Oncology

Patel AV, Lane AM, Morrison MA, Trofimov AV, Shih HA, Gragoudas ES, Kim IK. Visual Outcomes after Proton Beam Irradiation for Choroidal Melanomas Involving the Fovea. Ophthalmology 2016;123(2):369-77.Abstract

PURPOSE: To report visual outcomes in patients undergoing proton beam irradiation of tumors located within 1 disc diameter of the fovea. DESIGN: Retrospective review. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with choroidal melanoma involving the fovea treated with proton beam therapy between 1975 and 2009. METHODS: Three hundred fifty-one patients with choroidal melanomas located 1 disc diameter (DD) or less from the fovea and more than 1 DD away from the optic nerve were included in this study. In a subgroup of 203 of the patients with small and medium choroidal melanomas, the effect of a reduced dose of radiation, 50 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]) versus 70 Gy (RBE), on visual outcomes was analyzed. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were performed to calculate cumulative rates of vision loss and to assess risk factors for vision loss, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual acuity and radiation complications, which included radiation maculopathy, papillopathy, retinal detachment, and rubeosis, were assessed. RESULTS: Three hundred fifty-one patients were included in this study with a mean follow-up time of 68.7 months. More than one-third of patients (35.5%) retained 20/200 or better vision 5 years after proton beam irradiation. For those patients with a baseline visual acuity of 20/40 or better, 16.2% of patients retained this level of vision 5 years after proton beam irradiation. Tumor height less than 5 mm and baseline visual acuity 20/40 or better were associated significantly with a better visual outcome (P < 0.001). More than two-thirds (70.4%) of patients receiving 50 Gy (RBE) and nearly half (45.1%) of patients receiving 70 Gy (RBE) retained 20/200 or better vision 5 years after treatment, but this difference was not significant. Approximately 20% of patients with these smaller macular tumors retained 20/40 vision or better 5 years after irradiation. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this retrospective analysis demonstrate that despite receiving a full dose of radiation to the fovea, many patients with choroidal melanoma with foveal involvement maintain useful vision. A radiation dose reduction from 70 to 50 Gy (RBE) did not seem to increase the proportion of patients who retain usable vision.

Jakobiec FA, Stagner AM, Sassoon J, Goldstein S, Mihm MC. A Hyalinized Trichilemmoma of the Eyelid in a Teenager. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016;32(1):e9-e12.Abstract

A 16-year-old African American male, the youngest patient to date, presented with a well-circumscribed upper eyelid lesion. On excision, the dermal nodule was contiguous with the epidermis, displayed trichohyalin-like bodies in an expanded outer root sheath, and was composed chiefly of small cellular clusters separated by a prominent network of periodic acid Schiff -positive hyaline bands of basement membrane material. The tumor cells were positive for high molecular weight cytokeratins (CK) 5/6, CK14, and CK34βE12 and were negative for CK7, carcinoembryonic antigen and epithelial membrane antigen. Negative S100, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and smooth muscle actin immunoreactions ruled out a myoepithelial lesion. The Ki-67 proliferation index was <10%. The diagnosis was a hyalinized trichilemmoma, contrasting with the more common lobular type. As an isolated lesion, trichilemmoma does not portend Cowden syndrome.

Stagner AM, Jakobiec FA. Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors of the Eyelid Dermis: A Clinicopathologic and Immunohistochemical Analysis. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016;32(1):40-5.Abstract

PURPOSE: To determine the incidences, clinical features, and detailed histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings of 10 peripheral nerve tumors (isolated neurofibromas, solitary circumscribed neuromas [SCNs], and schwannomas) localized to the eyelid dermis. METHODS: In this retrospective clinicopathologic study, clinical records and paraffin sections subjected to hematoxylin and eosin, Masson trichrome, periodic acid-Schiff, reticulin, and Alcian blue staining were critically reviewed from each case. Additional paraffin sections were immunoreacted for S100, neurofilament, CD34, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), glucose transporter-1 (glut-1), and calretinin. RESULTS: Ten patients with a median age of 57 years had solitary, small, flesh-colored papules, 70% at the eyelid margin. Microscopically, they were diagnosed either as a SCN or an isolated neurofibroma. SCN was diffusely S100-positive (and sometimes diffusely calretinin-positive) with myriad neurofilaments. Fascicles of cells were separated by CD34-positive septa, and the lesions were surrounded by a glut-1/EMA-positive capsule. Neurofibromas were calretinin-negative and had a moderate number of S100-positive cells, with widely scattered neurofilaments, many CD34-postive intermixed cells, and no capsule. No schwannomas were diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral nerve tumors of the eyelid have a distinct clinical presentation at the eyelid margin. Careful histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies can reliably separate the entities in the categories of isolated neurofibroma, SCN, and schwannoma when the last occurs. These distinctions can have important systemic implications.

