Retinal imaging is a fundamental tool for clinical and research efforts in the evaluation and management of diabetic retinopathy. Adaptive optics (AO) is an imaging technique that enables correction of over 90% of the optical aberrations of an individual eye induced primarily by the tear film, cornea and lens. The two major tasks of any AO system are to measure the optical imperfections of the eye and to then compensate for these aberrations to generate a corrected wavefront of reflected light from the eye. AO scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) provides a theoretical lateral resolution limit of 1.4 μm, allowing the study of microscopic features of the retinal vascular and neural tissue. AOSLO studies have revealed irregularities of the photoreceptor mosaic, vascular loss, and details of vascular lesions in diabetic eyes that may provide new insight into development, regression, and response to therapy of diabetic eye disease.
Paracrine interactions between epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts occur during tissue repair, development, and cancer. Crucial to these processes is the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that modify the microenvironment. Here, we demonstrated that the carbohydrate-binding protein galectin-3 stimulated microenvironment remodeling in the cornea by promoting the paracrine action of secreted interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Through live cell imaging in vitro, we observed rapid activation of the promoter in clusters of cultured human epithelial cells after direct heterotypic contact with single primary human fibroblasts. Soluble recombinant galectin-3 and endogenous galectin-3 of epithelial origin both stimulated MMP9 activity through the induction of IL-1β secretion by fibroblasts. In vivo, mechanical disruption of the basement membrane in wounded corneas prompted an increase in the abundance of IL-1β in the stroma and increased the amount of gelatinase activity in the epithelium. Moreover, corneas of galectin-3-deficient mice failed to stimulate IL-1β after wounding. This mechanism of paracrine control has broad importance for our understanding of how the proteolytic microenvironment is modified in epithelial-stromal interactions.
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between meibomian gland (MG) morphology and clinical dry eye tests in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Total 538 MGD patients and 21 healthy controls. METHODS: MG loss on meibography images of upper (UL) and lower lids (LL) was graded on a scale of 0 (lowest degree of MG loss) to 3. MG length, thickness, and interglandular space in the UL were measured. Clinical tests included meibum expression and quality, tear film break-up time, ocular staining, osmolarity, Schirmer I, blink interval timing, and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire. RESULTS: Mean UL and LL meibogrades were significantly higher in MGD patients compared to controls (P < .001 for UL and LL). The sensitivity and specificity of the meibograde as a diagnostic parameter for MGD was 96.7% and 85%, respectively. Schirmer I was significantly increased in MGD patients with meibograde 1 compared to patients with meibograde 0, 2, and 3 in the UL (P < .05). MG thickness increased with higher meibograde (P < .001). MG morphology correlated significantly but weakly with several clinical parameters (P < .05). OSDI did not correlate with any MG morphologic parameter. CONCLUSIONS: Grading of MG loss using meibograde effectively diagnoses MGD. Compensatory mechanisms such as increased aqueous tear production and dilation of MGs make early detection of MGD difficult by standard clinical measures of dry eye, whereas morphologic analysis of MGs reveals an early stage of MGD, and therefore represents a complementary clinical parameter with diagnostic potential.
OBJECTIVE: Corneal nerve damage may result in neuropathic corneal pain (NCP). Autologous serum tears (AST) have been shown to results in nerve regeneration and may help alleviate corneal pain. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of AST in the treatment of NCP. METHODS: This was a retrospective case-control study. Sixteen patients suffering from severe NCP and no current ocular surface disease were compared to 12 controls. In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) (HRT3/RCM; Heidelberg, Germany) of the central corneas was performed bilaterally. Change in pain severity (scale of 0-10), corneal nerve density, tortuosity, reflectivity and presence of beading and microneuromas before and after treatment were recorded. RESULTS: All patients had severe pain of 9.1 ± 0.2 (range 8-10). Before treatment, subbasal nerves were significantly decreased compared to controls, including total nerve length (10,935.5 ± 1264.3 vs. 24,714.4 ± 1056.2 μm/mm; p < 0.0001) and total number of nerves (10.5 ± 1.4 vs. 28.6 ± 2.0; p < 0.0001), respectively. Morphologically, significantly increased reflectivity (2.9 ± 0.2 vs. 1.2 ± 0.1; p = 0.00008) and tortuosity (2.4 ± 0.2 vs. 1.7 ± 0.1; p = 0.001), both graded on a scale of 0-4, were noted. After 3.8 ± 0.5 months (range 1-8 months) of AST treatment, pain severity decreased to 3.1 ± 0.3 (range 0-4), (p < 0.0001). Further, IVCM demonstrated a significant improvement (p < 0.005) in total nerve length (17,351.3 ± 1395.6 μm/mm) and number (15.1 ± 1.6) as well as significant decrease in reflectivity (2.4 ± 0.2; p = 0.001) and tortuosity (2.2 ± 0.2; p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: IVCM demonstrates underlying alterations of the subbasal corneal nerve plexus in patients suffering from debilitating NCP. AST-induced nerve regeneration is seen following treatment with AST, which correlates with improvement in patient symptoms of NCP.
