Importance: Vitreous hemorrhage from proliferative diabetic retinopathy can cause loss of vision. The best management approach is unknown. Objective: To compare initial treatment with intravitreous aflibercept vs vitrectomy with panretinal photocoagulation for vitreous hemorrhage from proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized clinical trial at 39 DRCR Retina Network sites in the US and Canada including 205 adults with vison loss due to vitreous hemorrhage from proliferative diabetic retinopathy who were enrolled from November 2016 to December 2017. The final follow-up visit was completed in January 2020. Interventions: Random assignment of eyes (1 per participant) to aflibercept (100 participants) or vitrectomy with panretinal photocoagulation (105 participants). Participants whose eyes were assigned to aflibercept initially received 4 monthly injections. Both groups could receive aflibercept or vitrectomy during follow-up based on protocol criteria. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was mean visual acuity letter score (range, 0-100; higher scores indicate better vision) over 24 weeks (area under the curve); the study was powered to detect a difference of 8 letters. Secondary outcomes included mean visual acuity at 4 weeks and 2 years. Results: Among 205 participants (205 eyes) who were randomized (mean [SD] age, 57  years; 115 [56%] men; mean visual acuity letter score, 34.5 [Snellen equivalent, 20/200]), 95% (195 of 205) completed the 24-week visit and 90% (177 of 196, excluding 9 deaths) completed the 2-year visit. The mean visual acuity letter score over 24 weeks was 59.3 (Snellen equivalent, 20/63) (95% CI, 54.9 to 63.7) in the aflibercept group vs 63.0 (Snellen equivalent, 20/63) (95% CI, 58.6 to 67.3) in the vitrectomy group (adjusted difference, -5.0 [95% CI, -10.2 to 0.3], P = .06). Among 23 secondary outcomes, 15 showed no significant difference. The mean visual acuity letter score was 52.6 (Snellen equivalent, 20/100) in the aflibercept group vs 62.3 (Snellen equivalent, 20/63) in the vitrectomy group at 4 weeks (adjusted difference, -11.2 [95% CI, -18.5 to -3.9], P = .003) and 73.7 (Snellen equivalent, 20/40) vs 71.0 (Snellen equivalent, 20/40) at 2 years (adjusted difference, 2.7 [95% CI, -3.1 to 8.4], P = .36). Over 2 years, 33 eyes (33%) assigned to aflibercept received vitrectomy and 34 eyes (32%) assigned to vitrectomy received subsequent aflibercept. Conclusions and Relevance: Among participants whose eyes had vitreous hemorrhage from proliferative diabetic retinopathy, there was no statistically significant difference in the primary outcome of mean visual acuity letter score over 24 weeks following initial treatment with intravitreous aflibercept vs vitrectomy with panretinal photocoagulation. However, the study may have been underpowered, considering the range of the 95% CI, to detect a clinically important benefit in favor of initial vitrectomy with panretinal photocoagulation. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02858076.
AIMS: To compare microaneurysm (MA) counts using ultrawide field colour images (UWF-CI) and ultrawide field fluorescein angiography (UWF-FA). METHODS: Retrospective study including patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus receiving UWF-FA and UWF-CI within 2 weeks. MAs were manually counted in individual Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) and extended UWF zones. Fields with MAs ≥20 determined diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity (0 fields=mild, 1-3=moderate, ≥4=severe). UWF-FA and UWF-CI agreement was determined and UWF-CI DR severity sensitivity analysis adjusting for UWF-FA MA counts performed. RESULTS: In 193 patients (288 eyes), 2.4% had no DR, 29.9% mild non-proliferative DR (NPDR), 32.6% moderate (NPDR), 22.9% severe NPDR and 12.2% proliferative DR. UWF-FA MA counts were 3.5-fold higher (p<0.001) than UWF-CI counts overall, 3.2x-fold higher in ETDRS fields (p<0.001) and 5.3-fold higher in extended ETDRS fields (p<0.001) and higher in type 1 versus type 2 diabetes (p<0.001). In eyes with NPDR on UWF-CI (n=246), UWF-FA images had 1.6x-3.5x more fields with ≥20 MAs (p<0.001). Fair agreement existed between imaging modalities (k=0.221-0.416). In ETDRS fields, DR severity agreement increased from k=0.346 to 0.600 when dividing UWF-FA counts by a factor of 3, followed by rapid decline in agreement thereafter. Total UWF area agreement increased from k=0.317 to 0.565 with an adjustment factor of either 4 or 5. CONCLUSIONS: UWF-FA detects threefold to fivefold more MAs than UWF-CI and identifies 1.6-3.5-fold more fields affecting DR severity. Differences exist at all DR severity levels, thus limiting direct comparison between the modalities. However, correcting UWF-FA MA counts substantially improves DR severity agreement between the modalities.
