Synovial sarcoma is a soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremities developing in young adults that has rarely been reported in the orbit. Synovial sarcoma is associated with a unique translocation, resulting in an SYT-SSX fusion gene. We analyze 7 published periocular cases, together with the current one, to gain a better appreciation of the features of the tumor in this location and to compare the findings with those derived from nonophthalmic studies. An inferior orbital mass developed in a 31-year-old woman after experiencing periorbital and hemifacial pain for more than a decade. Radiographically, the mass was circumscribed and displayed coarse internal calcifications. A large but subtotal excision with histopathologic examination disclosed a primitive tumor composed of spindled and ovoid cells. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated positivity for nuclear transducin-like enhancer of split 1 and membranous CD99, typical for synovial sarcoma. Fluorescence in situ hybridization identified a (X,18) translocation in the tumor cells. The patient underwent postoperative adjuvant proton beam radiotherapy with a good response that has been maintained during 1 year of follow-up. Orbital soft-tissue tumors of all types are increasingly identified by their distinctive genetic signatures that offer more specificity than standard immunohistochemical tests.
Morphometric Analysis of the Orbital Process of the Palatine Bone and its Relationship to Endoscopic Orbital Apex Surgery. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2018;34(3):254-257.Abstract.
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic approaches to the orbit improve the ability to directly access apical lesions while minimizing manipulation of normal structures. Inferomedial orbital access is limited by the orbital process of the palatine bone (OPPB) which prevents dissection and retraction in the inferolateral vector. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the morphometric characteristics of the OPPB and quantify the benefit of complete resection to surgical access. METHODS: Morphometric osteologic measurements of the OPPB were performed in 59 human skulls. A radius subtended by the OPPB was calculated to generate a hemispheric dissection corridor achievable by complete resection of the OPPB. Cadaveric and live surgical dissections were then performed on 15 orbits to develop discreet endoscopic surgical landmarks which could be used to both identify the OPPB and verify complete resection. RESULTS: The mean(± SD) radius of the OPPB was 0.47 ± 0.28 cm. Complete OPPB resection provided an additional 0.36 ± 0.42 cm of surgical exposure within the inferomedial apex. Relative to the Caucasian (n = 27) skulls, the radii in the Asian (n = 27) and African (n = 5) skulls were significantly smaller (p < 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). CONCLUSION: The OPPB significantly limits surgical access to the inferomedial orbital apex during endoscopic approaches. Complete surgical resection of the OPPB improves surgical exposure facilitating retraction of the inferior rectus muscle and circumferential dissection of lesions within this space. Knowledge of the morphology and clinical relevance of this structure provides an opportunity to improve surgical exposure for relevant pathologic assessment and optimize endoscopic surgical outcomes.
Differences in Wait Times for Cosmetic Blepharoplasty by ASOPRS Members. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2018;34(3):222-224.Abstract.
PURPOSE: Adequate access to subspecialty care is of concern to patients and physicians alike. One measure of availability is the wait time for cosmetic procedures. The authors investigated geographical differences in wait times for cosmetic upper eyelid blepharoplasty of American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery members across the country. METHODS: This study surveyed all 533 American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery members' practices in the United States based on the publically available contact information (www.asoprs.org). Scripted telephone calls were made requesting self-referred cosmetic upper eyelid blepharoplasty. Wait times until the first available appointment and time until the first available surgery date were collected. RESULTS: Of the membership, 387 (72.6% response rate) respondents offered appointments for cosmetic upper eyelid blepharoplasty. Overall, 84.2% of respondents were male. Practice breakdown was 83.4% in private practice and 16.5% in academic practice. Median wait time until the next available appointment was 14 days (mean 21.2 days, 0-205 days; p = 0.145). Private practice wait time was shorter than academic (median 14 vs. 18 days, mean 19.7 vs. 28.9 days; p =0.004). However, there was wide variability based on region. CONCLUSIONS: Patients seeking cosmetic upper eyelid blepharoplasty have good access to care by American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery members. There are variabilities based on academic versus private practice. Further study can evaluate whether similar findings exist for medically necessary functional procedures. This information may help assess the need for additional practitioners.
Intratarsal Keratinous Eyelid Cysts in Gorlin Syndrome: A Review and Reappraisal. Surv Ophthalmol 2017;Abstract.
A 38-year-old woman presented with multiple bilateral recurrent eyelid cysts. Her medical history was notable for Gorlin (nevoid basal cell carcinoma) syndrome. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical examinations revealed that the lesions were intratarsal keratinous cysts. They were similar in appearance to sporadic intratarsal keratinous cysts and closely resembled odontogenic keratocysts of the jaw. Eyelid cysts occur in up to 40 percent of patients with Gorlin syndrome; however, their description has been cursory and for the most part, outside of the ophthalmic literature. Although ophthalmologists are familiar with the periocular basal cell carcinomas that occur in patients with Gorlin syndrome, up to 10 percent of patients never develop a basal cell carcinoma, but may manifest other ophthalmic findings. Awareness of these other features may contribute to the earlier diagnosis of the syndrome. We discuss the clinical and histopathologic features of intratarsal keratinous cysts in Gorlin syndrome, comparing them to sporadic intratarsal keratinous cysts, other eyelid cysts, and jaw cysts that also characterize this syndrome. We briefly review the ocular and systemic manifestations of Gorlin syndrome and recent genetic and therapeutic developments so that the eyelid cysts may be appreciated within the appropriate context of Gorlin syndrome as a whole.