Agrawal R, Agarwal A, Jabs DA, Kee A, Testi I, Mahajan S, McCluskey PJ, Gupta A, Palestine A, Denniston A, Banker A, Invernizzi A, Fonollosa A, Sharma A, Kumar A, Curi A, Okada A, Schlaen A, Heiligenhaus A, Kumar A, Gurbaxani A, Bodaghi B, Islam Shah B, Lowder C, Tappeiner C, Muccioli C, Vasconcelos-Santos DV, Goldstein D, Behra D, Das D, Makhoul D, Baglivo E, Denisova E, Miserocchi E, Carreno E, Asyari F, Pichi F, Sen NH, Uy H, Nascimento H, Tugal-Tutkun I, Arevalo FJ, Davis J, Thorne J, Hisae Yamamoto J, Smith J, Garweg JG, Biswas J, Babu K, Aggarwal K, Cimino L, Kuffova L, Agarwal M, Zierhut M, Agarwal M, DeSmet M, Tognon MS, Errera M-H, Munk M, Westcott M, Soheilian M, Accorinti M, Khairallah M, Nguyen M, Kon OM, Mahendradas P, Yang P, Neri P, Ozdal P, Amer R, Lee R, Distia Nora RL, Chhabra R, Belfort R, Mehta S, Shoughy S, Luthra S, Mohamed SO, Chee S-P, Basu S, Teoh S, Ganesh S, Barisani-Asenbauer T, Guex-Crosier Y, Ozyazgan Y, Akova Y, Habot-Wilner Z, Kempen J, Nguyen QD, Pavesio C, Gupta V, Gupta V. Standardization of Nomenclature for Ocular Tuberculosis - Results of Collaborative Ocular Tuberculosis Study (COTS) Workshop. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2019;:1-11.Abstract
: To standardize a nomenclature system for defining clinical phenotypes, and outcome measures for reporting clinical and research data in patients with ocular tuberculosis (OTB).: Uveitis experts initially administered and further deliberated the survey in an open meeting to determine and propose the preferred nomenclature for terms related to the OTB, terms describing the clinical phenotypes and treatment and reporting outcomes.: The group of experts reached a consensus on terming uveitis attributable to tuberculosis (TB) as tubercular uveitis. The working group introduced a SUN-compatible nomenclature that also defines disease "remission" and "cure", both of which are relevant for reporting treatment outcomes.: A consensus nomenclature system has been adopted by a large group of international uveitis experts for OTB. The working group recommends the use of standardized nomenclature to prevent ambiguity in communication and to achieve the goal of spreading awareness of this blinding uveitis entity.
Under cone-mediated (photopic) conditions, an "instantaneous" flash of light, including both stimulus onset and offset, will simultaneously activate both "ON" and "OFF" bipolar cells, which either depolarize (ON) or hyperpolarize (OFF) in response and, respectively, produce positive-going and negative-going deflections in the electroretinogram (ERG). The stimulus-response (SR) relationship of the photopic ON response demonstrates logistic growth, like that manifested in the rod-mediated (scotopic) b-wave, which is driven by a single class of depolarizing bipolar cell. However, the photopic b-wave SR function is importantly shaped by OFF responses, leading to a "photopic hill." Furthermore, both on and off stimuli elicit activity in both ON and OFF bipolar cells. This has made it difficult to produce meaningful parameters for ready interpretation of the photopic b-wave SR relationship. Therefore, we evaluated whether the sum of sigmoidal SR functions, as descriptors of the depolarizing and hyperpolarizing components of the photopic flash ERG, could be used to elucidate and quantitate the mechanisms that produce the photopic hill. We used a novel fitting routine to optimize a sum of simple sigmoidal curves to SR data in five groups of subjects: Healthy adult, 10-week-old infant, congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB), X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XJR), and preterm-born, both without and with a history of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Differences in ON and OFF amplitude, sensitivity, and implicit time among the groups were then compared using parameters extracted from these fits. We found that our modeling procedure enabled plausible derivations of ON and OFF pathway contributions to the ERG, and that the parameters produced appeared to have physiological relevance. In adult subjects, the ON and OFF amplitudes were similar in magnitude with respectively longer and shorter implicit times. Infant, CSNB, and XJR subjects showed significant ON pathway deficits. History of preterm-birth, without or with a diagnosis of ROP, did not much affect cone responses.