Importance: Studies have not yet determined whether the distribution of lesions in the retinal periphery alters the association between the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and macular vessel density. Objective: To evaluate the association of DR lesion distribution with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) metrics and DR severity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted at a tertiary care center for diabetic eye disease among 225 patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes who had undergone imaging between February 15, 2016, and December 31, 2019. Exposures: Optical coherence tomography angiography 3 × 3-mm macular scans and ultra-widefield color imaging. Main Outcomes and Measures: Optical coherence tomography angiography vessel density in the superficial capillary plexus, intermediate capillary plexus, and deep capillary plexus and choriocapillaris flow density. The severity of DR and the predominantly peripheral lesions (PPL) were evaluated from ultra-widefield color imaging. Results: The study evaluated 352 eyes (225 patients; 125 men [55.6%]; mean [SD] age, 52.1 [15.1] years), of which 183 eyes (52.0%) had mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), 71 eyes (20.2%) had moderate NPDR, and 98 eyes (27.8%) had severe NPDR or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). In eyes with no PPL (209 [59.4%]), the mean (SD) vessel density in the superficial capillary plexus (mild NPDR, 38.1% [4.7%]; moderate NPDR, 36.4% [4.6%]; severe NPDR or PDR, 34.1% [4.1%]; P < .001) and the deep capillary plexus (mild NPDR, 45.8% [3.0%]; moderate NPDR, 45.8% [2.2%]; severe NPDR or PDR, 44.5% [1.9%]; P = .002), as well as the mean (SD) choriocapillaris flow density (mild NPDR, 69.7% [6.2%]; moderate NPDR, 67.6% [5.6%]; severe NPDR or PDR, 67.1% [5.6%]; P = .01), decreased with increasing DR severity. These associations remained statistically significant even after correcting for age, signal strength index, spherical equivalent, duration of diabetes, type of diabetes, and correlation between eyes of the same patient. In eyes with PPL (143 [40.6%]), mean (SD) vessel density in the superficial capillary plexus (mild NPDR, 34.1% [4.1%]; moderate NPDR, 35.2% [4.1%]; severe NPDR or PDR, 36.0% [4.3%]; P = .42) and the deep capillary plexus (mild NPDR, 44.5% [1.7%]; moderate NPDR, 45.4% [1.4%]; severe NPDR or PDR, 44.9% [1.5%]; P = .81), as well as the mean (SD) choriocapillaris flow density (mild NPDR, 67.1% [5.6%]; moderate NPDR, 69.3% [4.6%]; severe NPDR or PDR, 68.3% [5.6%]; P = .49), did not appear to change with increasing DR severity. Conclusions and Relevance: These results suggest that central retinal vessel density is associated with DR severity in eyes without, but not with, PPL. These findings suggest a potential need to stratify future optical coherence tomography angiography studies of eyes with DR by the presence or absence of PPL. If DR onset and worsening are associated with the location of retinal nonperfusion, assessment of global retinal nonperfusion using widefield angiography may improve the ability to evaluate DR severity and risk of DR worsening over time.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the impact of lighting changes on gait in elderly patients with glaucoma and evaluate whether associations are mediated by fear of falling (FOF). Methods: Gait initiation and parameters measured with the GAITRite Electronic Walkway were captured in normal indoor light, then in dim light, and again in normal light (normal post dim [NPD]). Participants' right and left eye visual fields (VFs) were merged into integrated VF (IVF) sensitivities. FOF was evaluated using a Rasch-analyzed questionnaire. Multivariable regression models evaluated whether IVF sensitivity was associated with lighting-dependent gait changes and if this relationship was mediated by FOF. Results: In 213 participants (mean age = 71.4 years), gait initiation in dim light took longer with more VF damage ( = 0.02). Greater VF damage was associated with slower gait in dim ( < 0.001) and NPD ( = 0.003) lighting, as well as shorter strides ( = 0.02), broader stance ( = 0.003), and more variable stride velocity and length in all lighting (all < 0.03). When moving from normal to dim lighting, those with more VF damage slowed gait and