Jakobiec FA, Roh M, Stagner AM, Yoon MK. Choristomatous Respiratory Cyst Restricted to the Upper Eyelid. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016;32(1):e15-8.Abstract

A 79-year-old man underwent excision of an upper eyelid mass that had been enlarging for 3 months. Histopathologic evaluation demonstrated a cyst lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium with myriad goblet cells and cilia, and immunostaining revealed cytokeratins indicative of a respiratory origin. This rare condition, the first described exclusively in an eyelid, arises either from a congenital embryologic respiratory epithelial ectopia or the displacement of mature sinus mucosa following trauma or chronic sinus disease. The current case lacked any signs or symptoms of sinus disease or a history of trauma.

Tiedemann LM, Manley P, Smith ER, Dagi LR. Visual Field Loss in a Case of Recurrent Cystic Craniopharyngioma During Concomitant Treatment With Pegylated Interferon α-2b. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2015;Abstract

A 13-year-old male with suprasellar cystic craniopharyngioma initially controlled with sequential subtotal resections and proton-beam irradiation was later treated with intracystic pegylated interferon α-2b due to progression and a lack of further surgical options. After initial successful control of recurrent cyst enlargement and stabilization of the ophthalmic examination, progressive and irreversible visual field loss ensued. Imaging revealed intracranial leakage from the intracystic catheter, and direct administration of interferon α-2b was discontinued. Given the recent interest in interferon α-2b, oncologists are advised to vigilantly monitor patients for signs of local toxicity that may result from unintended leakage during intracystic delivery.

Duminuco R, Noble JW, Goody J, Sharma M, Ksander BR, Roskelley CD, Cox ME, Mills J. Integrin-linked kinase regulates senescence in an Rb-dependent manner in cancer cell lines. Cell Cycle 2015;14(18):2924-37.Abstract

Anti-integrin-linked kinase (ILK) therapies result in aberrant mitosis including altered mitotic spindle organization, centrosome declustering and mitotic arrest. In contrast to cells that expressed the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein Rb, we have shown that in retinoblastoma cell lines that do not express Rb, anti-ILK therapies induced aberrant mitosis that led to the accumulation of temporarily viable multinucleated cells. The present work was undertaken to: 1) determine the ultimate fate of cells that had survived anti-ILK therapies and 2) determine whether or not Rb expression altered the outcome of these cells. Our data indicate that ILK, a chemotherapy drug target is expressed in both well-differentiated, Rb-negative and relatively undifferentiated, Rb-positive retinoblastoma tissue. We show that small molecule targeting of ILK in Rb-positive and Rb-deficient cancer cells results in increased centrosomal declustering, aberrant mitotic spindle formation and multinucleation. However, anti-ILK therapies in vitro have different outcomes in retinoblastoma and glioblastoma cell lines that depend on Rb expression. TUNEL labeling and propidium iodide FACS analysis indicate that Rb-positive cells exposed to anti-ILK therapies are more susceptible to apoptosis and senescence than their Rb-deficient counterparts wherein aberrant mitosis induced by anti-ILK therapies exhibit mitotic arrest instead. These studies are the first to show a role for ILK in chemotherapy-induced senescence in Rb-positive cancer lines. Taken together these results indicate that the oncosuppressive outcomes for anti-ILK therapies in vitro, depend on the expression of the tumor suppressor Rb, a known G1 checkpoint and senescence regulator.