The molecular mechanisms involved in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generation are poorly understood. The cell death machinery of apoptosis-inducing caspases have been shown to facilitate the process of iPSCs reprogramming. However, the effect of other cell death processes, such as programmed necrosis (necroptosis), on iPSCs induction has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the role of receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3), an essential regulator of necroptosis, in reprogramming mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs) into iPSCs. RIP3 was found to be upregulated in iPSCs compared to MEFs. Deletion of RIP3 dramatically suppressed the reprogramming of iPSCs (~82%). RNA-seq analysis and qRT-PCR showed that RIP3 KO MEFs expressed lower levels of genes that control cell cycle progression and cell division and higher levels of extracellular matrix-regulating genes. The growth rate of RIP3 KO MEFs was significantly slower than WT MEFs. These findings can partially explain the inhibitory effects of RIP3 deletion on iPSCs generation and show for the first time that the necroptosis kinase RIP3 plays an important role in iPSC reprogramming. In contrast to RIP3, the kinase and scaffolding functions of RIPK1 appeared to have distinct effects on reprogramming.
Recent transcriptional profiling technologies are uncovering previously-undefined cell populations and molecular markers at an unprecedented pace. While single cell RNA (scRNA) sequencing is an attractive approach for unbiased transcriptional profiling of all cell types, a complementary method to isolate and sequence specific cell populations from heterogeneous tissue remains challenging. Here, we developed Probe-Seq, which allows deep transcriptional profiling of specific cell types isolated using RNA as the defining feature. Dissociated cells are labeled using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for RNA, and then isolated by fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS). We used Probe-Seq to purify and profile specific cell types from mouse, human, and chick retinas, as well as from midguts. Probe-Seq is compatible with frozen nuclei, making cell types within archival tissue immediately accessible. As it can be multiplexed, combinations of markers can be used to create specificity. Multiplexing also allows for the isolation of multiple cell types from one cell preparation. Probe-Seq should enable RNA profiling of specific cell types from any organism.
Purpose: To assess retinal function in young patients with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS), a disorder that is known to alter ERG postreceptor retinal components and also possibly photoreceptor components. Methods: ERG responses to full-field stimuli were recorded under scotopic and photopic conditions in 12 XLRS patients aged 1 to 15 (median 8) years. A- and b-wave amplitudes and implicit times were examined over a range of stimulus intensities. Rod and cone photoreceptor (SROD, RROD, SCONE, RCONE) and rod-driven postreceptor (log σ, VMAX) response parameters were calculated from the a- and b-waves. Data from XLRS patients were evaluated for significant change with age. Results: A- and b-wave amplitudes were smaller in XLRS patients compared with controls under both scotopic and photopic conditions. Saturated photoresponse amplitude (RROD), postreceptor b-wave (log σ), and saturated b-wave amplitude (VMAX) were significantly lower in XLRS patients than in controls; SROD did not differ between the two groups. SCONE and RCONE values were normal. In XLRS patients, neither a- and b-wave amplitudes nor calculated parameters (SROD, RROD, log σ, VMAX,SCONE, and RCONE) changed with age. Conclusions: In these young XLRS patients, RROD and a-wave amplitudes were significantly smaller than in controls. Thus, in addition to XLRS causing postreceptor dysfunction, an effect of XLRS on rod photoreceptors cannot be ignored.
