosed an osteocartilaginous lesion with an enveloping pseudocapsule (periosteum/perichondrium) and a narrow stalk connecting it to the frontal bone. The periphery of the lesion displayed lamellar bone which appeared to be replacing a central cartilaginous zone. The adjacent deep preaponeurotic fat displayed nodules of collagen with myxoid change and occasional CD34 spindle cells suggestive of a spindle cell lipoma. Because of the osteochondroma's deep location in the preaponeurotic fat, the lesion differs from an osteoma cutis found in the dermis which fails to exhibit a cartilaginous component or a periosteum. Other clinically simulating lesions are described.
Knezevic A, Yoon MK. Differences in Wait Times for Cosmetic Blepharoplasty by ASOPRS Members. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017;Abstract
PURPOSE: Adequate access to subspecialty care is of concern to patients and physicians alike. One measure of availability is the wait time for cosmetic procedures. The authors investigated geographical differences in wait times for cosmetic upper eyelid blepharoplasty of American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery members across the country. METHODS: This study surveyed all 533 American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery members' practices in the United States based on the publically available contact information (www.asoprs.org). Scripted telephone calls were made requesting self-referred cosmetic upper eyelid blepharoplasty. Wait times until the first available appointment and time until the first available surgery date were collected. RESULTS: Of the membership, 387 (72.6% response rate) respondents offered appointments for cosmetic upper eyelid blepharoplasty. Overall, 84.2% of respondents were male. Practice breakdown was 83.4% in private practice and 16.5% in academic practice. Median wait time until the next available appointment was 14 days (mean 21.2 days, 0-205 days; p = 0.145). Private practice wait time was shorter than academic (median 14 vs. 18 days, mean 19.7 vs. 28.9 days; p =0.004). However, there was wide variability based on region. CONCLUSIONS: Patients seeking cosmetic upper eyelid blepharoplasty have good access to care by American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery members. There are variabilities based on academic versus private practice. Further study can evaluate whether similar findings exist for medically necessary functional procedures. This information may help assess the need for additional practitioners.
Choi CJ, Jakobiec FA, Zakka FR, Foster SC, Chodosh J, Freitag SK. Conjunctival Squamous Cell Neoplasia Associated With Ocular Cicatricial Pemphigoid. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017;Abstract
The purpose of this study was to describe a possible causal relationship between ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (OCP) and ocular surface squamous neoplasia. Two middle-aged female patients with already diagnosed OCP were studied in regard to the subsequent onset of conjunctival squamous neoplasia. Their clinical histories, ocular examinations, clinical photographs, and results of biopsies and any ancillary immunofluorescent laboratory evaluation studies were carefully reviewed. One patient had a preinvasive squamous dysplasia and the other an invasive squamous cell carcinoma, both in the unequivocal setting of OCP with bilateral conjunctivitis, symblephara, and forniceal foreshortening. The patients had been receiving intensive immunotherapy consisting of some combination of corticosteroids, rituximab, and interferon alpha. Both patients had a positive immunofluorescent study demonstrating immunoreactants at the level of the epithelial basement membrane. Each patient had 2 earlier negative immunofluorescent studies before a third was positive. While rare, there is 1 previous report of an association between OCP and conjunctival squamous neoplasia. The current report provides more data supporting the proposal that this conjunction is more than a random event. Repeat immunofluorescent studies after an initial negative result in a patient with strong clinical signs of OCP are imperative due to the frequency of false negative studies in the context of clinically persuasive disease.
Choi CJ, Oropesa S, Callahan AB, Glass LR, Teo L, Cestari DM, Kazim M, Freitag SK. Patterns of visual field changes in thyroid eye disease. Orbit 2017;36(4):201-207.Abstract
This article provides a systematic description of visual field changes in thyroid eye disease-compressive optic neuropathy (TED-CON). A retrospective, non-comparative chart review of patients with TED-CON and documented Humphrey Visual Field 24-2 or 30-2 testing was conducted with IRB approval. Ninety-six visual fields in 68 patients were classified into 7 broad categories (superior, inferior, diffuse, temporal, nasal, central/paracentral, enlarged blind spot) and 17 mutually exclusive patterns from the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS) or "other." Fifty-three of 96 visual fields (55%) showed an inferior defect using the broad categories, with the remaining 6 categories ranging from 2% to 14%. The five most common OHTS patterns were other (28%), partial arcuate (28%), partial peripheral rim (9%), arcuate (8%) and altitudinal (7%). Further sub-classification showed a predominance of inferior visual field defects, ranging from 33% to 93% of each category. Of the 78 visual fields in these five categories combined, 52 (67%) were inferior defects. Inferior defect is the most typical TED-CON-associated visual field change. While the OHTS categories are geared toward classification of glaucomatous patterns, the overall predominance of inferior field defects in TED-CON was clearly demonstrated. These "other" visual field changes showing central inferior defect up to but not crossing the horizontal meridian and not contiguous from blind spot to nasal meridian should be designated as "TED-CON pattern." The high proportion of visual fields falling under the "other" category, however, does demonstrate the need for a more specific and tailored visual field classification system for TED-CON.
Stagner AM, Jakobiec FA, Fay A. Primary orbital synovial sarcoma: A clinicopathologic review with a differential diagnosis and discussion of molecular genetics. Surv Ophthalmol 2017;62(2):227-236.Abstract