MacIntosh PW, Jakobiec FA, Stagner AM, Gilani S, Fay A. High grade neuroendocrine neoplasm of the antrum and orbit. Surv Ophthalmol 2015;60(5):486-94.Abstract

Neuroendocrine malignancies-tumors characterized by the production of dense-core secretory granules-are most often encountered in the lungs and can also be found in extrapulmonary sites. Our patient had a primary neuroendocrine tumor of the antrum with an elusive cell of origin that secondarily invaded the inferior orbit. In the sinuses, neuroendocrine tumors may be confused with infectious sinusitis or squamous cell carcinoma. There are no known pathognomonic clinical or radiographic signs to distinguish these tumors from other conditions. Diagnosis depends on a biopsy with histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis to identify biomarkers such as synaptophysin, chromogranin, CD56 and neuron specific enolase. Our patient's tumor defied precise immunohistochemical characterization because of its primitive character and erratic biomarker expression. The diagnosis oscillated between a neuroendocrine carcinoma and an ectopic esthesioneuroblastoma grade IV-hence the use of the more generic nosologic category of neuroendocrine neoplasm without specifying a neuronal or epithelial origin. Data to guide management are limited, particularly in the ophthalmic literature, and derive from experience with tumors of the sinonasal compartments. In the present case of a sino-orbital high grade neuroendocrine neoplasm, regional lymph node metastases developed shortly after presentation. The tumor has responded well to chemotherapy and radiation, but recurrence is often encountered within 2 years in this class of neoplasms.

Rai R, Jakobiec FA, Fay A. Ocular Metastatic Renal Carcinoma Presenting With Proptosis. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2015;31(4):e100-8.Abstract

Metastatic renal carcinoma is the third most common source of ocular and second most common source of orbital metastases. This is the first published case of von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease that developed renal cell carcinoma metastatic to an eye with a retinal hemangioblastoma. A 73-year-old woman had a history of vHL disease that included prior retinal hemangioblastomas, 2 cerebellar hemangioblastomas, and bilateral renal cell carcinomas with sacral metastasis. After presenting with progressive, painful proptosis secondary to a large mass observable by ocular CT, an enucleation-orbitotomy was performed, and the surgical specimen was sent for histopathological analysis. The ophthalmic renal metastatic tumor, like the primary tumor, was a clear cell variant that involved both the eyeball and orbit in continuity. The intraocular component was larger than the extraocular portion, which was interpreted as an outward extension of an initial retinal metastasis that probably first settled within a hemangioblastoma. Clusters of ectatic ghost vessels with thickened walls produced by periodic acid Schiff-positive, redundant basement membrane material were partially infiltrated by tumor cells at their periphery, thereby lending some support for this hypothesis. Immunohistochemical positivity for the biomarkers cytokeratin 18, vimentin, carbonic anhydrase IX, PAX2, and PAX 8 confirmed the diagnosis. The patient has refused further treatment. Her anophthalmic socket has comfortably retained a porous polyethylene implant without clinical evidence of local recurrence during 5 months of follow up.

Stagner AM, Jakobiec FA. Demonstration of a Borst-Jadassohn-Like Phenomenon in Sebaceous Carcinoma of the Eyelid. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2015;Abstract

A 77-year-old male presented with a diffuse, papular erythematous conjunctival mass that demonstrated on pathologic examination lobules of tumor in the conjunctival substantia propria and tarsus. The cells displayed numerous cytoplasmic vacuoles with extreme nuclear pleomorphism, consistent with sebaceous carcinoma. The overlying palpebral conjunctival epithelium exhibited regions of carcinoma in situ containing some vacuolated cells, alternating with a more classical appearance of pagetoid spread among normal surviving keratinocytes. Further analysis disclosed vesicular positivity for adipophilin and positive nuclear staining for androgen receptor. One tumor focus harbored exaggerated collections of intraepithelial tumor cells. These simulated the Borst-Jadassohn phenomenon of large nests of alien appearing cells normally encountered within the epidermis of the skin. This is the first description of this pattern created by an eyelid sebaceous carcinoma growing within the conjunctival epithelium.