Achillea species and in particular Achillea tenuifolia Lam. is generally used as a food flavor and traditional remedies, especially in the initial developmental stage for medical conditions in the Mediterranean part of Iran. In this report, we extracted the essential oil from the aerial parts of A. tenuifolia (collected from Khoy), at various developmental stages (i. e., vegetative, flowering and fruiting), characterized them and studied their antibacterial activities. Of 46, 51 and 38 components found in the vegetative, flowering, and fruiting stages, respectively, 35 were present in all three stages, including oxygenated terpenes such as carvacrol (30.85-34.11), germacrene C (16.21-17.87), spathulenol (7.26-8.96), β-sesquiphellandrene (4.11-4.25), τ-muurolol (2.27-3.25) and α-cadinol (2.01-3.29). We witnessed that the composition of the essential oils varies with phenological stages and geographic regions. The essential oil demonstrated substantial antibacterial properties against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, indicated by disk method, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) assays. Except Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the essential oils of various phenological stages showed higher antibacterial activity against tested bacteria, with Bacillus anthracis as the most sensitive strain. Moreover, although antibacterial characteristics of the essential oil from the vegetative and flowering stages were similar (p=0.91), they were significantly different from those of fruiting stage (p<0.005 in both MIC and MBC tests). This emphasizes the importance of the developmental stage of the plant in the biological properties of its essential oil and justifies the widespread application of this plant in the vegetative stage.
In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) spinal motor neurons (SpMN) progressively degenerate while a subset of cranial motor neurons (CrMN) are spared until late stages of the disease. Using a rapid and efficient protocol to differentiate mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) to SpMNs and CrMNs, we now report that ESC-derived CrMNs accumulate less human (h)SOD1 and insoluble p62 than SpMNs over time. ESC-derived CrMNs have higher proteasome activity to degrade misfolded proteins and are intrinsically more resistant to chemically-induced proteostatic stress than SpMNs. Chemical and genetic activation of the proteasome rescues SpMN sensitivity to proteostatic stress. In agreement, the hSOD1 G93A mouse model reveals that ALS-resistant CrMNs accumulate less insoluble hSOD1 and p62-containing inclusions than SpMNs. Primary-derived ALS-resistant CrMNs are also more resistant than SpMNs to proteostatic stress. Thus, an ESC-based platform has identified a superior capacity to maintain a healthy proteome as a possible mechanism to resist ALS-induced neurodegeneration.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In recent years, literature on neuroinflammatory disorders has dramatically expanded, as have options for treatment. However, few reviews have focused on skull-based manifestations of inflammatory disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Here, we review the clinical manifestations, etiologies, diagnostic workup, and treatment of both systemic and localized inflammatory diseases of the skull base with a focus on recent updates to the literature. This review aims to guide the workup and management of this complex set of diseases.
PRéCIS:: Neuroretinal rim minimum distance band (MDB) thickness is significantly lower in older subjects and African Americans compared with whites. It is similar in both sexes. PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between age, race, and sex with the neuroretinal rim using high-density spectral-domain optical coherence tomography optic nerve volume scans of normal eyes. METHODS: A total of 256 normal subjects underwent Spectralis spectral-domain optical coherence tomography optic nerve head volume scans. One eye was randomly selected and analyzed for each subject. Using custom-designed software, the neuroretinal rim MDB thickness was calculated from volume scans, and global and quadrant neuroretinal rim thickness values were determined. The MDB is a 3-dimensional neuroretinal rim band comprised of the shortest distance between the internal limiting membrane and the termination of the retinal pigment epithelium/Bruch's membrane complex. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the associations of age, race, and sex with neuroretinal rim MDB measurements. RESULTS: The population was 57% female and 69% white with a mean age of 58.4±15.3 years. The mean MDB thickness in the normal population was 278.4±47.5 µm. For this normal population, MDB thickness decreased by 0.84 µm annually (P<0.001). African Americans had thinner MDBs compared with whites (P=0.003). Males and females had similar MDB thickness values (P=0.349). CONCLUSION: Neuroretinal rim MDB thickness measurements decreased significantly with age. African Americans had thinner MDB neuroretinal rims than whites.