cadence, shortened stride length, and lengthened double support time (all < 0.001). Velocity, cadence, and double support time did not return to baseline in NPD lighting (all < 0.05). Fear of falling did not appear to mediate the relationship between IVF sensitivity and lighting-dependent gait changes. Conclusions: Patients with more VF damage demonstrate gait degradation in extreme or changing lighting, which is not mediated by FOF. Translational Relevance: Quantitative spatiotemporal gait evaluation reveals lighting-associated impairment, supporting patient-reported difficulty with nonideal lighting and equipping providers to advise patients about limitations.
PURPOSE: To investigate the inter-individual variability in duration of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment effect in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD). DESIGN: Prospective observational multi-centered study. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-eight patients with nvAMD treated with anti-VEGF injections were included. Both treatment naive (n=25) as well as patients who had previously received treatment with ranibizumab (n=23) more than one month prior to their enrollment were recruited. METHODS: Patients received injection with ranibizumab (0.5 mg/0.05 ml) and were followed weekly for 4 weeks with spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) assessing the time to maximal reduction of central retinal thickness (CRT) and the presence of intraretinal and subretinal fluid. Other data collected included age, gender, visual acuity, axial length, lens status, and previous injections. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to examine normal distributions for all variables. Correlations were examined by calculating Spearman's correlation coeficient. Distributions of quantitative variables are described as means (±SD). Qualitative variables are summarized by counts and percentage. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time to maximal reduction of CRT and intra- and subretinal fluid after ranibizumab injection. RESULTS: A total of 48 eyes of 48 patients (age 74.8±8.3 years, 62.5% female, 52% treatment naive, 35.4% pseudophakic) were assessed. Two-thirds (64.6%) reached maximal CRT reduction earlier than the standard 4-week interval: 6.3% at 1 week postinjection, 22.9% at 2 weeks postinjection, and 35.4% at 3 weeks postinjection. Only 35.4% of patients had maximal CRT reduction at 4 weeks. Twenty percent of treatment-naive and 34.8% of non-naive patients had a week-4 CRT that was >35 μm thicker than the earlier occuring lowest CRT value (nadir). The time to maximal CRT reduction was not related to axial length, age, lens status, or history of injections. CONCLUSIONS: Optimal dosing interval for maximal CRT reduction may be less than 4 weeks for a significant proportion of patients. Most patients will be classified as complete responders if intervals less than 4 weeks are used to assess anti-VEGF treatment response. Disease load rather than eye size appears to be the driver of anti-VEGF treatment duration and therefore, dosing interval needs to be optimized in the cohort of short-term responders.
Currently, no pharmacotherapy has been proven effective in treating photoreceptor degeneration in patients. Discovering readily available and safe neuroprotectants is therefore highly sought after. Here, we investigated nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), in a retinal detachment (RD) induced photoreceptor degeneration. NMN administration after RD resulted in a significant reduction of TUNEL photoreceptors, CD11b macrophages, and GFAP labeled glial activation; a normalization of protein carbonyl content (PCC), and a preservation of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness. NMN administration significantly increased NAD levels, SIRT1 protein expression, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Delayed NMN administration still exerted protective effects after RD. Mechanistic studies using 661W cells revealed a SIRT1/HO-1 signaling as a downstream effector of NMN-mediated protection under oxidative stress and LPS stimulation. In conclusion, NMN administration exerts neuroprotective effects on photoreceptors after RD and oxidative injury, suggesting a therapeutic avenue to treating photoreceptor degeneration.