Gupta MP, Lane AM, Deangelis MM, Mayne K, Crabtree M, Gragoudas ES, Kim IK. Clinical Characteristics of Uveal Melanoma in Patients With Germline BAP1 Mutations. JAMA Ophthalmol 2015;133(8):881-7.Abstract

IMPORTANCE: Somatic mutations in BAP1 (BRCA1-associated protein 1 gene) are frequently identified in uveal melanoma. To date, the role of germline BAP1 mutations in uveal melanoma has not been characterized. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the clinical phenotype of uveal melanoma in patients with germline BAP1 mutations. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective cohort study at an academic ophthalmology referral center among 507 patients with uveal melanoma who consented for collection of blood samples. The study dates were June 22, 1992, to December 14, 2010. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Clinical characteristics of uveal melanoma and the development of metastases. BAP1 gene sequencing from blood samples of patients with uveal melanoma was correlated with clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Of 507 blood samples analyzed, 25 patients (4.9%) exhibited 18 BAP1 polymorphisms, of which 9 were novel. Computational analyses predicted that 8 BAP1 mutations in 8 patients (1.6%) were likely to result in damaged BAP1 protein. Five of these 8 mutations were novel. These 8 patients were compared with 482 patients in whom no BAP1 polymorphisms were identified. In univariate analyses, patients with germline BAP1 mutations exhibited larger tumor diameters (mean, 15.9 vs 12.3 mm; P = .004) and higher rates of ciliary body involvement (75.0% vs 21.6%, P = .002) and metastases (71.4% vs 18.0%, P = .003) compared with control subjects. Patients with germline BAP1 mutations exhibited increased frequency of family history of cancer (100% vs 65.9%, P = .06), particularly cutaneous melanoma (62.5% vs 9.9%, P < .001) and ocular melanoma (25.0% vs 1.9%, P = .01). No differences were identified in age at diagnosis, sex, history of other malignant neoplasm, presenting visual acuity, distance of the tumor from the optic nerve or fovea, iris involvement, extrascleral extension, or tumor pigmentation. Germline BAP1 mutations increased risk of metastasis independent of ciliary body involvement (P = .02). Germline BAP1 mutation approached significance as an independent risk factor for metastasis (P = .09). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These data suggest that germline BAP1 mutations occur infrequently in uveal melanoma and are associated with larger tumors and higher rates of ciliary body involvement, 2 known risk factors for metastasis.

Lane AM, Kim IK, Gragoudas ES. Long-term Risk of Melanoma-Related Mortality for Patients With Uveal Melanoma Treated With Proton Beam Therapy. JAMA Ophthalmol 2015;Abstract

Importance: Little is known about the long-term risk of dying of uveal melanoma after treatment with radiotherapy. Objective: To determine the long-term risk of dying of this disease, we evaluated melanoma-related mortality rates up to 25 years after proton beam therapy in a large series of patients with uveal melanoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this analysis, we included 3088 patients with uveal melanoma, identified from a hospital-based cohort and treated with proton irradiation between January 1975 and December 2005. Vital status and cause of death were ascertained through active follow-up and searches of government databases (the Social Security Death Index and the National Death Index) through December 31, 2008. Cumulative rates of melanoma-related mortality were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Patient and tumor characteristics of known prognostic significance for melanoma-associated death were evaluated, including patient age and tumor dimensions. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measure was cumulative rates of melanoma-specific mortality, and secondary measures included annual melanoma-specific mortality hazard rates and cumulative all-cause mortality rates. Results: Of 1490 deceased patients, 620 (41.6%) died of ocular melanoma. In addition, 19 patients were alive, but their melanoma metastasized, by the end of the observation period (mean follow-up after diagnosis of metastasis, 5.3 years). All-cause mortality rates in this cohort were 49.0% (95% CI, 47.0-51.1) at 15 years, 58.6% (95% CI, 56.4%-60.8%) at 20 years, and 66.8% (95% CI, 64.2%-69.4%) at 25 years. Melanoma-related mortality rates were 24.6% (95% CI, 22.8-26.4) at 15 years after treatment, 25.8% (95% CI, 24.0-27.8) at 20 years after treatment, and 26.4% (95% CI, 24.5-28.5) at 25 years after treatment. The 20-year mortality rate was 8.6% (95% CI, 6.2-11.9) for younger patients (≤60 years) with small tumors (≤11 mm) and 40.1% (95% CI, 36.1-44.3) for older patients (>60 years) with large tumors (>11 mm). Conclusions and Relevance: In this large series of patients with ocular melanoma treated conservatively with proton beam irradiation, the cumulative melanoma-related mortality rates continued to increase up to 23 years after treatment. Annual rates decreased considerably (to <1%) 14 years after treatment. Information regarding the long-term risk of dying of uveal melanoma may be useful to clinicians when counseling patients.