Arboleda-Velasquez JF, Lopera F, O'Hare M, Delgado-Tirado S, Marino C, Chmielewska N, Saez-Torres KL, Amarnani D, Schultz AP, Sperling RA, Leyton-Cifuentes D, Chen K, Baena A, Aguillon D, Rios-Romenets S, Giraldo M, Guzmán-Vélez E, Norton DJ, Pardilla-Delgado E, Artola A, Sanchez JS, Acosta-Uribe J, Lalli M, Kosik KS, Huentelman MJ, Zetterberg H, Blennow K, Reiman RA, Luo J, Chen Y, Thiyyagura P, Su Y, Jun GR, Naymik M, Gai X, Bootwalla M, Ji J, Shen L, Miller JB, Kim LA, Tariot PN, Johnson KA, Reiman EM, Quiroz YT. Resistance to autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease in an APOE3 Christchurch homozygote: a case report. Nat Med 2019;25(11):1680-1683.Abstract
We identified a PSEN1 (presenilin 1) mutation carrier from the world's largest autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease kindred, who did not develop mild cognitive impairment until her seventies, three decades after the expected age of clinical onset. The individual had two copies of the APOE3 Christchurch (R136S) mutation, unusually high brain amyloid levels and limited tau and neurodegenerative measurements. Our findings have implications for the role of APOE in the pathogenesis, treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease.
PURPOSE: To provide an update summarizing the biologic pathways governing von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease pathogenesis and to provide an overview of systemic manifestations as well as screening recommendations. METHODS: A PubMed search of the English language literature was reviewed using the following search terms: von Hippel-Lindau, von Hippel-Lindau disease, and VHL. Of 6,696 publications, the most current and pertinent information related to the pathogenesis and systemic aspects of VHL disease were included in this review. RESULTS: von Hippel-Lindau disease is one of the most frequently occurring multisystem familial cancer syndromes. The disease results from germline mutation in the VHL tumor suppressor gene on the short arm of chromosome 3. Mutation in the VHL gene affects multiple cellular processes including transcriptional regulation, extracellular matrix formation, apoptosis, and, in particular, the cellular adaptive response to hypoxia. As a result, there is widespread development of vascular tumors affecting the retina, brain, and spine, as well as a spectrum of benign and malignant tumors and/or cysts in visceral organs. CONCLUSION: The ophthalmologist plays a key role in VHL disease diagnosis, as retinal hemangioblastoma is frequently the first disease manifestation. Screening guidelines for individuals with known VHL disease, and those at risk of VHL disease, help to ensure early detection of potentially vision-threatening and life-threatening disease.
The cornea and its adnexa pose a unique situation of a tightly defined set of requirements for its function. This includes: transparency, perfect built to obtain appropriate refractive power, protective barrier from microbial invaders. Moreso, the cornea also endures extreme external physical conditions (temperature, high and low humidity, winds and alike). All these functions are maintained while preserving a constant state of homogenous wetting. Toward that end the cornea is equipped with an elaborated network of sensory neural network. While enabling the blinking reflex and maintaining the physiological steady state of wetting, this neural network also makes the cornea prone to the discomfort that with or without associated changes seen on medical examination. ISOPT Clinical 2018 discussion touched upon this hypercomplex situation, addressing the role of inflammation and its resulting discomfort in dry eye conditions. The discussion also engulfed the emerging neuropathic pain syndrome that is recently gaining more attention. Another related topic was the utilization of autologous serum tears and its ability to provide amelioration to desperate patients. Finally, the panel discussed the issue of treating corneal infection, including when and how to utilize steroids in the course of therapy. We assume the reader will find interest in this discussion that directly addresses issues seen day in and day out in our busy clinics.
Microperimetry (MP) is used to assess visual sensitivity mediated by the central retina. As such, MP performance is a candidate outcome measure for gene therapy trials. Herein, we review MP results in three inherited retinal disorders for which gene therapy trials have been initiated-choroideremia, Stargardt disease, and X-linked juvenile retinoschisis. Each of these disorders typically presents in childhood and each has distinct effects on the central retina. Our review indicates that microperimetry is feasible in each of these conditions. The MP sensitivity maps vary among conditions consistent with known effects of each of the three conditions. There is, however, within each of the three disorders considerable variability in fixation stability and in the pattern of sensitivity loss. Microperimetry is a valuable tool for monitoring functional aspects of central retina in an individual patient, especially in combination with other modalities such as OCT, autofluorescence, and acuity and thus may contribute to evaluating the efficacy of gene treatments. Variability of the MP parameters raises some cautions in application of MP as an outcome measure in treatment trials that may have small sample sizes. Nonetheless, we suspect that MP will continue to have a rightful place in future gene therapy trials.