Postoperative Complications of Dermis-Fat Autografts in the Anophthalmic Socket. Semin Ophthalmol 2017;:1-4.Abstract.
Reconstruction of the anophthalmic socket allows the use of an ocular prosthesis and rehabilitation of facial appearance. Dermis-fat grafting is one option in volume augmentation of the anophthalmic socket and presents unique benefits, including increased surface area within the socket and the ability to grow with pediatric patients. Postoperative complications of this procedure are relatively common. Minor complications, such as graft hirsutism, keratinization, and conjunctival cysts or granulomas, are managed easily by observation or simple intervention. Major complications, such as graft atrophy, infection, or ulceration, may prevent good prosthesis fit and may require return to the operating room.
Electrophysiological Studies in Thyroid Associated Orbitopathy: A Systematic Review. Sci Rep 2017;7(1):12108.Abstract.
Dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) is the commonest cause of blindness in thyroid associated orbitopathy (TAO). While diagnosis remains clinical, objective tests for eyes with early or equivocal findings are lacking. Various electrophysiological studies (EPS) have been reported, yet the types and parameters useful for DON remain inconclusive. We performed a systematic literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane databases via the OVID platform up to August 20, 2017. 437 records were identified for screening and 16 original studies (1327 eyes, 787 patients) were eligible for review. Pattern visual evoked potential (pVEP) was the most frequently studied EPS. Eyes of TAO patients with DON showed delayed P100 latencies, decreased P100 amplitudes or delayed N75 latencies during pVEP, compared to those without or healthy controls. Due to study heterogeneity, no quantitative analysis was possible. This review highlights the most common type (pVEP) and useful parameters (P100 latency and amplitude) of EPS, and supports further research on them using standardized testing conditions.
Limbal Cysts: A Subset Exhibiting Cornea-Specific Cytokeratins. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017;Abstract.
Two cases of limbal cysts lined by nonkeratinizing epithelium were studied with a panel of cytokeratins. One was a long-standing lesion in a 30-year-old man, whereas the other was excised from a 40-year-old man following pterygium surgery. Each cyst was immunostained with a panel of cytokeratins that were specific exclusively and separately for corneal and conjunctival epithelia. The epithelial lining of each cyst was CK12 positive for corneal epithelium and CK13 negative for conjunctival epithelium. It is hypothesized that a subset of corneoscleral cysts contain corneal epithelium, probably derived from a type of limbal stem cell differentiation.
A Lacrimal Gland Choristoma of the Lacrimal Sac. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017;Abstract.
Choristomatous lacrimal gland tissue has been detected in many different sites of the ocular adnexa, but has never before been convincingly described in the submucosa of the lacrimal sac. A 77-year-old woman with epiphora had a biopsy of the sac wall preformed during a dacryocystorhinostomy that contained such a lacrimal choristoma. Zymogen granules were found in the cytoplasm of the secretory cells with the periodic acid-Schiff reaction. No mucus-producing cells, as found in normal sac submucosal glands, were detected using the Alcian blue, mucicarmine, and Gomori methenamine silver histochemical stains. Gross cystic fluid protein-15 positivity was demonstrated immunohistochemically. The clinical implications of this choristoma are explored.
Consensus on Diagnostic Criteria of Idiopathic Orbital Inflammation Using a Modified Delphi Approach. JAMA Ophthalmol 2017;Abstract.
Importance: Current practice to diagnose idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI) is inconsistent, leading to frequent misdiagnosis of other orbital entities, including cancer. By specifying criteria, diagnosis of orbital inflammation will be improved. Objective: To define a set of criteria specific for the diagnosis of IOI. Design, Setting, and Participants: A 3-round modified Delphi process with an expert panel was conducted from June 8, 2015, to January 25, 2016. Fifty-three orbital scientist experts, identified through membership in the Orbital Society, were invited to participate in on online survey and they scored, using 5-point Likert scales, items that are eligible as diagnostic criteria from the literature and from personal experience. The items were clustered around the anatomic subtypes of IOI: idiopathic dacryoadenitis and idiopathic orbital fat inflammation (2 nonmyositic IOIs), and idiopathic orbital myositis (myositic IOI). Items with dissensus were rescored in the second round, and all items with consensus (median, ≥4; interquartile range, ≤1) were ranked by importance in the third round. Main Outcomes and Measures: Consensus on items to be included in the criteria. Results: Of the 53 experts invited to participate, a multinational panel of 35 (66%) individuals with a mean (SD) years of experience of 31 (11) years were included. Consensus was achieved on 7 of 14 clinical and radiologic items and 5 of 7 pathologic items related to diagnosis of nonmyositic IOI, and 11 of 14 clinical and radiologic items and 1 of 5 pathologic items for myositic IOI. There was agreement among panelists to focus on surgical tissue biopsy results in the diagnosis of nonmyositic IOI and on a trial with systemic corticosteroids in myositic IOI. Panelists agreed that a maximum number of 30 IgG4-positive plasma cells per high-power field in the orbital tissue is compatible with the diagnosis of IOI. Conclusions and Relevance: An international panel of experts endorsed consensus diagnostic criteria of IOI. These criteria define a level of exclusion suggested for diagnosis and include tissue biopsy for lesions not confined to the extraocular muscles. This consensus is a step toward developing guidelines for the management of IOI, which needs to be followed by validation studies of the criteria.