Jakobiec FA, Stagner AM, Colby KA. Pigmented Caruncular Apocrine Hidrocystoma With Oncocytic Features. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2015;Abstract

An unprecedented pigmented caruncular apocrine hidrocystoma with the additional feature of an oncocytic transformation of the cyst's lining cells is reported. Over a year, a 79-year-old woman developed a centrally pigmented lesion of her right caruncle with translucent borders. Because of concern about a melanoma, a carunculectomy with adjunctive cryotherapy and placement of an amniotic membrane graft were performed, and the excised specimen was evaluated microscopically. A large cyst dominated the caruncle and was lined by an inner layer of columnar eosinophilic and granular cells with an outer, interrupted layer of flattened myoepithelial cells. Phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin staining disclosed myriad cytoplasmic, dot-like mitochondria signifying an oncocytic change. Immunohistochemistry revealed gross cystic fluid disease protein-15 and cytokeratin 7-positivity indicative of apocrine differentiation. Oncocytic change is characteristically encountered in lacrimal ductal cysts and tumors.

Weis B, Schmidt J, Maamar H, Raj A, Lin H, Tóth C, Riedmann K, Raddatz G, Seitz H-K, Ho AD, Lyko F, Linhart HG. Inhibition of intestinal tumor formation by deletion of the DNA methyltransferase 3a. Oncogene 2015;34(14):1822-30.Abstract
Aberrant de novo methylation of DNA is considered an important mediator of tumorigenesis. To investigate the role of de novo DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a) in intestinal tumor development, we analyzed the expression of Dnmt3a in murine colon crypts, murine colon adenomas and human colorectal cancer using RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative PCR and immunostaining. Following conditional deletion of Dnmt3a in the colon of APC((Min/+)) mice, we analyzed tumor numbers, genotype of macroadenomas and laser dissected microadenomas, global and regional DNA methylation and gene expression. Our results showed increased Dnmt3a expression in colon adenomas of APC((Min/+)) mice and human colorectal cancer samples when compared with control tissue. Interestingly, in tumor tissue, RNA FISH analysis showed highest Dnmt3a expression in Lgr5-positive stem/progenitor cells. Deletion of Dnmt3a in APC((Min/+)) mice reduced colon tumor numbers by ~40%. Remaining adenomas and microadenomas almost exclusively contained the non-recombined Dnmt3a allele; no tumors composed of the inactivated Dnmt3a allele were detected. DNA methylation was reduced at the Oct4, Nanog, Tff2 and Cdkn1c promoters and expression of the tumor-suppressor genes Tff2 and Cdkn1c was increased. In conclusion, our results show that Dnmt3a is predominantly expressed in the stem/progenitor cell compartment of tumors and that deletion of Dnmt3a inhibits the earliest stages of intestinal tumor development.
Rodriguez-Galindo C, Orbach DB, Vanderveen D. Retinoblastoma. Pediatr Clin North Am 2015;62(1):201-23.Abstract

Retinoblastoma is the most common neoplasm of the eye in childhood, and represents 3% of all childhood malignancies. Retinoblastoma is a cancer of the very young; two-thirds are diagnosed before 2 years of age and 95% before 5 years. Retinoblastoma presents in 2 distinct clinical forms: (1) a bilateral or multifocal, heritable form (25% of all cases), characterized by the presence of germline mutations of the RB1 gene; and (2) a unilateral or unifocal form (75% of all cases), 90% of which are nonhereditary. The treatment of retinoblastoma is multidisciplinary and is designed primarily to save life and preserve vision.

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