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and other genetic causes of visual loss are important clinical entities that can cause profound visual loss. To date, therapeutic options have been quite limited, but insights into the genetic basis of these diseases and advances in the ability to deliver effective and safe gene therapy have opened the door for new therapeutics that may revolutionize the approach to treating these conditions. This article reviews emerging gene therapies of LHON and other inherited ophthalmological diseases, addressing the technical, clinical, and ethical challenges that researchers and clinicians will encounter as new treatments become available for these conditions.
Importance: Intravitreous injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor agents are effective for treating diabetic macular edema (DME) involving the center of the macula (center-involved DME [CI-DME]) with visual acuity impairment (20/32 or worse). The best approach to treating patients with CI-DME and good visual acuity (20/25 or better) is unknown. Objective: To compare vision loss at 2 years among eyes initially managed with aflibercept, laser photocoagulation, or observation. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized clinical trial conducted at 91 US and Canadian sites among 702 adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Participants had 1 study eye with CI-DME and visual acuity of 20/25 or better. The first participant was randomized on November 8, 2013, and the final date of follow-up was September 11, 2018. Interventions: Eyes were randomly assigned to 2.0 mg of intravitreous aflibercept (n = 226) as frequently as every 4 weeks, focal/grid laser photocoagulation (n = 240), or observation (n = 236). Aflibercept was required for eyes in the laser photocoagulation or observation groups that had decreased visual acuity from baseline by at least 10 letters (≥ 2 lines on an eye chart) at any visit or by 5 to 9 letters (1-2 lines) at 2 consecutive visits. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was at least a 5-letter visual acuity decrease from baseline at 2 years. Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration adverse events (defined as myocardial infarction, stroke, or vascular or unknown death) were reported. Results: Among 702 randomized participants (mean age, 59 years; 38% female [n=264]), 625 of 681 (92% excluding deaths) completed the 2-year visit. For eyes with visual acuity that decreased from baseline, aflibercept was initiated in 25% (60/240) and 34% (80/326) in the laser photocoagulation and observation groups, respectively. At 2 years, the percentage of eyes with at least a 5-letter visual acuity decrease was 16% (33/205), 17% (36/212), and 19% (39/208) in the aflibercept, laser photocoagulation, and observation groups, respectively (aflibercept vs laser photocoagulation risk difference, -2% [95% CI, -9% to 5%]; relative risk, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.57-1.35; P = .79]; aflibercept vs observation risk difference, -3% [95% CI, -11% to 4%]; relative risk, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.55-1.27; P = .79]; laser photocoagulation vs observation risk difference, -1% [95% CI, -9% to 6%]; relative risk, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.64-1.41; P = .79]). Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration vascular events occurred in 15 (7%), 13 (5%), and 8 (3%) participants in the aflibercept, laser photocoagulation, and observation groups. Conclusions and Relevance: Among eyes with CI-DME and good visual acuity, there was no significant difference in vision loss at 2 years whether eyes were initially managed with aflibercept or with laser photocoagulation or observation and given aflibercept only if visual acuity worsened. Observation without treatment unless visual acuity worsens may be a reasonable strategy for CI-DME. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01909791.
PURPOSE: Severe corneal disease contributes significantly to the global burden of blindness. Corneal allograft surgery remains the most commonly used treatment, but does not succeed long term in every patient, and the odds of success fall with each repeated graft. The Boston keratoprosthesis type I has emerged as an alternative to repeat corneal allograft. However, cost limits its use in resource-poor settings, where most corneal blind individuals reside. METHODS: All aspects of the Boston keratoprosthesis design process were examined to determine areas of potential modification and simplification, with dual goals to reduce cost and improve the cosmetic appearance of the device in situ. RESULTS: Minor modifications in component design simplified keratoprosthesis manufacturing. Proportional machinist time could be further reduced by adopting a single axial length for aphakic eyes, and a single back plate diameter. The cosmetic appearance was improved by changing the shape of the back plate holes from round to radial, with a petaloid appearance, and by anodization of back plate titanium to impute a more natural color. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed a modified Boston keratoprosthesis type I, which we call the "Lucia." The Lucia retains the 2 piece design and ease of assembly of the predicate device, but would allow for manufacturing at a reduced cost. Its appearance should prove more acceptable to implanted patients. Successful keratoprosthesis outcomes require daily medications for the life of the patient and rigorous, frequent, postoperative care. Effective implementation of the device in resource-poor settings will require further innovations in eye care delivery.