PURPOSE: Infestation with demodex mites has been linked to the development of chalazion, meibomian gland dysfunction, and blepharitis. An effective treatment is the eyelid application of terpinen-4-ol (T4O), a tea tree oil component. However, T4O is also known to be toxic to nonocular epithelial cells. We hypothesize that T4O toxicity also extends to human meibomian gland epithelial cells (HMGECs). METHODS: Immortalized (I) HMGECs were cultured with varying concentrations (1.0%-0.001%) of T4O under proliferating or differentiating conditions up to 5 days. Experimental procedures included analyses of cell appearance, survival, P-Akt signaling, lysosome accumulation, and neutral lipid content. RESULTS: Our findings show that T4O causes a dose- and time-dependent decrease in the cell survival of IHMGECs. After 15 minutes of exposure to 1% T4O, IHMGECs exhibited rounding, atrophy, and poor adherence. Within 90 minutes of such treatment, almost all cells died. Reducing the T4O concentration to 0.1% also led to a marked decrease in P-Akt signaling and cell survival of IHMGECs. Decreasing the T4O amount to 0.01% caused a slight, but significant, reduction in the IHMGEC number after 5 days of culture and did not influence the ability of these cells to differentiate. CONCLUSIONS: T4O, even at levels 10-fold to 100-fold lower than demodicidal concentrations, is toxic to HMGECs in vitro.
Dee EC, Mitchell WG, D'Amico AV. Enabling hope. Lancet Oncol 2020;21(12):e549.
RATIONALE: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most prevalent form of irreversible blindness in the developed world. Aging, inflammation and complement dysregulation affecting the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), are considered significant contributors in its pathogenesis and several evidences have linked tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and complement component 3 (C3) with AMD. Acadesine, an analog of AMP and an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, has been shown to have cytoprotective effects in human clinical trials as well as having anti-inflammatory and anti-vascular exudative effects in animals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if acadesine is able to suppress TNF-α induced C3 in RPE cells. METHODS: ARPE-19 and human primary RPE cells were cultured and allowed to grow to confluence. TNF-α was used for C3 induction in the presence or absence of acadesine. Small molecule inhibitors and siRNA were used to determine if acadesine exerts its effect via the extracellular or intracellular pathway and to evaluate the importance of AMPK for these effects. The expression level of C3 was determined by immunoblot analysis. RESULTS: Acadesine suppresses TNF-α induced C3 in a dose dependent manner. When we utilized the adenosine receptor inhibitor dipyridamole (DPY) along with acadesine, acadesine's effects were abolished, indicating the necessity of acadesine to enter the cell in order to exert it's action. However, pretreatment with 5-iodotubericidin (5-Iodo), an adenosine kinase (AK) inhibitor, didn't prevent acadesine from decreasing TNF-α induced C3 expression suggesting that acadesine does not exert its effect through AMP conversion and subsequent activation of AMPK. Consistent with this, knockdown of AMPK α catalytic subunit did not affect the inhibitory effect of acadesine on TNF-α upregulation of C3. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that acadesine suppresses TNF-α induced C3, likely through an AMPK-independent pathway, and could have potential use in complement over activation diseases.
PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy and safety of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in the management of eyelid and conjunctival malignancy. METHODS: A literature search was performed in August 2019 and January 2020 for articles published in English in the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases. This search yielded 151 articles that were reviewed for relevancy, of which 27 were deemed to have met the inclusion criteria for this assessment. The data from these articles were abstracted and the articles were rated for strength of evidence by the panel methodologist. RESULTS: All 27 studies were rated level III, and a total of 197 SLNBs were reported. Diagnoses included conjunctival and eyelid cutaneous melanoma (85 and 42 patients, respectively), sebaceous gland carcinoma (35 patients), squamous cell carcinoma (26 patients), Merkel cell carcinoma (6 patients), pigmented epithelioid melanocytoid tumor (1 patient), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (1 patient), and signet ring carcinoma (1 patient). Tracer was found in regional lymph nodes in 100% of patients in 21 of 27 articles and in 191 of 197 patients overall. The number of lymph nodes removed ranged from 1 to 16, with most ranging from 1 to 5. Tumor-positive lymph nodes were found in 33 of 197 patients (16.8%), prompting recommendations for adjuvant treatments. Survival data were reported for 16 of these patients, with follow-up periods ranging from 3 to 36 months (average, 12.7 months). Fourteen of 16 patients received adjuvant treatments. Nine were alive and well, 1 was alive with metastases, and 6 had died of metastatic disease (including 2 patients who declined additional treatment). False-negative SLNB results were reported in 5 articles involving 9 of 197 procedures (4.6%). Complications were documented in 7 of 27 articles and included transient facial nerve weakness, persistent blue dye staining of the conjunctiva, neck hematoma, and suture abscess. CONCLUSIONS: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a promising procedure in patients with eyelid and conjunctival malignancy, and it is useful in identifying sentinel lymph nodes. However, at present, insufficient evidence exists showing that SLNB improves patient outcomes and survival. Recognition of microscopic metastatic disease may prove beneficial in staging and guiding adjuvant therapy.
The vasa hyaloidea propria, a component of the fetal hyaloidal vasculature, is characterized by multiple persistent fetal vasculatures branching into the vitreous. We present a 4-month-old girl with stage 4 familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, with multiple ectopic retinal vessels extending into the vitreous, confirmed with fluorescein angiography, which was consistent with persistent vasa hyaloidea propia/retinae making contact with the retina. The patient underwent vitreoretinal surgery to address the retinal detachment, during which the patent stalks of the persistent vasa hyaloidea propia/retinae were transected.
Georgiou M, Robson AG, Fujinami K, Leo SM, Vincent A, Nasser F, Cabral De Guimarães TA, Khateb S, Pontikos N, Fujinami-Yokokawa Y, Liu X, Tsunoda K, Hayashi T, Vargas ME, Thiadens AAHJ, de Carvalho ER, Nguyen X-T-A, Arno G, Mahroo OA, Martin-Merida MI, Jimenez-Rolando B, Gordo G, Carreño E, Carmen A, Sharon D, Kohl S, Huckfeldt RM, Wissinger B, Boon CJF, Banin E, Pennesi ME, Khan AO, Webster AR, Zrenner E, Héon E, Michaelides M. KCNV2-associated Retinopathy: Genetics, Electrophysiology and Clinical Course - KCNV2 Study Group Report 1. Am J Ophthalmol 2020;Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate genetics, electrophysiology and clinical course of KCNV2-associated retinopathy in a cohort of children and adults. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter international clinical cohort study. METHODS: Review of clinical notes and molecular genetic testing. Full-field electroretinography (ERG) incorporating the international standards were reviewed and quantified and compared with age and recordings from control subjects. RESULTS: In total 230 disease-associated alleles were identified from 117 patients, corresponding to 75 different KCNV2 variants, with 28 being novel. The mean age of onset was 3.9 years old. All patients were symptomatic before the age of 12 years (age range: 0-11 years). Decreased visual acuity was present in all patients, and four other symptoms were common: reduced color vision (78.6%), photophobia (53.5%), nyctalopia (43.6%), and nystagmus (38.6%). After a mean follow of 8.4 years, the mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, ±SD) decreased from 0.81 LogMAR (0.27 LogMAR) to 0.90 LogMAR (0.31 LogMAR). Full-field ERGs showed pathognomonic waveform features. Quantitative assessment revealed a wide range of ERG amplitudes and peak times, with a mean rate of age-associated reduction indistinguishable from the control group. Mean amplitude reductions for the DA 0.01 ERG, DA 10 ERG a-wave, LA30Hz and LA3 ERG b-wave were 55%, 21%, 48% and 74% respectively. Peak times showed stability across 6 decades. CONCLUSION: In KCNV2-retinopathy full-field ERGs are diagnostic, and consistent with largely stable peripheral retinal dysfunction. Report No.1 highlights the severity of the clinical phenotype and established a large cohort of patients, emphasizing the unmet need for trials of novel therapeutics.