Synovial sarcoma is a soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremities developing in young adults that has rarely been reported in the orbit. Synovial sarcoma is associated with a unique translocation, resulting in an SYT-SSX fusion gene. We analyze 7 published periocular cases, together with the current one, to gain a better appreciation of the features of the tumor in this location and to compare the findings with those derived from nonophthalmic studies. An inferior orbital mass developed in a 31-year-old woman after experiencing periorbital and hemifacial pain for more than a decade. Radiographically, the mass was circumscribed and displayed coarse internal calcifications. A large but subtotal excision with histopathologic examination disclosed a primitive tumor composed of spindled and ovoid cells. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated positivity for nuclear transducin-like enhancer of split 1 and membranous CD99, typical for synovial sarcoma. Fluorescence in situ hybridization identified a (X,18) translocation in the tumor cells. The patient underwent postoperative adjuvant proton beam radiotherapy with a good response that has been maintained during 1 year of follow-up. Orbital soft-tissue tumors of all types are increasingly identified by their distinctive genetic signatures that offer more specificity than standard immunohistochemical tests.

Syed ZA, Sutula FC. Dynamic Intraductal Meibomian Probing: A Modified Approach to the Treatment of Obstructive Meibomian Gland Dysfunction. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017;Abstract

PURPOSE: Obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction is a leading cause of ocular morbidity and its treatment remains a challenge. Meibomian gland probing was initially described in 2010. Here, the authors describe a modified technique, dynamic intraductal meibomian probing, which offers several advantages over the traditional approach including increased magnification, greater eyelid stabilization, enhanced anesthesia, and easier identification of gland orifices through the expression of meibum. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of 70 eyelids with treatment-resistant obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction undergoing dynamic intraductal meibomian probing between January 2013 and April 2015. RESULTS: Immediately after the procedure, 91.4% of cases experienced symptomatic improvement, and no complications were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Dynamic intraductal meibomian probing is an effective and safe treatment for obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction that is resistant to traditional therapies.

Jakobiec FA, Zakka FR, Tu Y, Freitag SK. Dermatofibroma of the Eyelid: Immunohistochemical Diagnosis. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017;Abstract

A 66-year-old man developed a painless 2 mm to 3 mm recurrent nodule at the left upper eyelid margin. Excision disclosed a spindle cell lesion without frank atypia or mitotic activity growing in a twisted fascicular pattern often referred to as storiform. All the surgical margins were involved with tumor. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that many of the constituent spindle and dendritic tumor cells were CD34, factor XIIIa, and CD 163, the latter 2 being biomarkers for monocytic lineage. The lesion was diagnosed as a dermatofibroma rather than a fibrous histiocytoma, a term that should be reserved for more aggressive lesions of deeper fascial planes. Facial dermatofibromas are rarer and more likely than those of the extremities to recur and therefore deserve wider local excision at first surgery with careful and frequent clinical follow ups. Eyelid dermatofibroma has probably often been misdiagnosed as another tumor in the past. Immunohistochemistry can supply valuable biomarker criteria for diagnosis.

Wolkow N, Jakobiec FA, Stagner AM, Cunnane ME, Piantadosi AL, Basgoz N, Lefebvre D. Chronic orbital and calvarial fungal infection with Apophysomyces variabilis in an immunocompetent patient. Surv Ophthalmol 2017;62(1):70-82.Abstract

Apophysomyces is a rare fungal organism causing rhino-orbito-cerebral mycotic infections with high morbidity and mortality, typically in immunocompetent individuals. Several cases of Apophysomyces elegans orbital disease have been reported. Herein, we report a case of Apophysomyces variabilis infection involving the orbit, sinuses, and calvarium in an immunocompetent 74-year-old woman, with a review of the literature. Unlike prior cases of A. elegans classic rhino-orbito-cerebral infection, our case included diffuse calvarial lytic lesions and overlying soft tissue nodules, but without parenchymal intracranial involvement. There was radiographic and clinical evidence of infarction of the orbital contents and cavernous sinus thrombosis. Anastomoses between the superior orbital (ophthalmic) vein and diploic veins of the calvarium are believed to be primarily responsible for the unusual mode of spread on the extradural surface of the brain. Although the patient stabilized without definitive surgical intervention, her disease slowly and intermittently progressed for over a year after presentation, requiring multiple courses of antifungal treatment.