Exophytic Osteochondroma of the Brow. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017;33(6):e166-e169.Abstract.
Most bony and cartilaginous lesions of the orbit and periorbital compartments are benign, grow endophytically, and are composed of dense lamellar bone (eburnated or ivory osteomas). An 87-year-old woman had a well-circumscribed, firm, round, and exophytic lesion of the brow region for at least 15 years. Excisional surgery disclosed an osteocartilaginous lesion with an enveloping pseudocapsule (periosteum/perichondrium) and a narrow stalk connecting it to the frontal bone. The periphery of the lesion displayed lamellar bone which appeared to be replacing a central cartilaginous zone. The adjacent deep preaponeurotic fat displayed nodules of collagen with myxoid change and occasional CD34 spindle cells suggestive of a spindle cell lipoma. Because of the osteochondroma's deep location in the preaponeurotic fat, the lesion differs from an osteoma cutis found in the dermis which fails to exhibit a cartilaginous component or a periosteum. Other clinically simulating lesions are described.
Conjunctival Squamous Cell Neoplasia Associated With Ocular Cicatricial Pemphigoid. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017;33(6):e157-e160.Abstract.
The purpose of this study was to describe a possible causal relationship between ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (OCP) and ocular surface squamous neoplasia. Two middle-aged female patients with already diagnosed OCP were studied in regard to the subsequent onset of conjunctival squamous neoplasia. Their clinical histories, ocular examinations, clinical photographs, and results of biopsies and any ancillary immunofluorescent laboratory evaluation studies were carefully reviewed. One patient had a preinvasive squamous dysplasia and the other an invasive squamous cell carcinoma, both in the unequivocal setting of OCP with bilateral conjunctivitis, symblephara, and forniceal foreshortening. The patients had been receiving intensive immunotherapy consisting of some combination of corticosteroids, rituximab, and interferon alpha. Both patients had a positive immunofluorescent study demonstrating immunoreactants at the level of the epithelial basement membrane. Each patient had 2 earlier negative immunofluorescent studies before a third was positive. While rare, there is 1 previous report of an association between OCP and conjunctival squamous neoplasia. The current report provides more data supporting the proposal that this conjunction is more than a random event. Repeat immunofluorescent studies after an initial negative result in a patient with strong clinical signs of OCP are imperative due to the frequency of false negative studies in the context of clinically persuasive disease.
Patterns of visual field changes in thyroid eye disease. Orbit 2017;36(4):201-207.Abstract.
This article provides a systematic description of visual field changes in thyroid eye disease-compressive optic neuropathy (TED-CON). A retrospective, non-comparative chart review of patients with TED-CON and documented Humphrey Visual Field 24-2 or 30-2 testing was conducted with IRB approval. Ninety-six visual fields in 68 patients were classified into 7 broad categories (superior, inferior, diffuse, temporal, nasal, central/paracentral, enlarged blind spot) and 17 mutually exclusive patterns from the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS) or "other." Fifty-three of 96 visual fields (55%) showed an inferior defect using the broad categories, with the remaining 6 categories ranging from 2% to 14%. The five most common OHTS patterns were other (28%), partial arcuate (28%), partial peripheral rim (9%), arcuate (8%) and altitudinal (7%). Further sub-classification showed a predominance of inferior visual field defects, ranging from 33% to 93% of each category. Of the 78 visual fields in these five categories combined, 52 (67%) were inferior defects. Inferior defect is the most typical TED-CON-associated visual field change. While the OHTS categories are geared toward classification of glaucomatous patterns, the overall predominance of inferior field defects in TED-CON was clearly demonstrated. These "other" visual field changes showing central inferior defect up to but not crossing the horizontal meridian and not contiguous from blind spot to nasal meridian should be designated as "TED-CON pattern." The high proportion of visual fields falling under the "other" category, however, does demonstrate the need for a more specific and tailored visual field classification system for TED-CON.
A 64-Year-Old Man With Swollen, Blistered Eyelids. JAMA Ophthalmol 2017;135(6):669-670..
Primary orbital synovial sarcoma: A clinicopathologic review with a differential diagnosis and discussion of molecular genetics. Surv Ophthalmol 2017;62(2):227-236.Abstract.
Reply re: Dr. Kubota's Letter to the Editor, "Corticosteroids or biopsy for idiopathic orbital inflammation". Surv Ophthalmol 2017;62(2):255..