CD147 is a widely expressed matrix metalloproteinase inducer involved in the regulation of cell migration. The high glycosylation and ability to undergo oligomerization have been linked to CD147 function, yet there is limited understanding on the molecular mechanisms behind these processes. The current study demonstrates that the expression of Golgi α1,2-mannosidase I is key to maintaining the cell surface organization of CD147 during cell migration. Using an in vitro model of stratified human corneal epithelial wound healing, we show that CD147 is clustered within lateral plasma membranes at the leading edge of adjacent migrating cells. This localization correlates with a surge in matrix metalloproteinase activity and an increase in the expression of α1,2-mannosidase subtype IC (MAN1C1). Global inhibition of α1,2-mannosidase I activity with deoxymannojirimycin markedly attenuates the glycosylation of CD147 and disrupts its surface distribution at the leading edge, concomitantly reducing the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9. Likewise, treatment with deoxymannojirimycin or siRNA-mediated knockdown of MAN1C1 impairs the ability of the carbohydrate-binding protein galectin-3 to stimulate CD147 clustering in unwounded cells. We conclude that the mannose-trimming activity of α1,2-mannosidase I coordinates the clustering and compartmentalization of CD147 that follows an epithelial injury.
PURPOSE: Clinical studies have indicated that the long-term use of topical antiglaucoma drugs, such as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs), may lead to meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). We hypothesize that these adverse effects involve a direct influence on human MG epithelial cells (HMGECs). The purpose our present investigation was to test our hypothesis and determine whether exposure to dorzolamide, a CAI, impacts the proliferation, intracellular signaling and differentiation of HMGECs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We cultured immortalized (i) HMGECs with vehicle or various concentrations of dorzolamide for 6 days. Cells were enumerated with a hemocytometer, and examined for their morphology, Akt signaling activity, accumulation of neutral lipids, phospholipids and lysosomes, and the expression of protein biomarkers for lipogenesis regulation, lysosomes and autophagosomes. RESULTS: Our results show that a high, 500 µg/ml concentration of dorzolamide causes a significant decrease in Akt signaling and the proliferation of iHMGECs. However, the high dose of dorzolamide also promotes the differentiation of iHMGECs. This response features increases in the number of lysosomes, the accumulation of phospholipids, and the expression of the light chain 3A biomarker for autophagosomes. In contrast, the therapeutic amount (50 µg/ml) of dorzolamide has no impact on the proliferative or differentiative abilities of iHMGECs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support our hypothesis and demonstrate that the CAI dorzolamide does exert a direct influence on the proliferation and differentiation of iHMGECs. However, this effect is elicited only by a high, and not a therapeutic, amount of dorzolamide. AKT: phosphoinositide 3-kinase-protein kinase B; BPE: bovine pituitary extract; CAD: cationic amphiphilic drug; DED: dry eye disease; DMEM/F12: 1:1 mixture of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and Ham's F-12; EGF: epidermal growth factor; FBS: fetal bovine serum; iHMGECs: immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells; KSFM: keratinocyte serum-free medium; LAMP-1: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1; LC3A: light chain 3A; MGD: meibomian gland dysfunction; SREBP-1: sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Imaging is essential in the diagnostic work-up of patients with orbital lesions. The position of an orbital lesion relative to the inferomedial muscular trunk of the ophthalmic artery determines endoscopic resectability, anticipated technical difficulty, and patient morbidity. Although the inferomedial muscular trunk is not readily identifiable on preoperative imaging, we hypothesize that it is spatially approximate to the location where the ophthalmic artery crosses the optic nerve. Our aim was to determine whether the ophthalmic artery-optic nerve crosspoint anatomically approximates the inferomedial muscular trunk in a cadaver study and can be appreciated on imaging of known posteromedial orbital lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dissection was performed on 17 fresh-frozen cadaver orbits to assess the relationship between the inferomedial muscular trunk and ophthalmic artery-optic nerve crosspoint. Retrospective review of imaging in 9 patients with posteromedial orbital lesions assessed posteromedial orbital compartment characteristics and the ability to locate the ophthalmic artery-optic nerve crosspoint. RESULTS: In our cadaver study, the mean distance between the ophthalmic artery-optic nerve crosspoint and the inferomedial muscular trunk was 1.21 ± 0.64 mm. Retrospectively, the ophthalmic artery-optic nerve crosspoint was identifiable in 9/9 patients, whereas the inferomedial muscular trunk was not identifiable in any patient. Total or partial effacement of the posteromedial intraconal fat triangle was observed in 9/9 patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study of neurovascular relationships within the posteromedial orbit demonstrates that the ophthalmic artery-optic nerve crosspoint closely approximates the inferomedial muscular trunk and can be seen in patients with posteromedial orbital lesions. Posteromedial intraconal fat effacement may help to localize these lesions. These findings may facilitate multidisciplinary communication and help predict lesion resectability and patient outcomes.
Many of the risk factors for developing severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are also risk factors for eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). During the past decades, macrophages and the complement pathway (as a part of the innate immune system) have been identified as important contributors to the development of AMD, and we suggest that these mechanisms are of similar importance for the clinical course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. Based on the experience with AMD, we discuss how behavioral factors such as diet, smoking and higher body mass index, as well as genetic determinants such as the complement and immune pathway genes may lead to the overactive inflammatory phenotypes seen in some patients with COVID-19, and may in part explain the heterogeneity of disease manifestations and outcomes. Based on this experience, we discuss potential genetic research projects and elaborate on preventive and treatment approaches related to COVID-19.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the antifungal properties of topical antibiotics (already being used successfully to prevent bacterial endophthalmitis) and some promising antiseptics for antifungal prophylaxis in the setting of artificial corneal implantation. METHODS: Several commonly used antibiotics for antimicrobial prophylaxis after artificial corneal implantation, in addition to antiseptics [benzalkonium chloride (BAK), povidone-iodine (PI), and some ionic liquids (ILs)], were tested in vitro against Candida albicans, Fusarium solani, and Aspergillus fumigatus. The time-kill activity was determined. Toxicity was assayed in vitro on human corneal epithelial cultures using trypan blue. Adhesion and tissue invasion experiments were also carried out on porcine corneas and commonly used contact lenses, with or without gamma irradiation, and by analysis with fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: Polymyxin B (PMB)/trimethoprim/BAK (Polytrim), PMB alone, gatifloxacin with BAK (Zymaxid), and same-concentration BAK alone exhibited antifungal activity in vitro. Moxifloxacin (MOX) or gatifloxacin without BAK-as well as trimethoprim, vancomycin, and chloramphenicol-had no effect. 1% PI and ILs had the highest efficacy/toxicity ratios (>1), and Polytrim was species dependent. Subfungicidal concentrations of Polytrim reduced adhesion of C. albicans to Kontur contact lenses. Gamma-irradiated corneas showed enhanced resistance to fungal invasion. CONCLUSIONS: Of antibiotic preparations already in use for bacterial prophylaxis after KPro surgery, Polytrim is a commonly used antibiotic with antifungal effects mediated by both PMB and BAK and may be sufficient for prophylaxis. PI as a 1% solution seems to be promising as a long-term antifungal agent. Choline-undecanoate IL is effective and virtually nontoxic and warrants further development.