The current case of conjunctival mucoepidermoid carcinoma offers features that expand the biologic spectrum afforded by this tumor. More focused strategies should be developed for its earlier histopathologic diagnosis and improved management (historical recurrence rate of 85%). A 63-year-old woman with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and idiopathic sclerosing cholangitis developed scleral thinning, anterior chamber cells and flare, and uveal prolapse. Biopsies of the epibulbar lesion were initially misinterpreted as a squamous cell carcinoma but on review harbored CK7-positive cells and contained rare goblet cells brought out with Alcian blue and mucicarmine staining. Intraocular extension exhibited micro-and macrocysts with minimal goblet cells. Focal CK7 immunopositivity in any epibulbar squamous dysplasia or in invasive carcinoma should lead to suspicion of a mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Behaviorally aggressive or rapidly recurrent epithelial squamous tumors with "inflammatory" features or unusual clinical characteristics should be initially stained at multiple levels for the detection of parsimonious mucus secretion. Surgical options include wide excision and partial sclerectomy with cryotherapy for superficial invasion and/or interferon therapy. Results with radiotherapy and cryotherapy for deep scleral invasion have been unpredictable or unacceptable compared with surgery.
Conjunctival cysts unrelated to surgery or trauma are uncommon adnexal lesions in children and may be difficult to recognize. We report the clinical and pathological findings of an apparently spontaneous conjunctival cyst in the upper eyelid of a child whose first ophthalmological examination was at 7 months of age. The cyst was surgically excised at 5 years of age.
BACKGROUND: Visual loss in glaucoma is associated with pathological changes in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons and a slow decline in the RGC population. Age and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) are the main risk factors for glaucomatous loss of vision. Several studies have implicated the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as a link between elevated IOP and RGC death, but the cellular source of TNF-α and its causative role in RGC death remain uncertain. Here, using a rat model of glaucoma, we investigated the source of elevated TNF-α and examined whether Etanercept, a TNF-α blocker that is in common clinical use for other indications, is protective against RGC death. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Episcleral vein cauterization (EVC) caused intraocular pressure (IOP) to be elevated for at least 28 days. IOP elevation resulted in a dramatic increase in TNF-α levels within a few days, axonal degeneration, and a 38% loss of RGCs by 4 weeks. Immunostaining coupled with confocal microscopy showed that OHT induced robust induction of TNF-α in Iba-1-positive microglia around the optic nerve head (ONH). Despite persistent elevation of IOP, Etanercept reduced microglial activation, TNF-α levels, axon degeneration in the optic nerve, and the loss of RGCs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ocular hypertension (OHT) triggers an inflammatory response characterized by the appearance of activated microglia around the ONH that express TNF-α. Blocking TNF-α activity with a clinically approved agent inhibits this microglial response and prevents axonal degeneration and loss of RGCs. These findings suggest a new treatment strategy for glaucoma using TNF-α antagonists or suppressors of inflammation.
Herein, we report that vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) engages the PI3K/Akt pathway by a previously unknown mechanism that involves three tyrosine kinases. Upon VEGF-A-dependent activation of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), and subsequent TSAd-mediated activation of Src family kinases (SFKs), SFKs engage the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl via its juxtamembrane domain to trigger ligand-independent autophosphorylation at a pair of YXXM motifs that promotes association with PI3K and activation of Akt. Other VEGF-A-mediated signalling pathways are independent of Axl. Interfering with Axl expression or function impairs VEGF-A- but not bFGF-dependent migration of endothelial cells. Similarly, Axl null mice respond poorly to VEGF-A-induced vascular permeability or angiogenesis, whereas other agonists induce a normal response. These results elucidate the mechanism by which VEGF-A activates PI3K/Akt, and identify previously unappreciated potential therapeutic targets of VEGF-A-driven processes.
Bacterial endophthalmitis is a sight threatening infection of the interior structures of the eye. Incidence in the US has increased in recent years, which appears to be related to procedures being performed on an aging population. The advent of outpatient intravitreal therapy for management of age-related macular degeneration raises yet additional risks. Compounding the problem is the continuing progression of antibiotic resistance. Visual prognosis for endophthalmitis depends on the virulence of the causative organism, the severity of intraocular inflammation, and the timeliness of effective therapy. We review the current understanding of the pathogenesis of bacterial endophthalmitis, highlighting opportunities for the development of improved therapeutics and preventive strategies.
Proliferative vitreoretinopathy is a disease process that follows the proliferation of ectopic cell sheets in the vitreous and/or periretinal area, causing periretinal membrane formation and traction, in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachments. Currently, vitreous surgery is the standard treatment; however, the results aren't satisfactory given the vision loss that ensues and that redetachment is relatively common. It is becoming clearer that there exists an interplay between various cytokines/growth factors, matrix proteins, and the different cell types that drive the undesirable formation of periretinal membranes. This fundamental understanding is aiding in identifying different adjunct agents that can block the cellular events intrinsic to proliferative vitreoretinopathy. In this review, we describe the current understanding on the pathogenesis and discuss how the fundamental understanding of the biochemical/molecular events is instrumental in developing the novel treatment strategies that are also highlighted.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obtaining precise postoperative target refraction is of utmost importance in today's modern cataract and refractive surgery. Given the growing number of patients undergoing premium intraocular lens (IOL) implantations, patient expectation continues to rise. In order to meet heightened patient expectations, it is crucial to pay utmost attention to patient selection, accurate keratometry and biometry readings, as well as to the application of correct IOL power formula with optimized lens constants. This article reviews recent advances in the field of clinical biometry and IOL power calculations. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently developed low-coherence reflectometry optical biometry is comparable to older ultrasonic biometric and keratometric techniques. In addition, the new IOLMaster software upgrade has improved reproducibility and enhanced signal acquisition. Further, the modern lens power formulas currently determine the effective lens position and the shape of the intraocular lens power prediction curve more accurately. SUMMARY: In order to reach target refraction, precise biometric measurements are imperative. Understanding the strengths and limitations of the currently available biometry devices allows prevention of high variability and inaccuracy, ultimately determining the refractive outcomes.
Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) is a major cause of corneal blindness in the world. Following the primary infection, the virus enters into a latent phase. Recurrent infectious or immune keratitis cause structural damage to the cornea, scarring, and may lead to blindness. Several commercially available topical and oral antiviral drugs for HSK are currently available. However, toxicity and low patient compliance hamper their use in HSK. Further, oral antiviral drugs alone are not always effective in HSK. Thus, there had been a need for safe and effective topical antiviral agents against HSK. Systemic ganciclovir has been in use for the treatment of cytomegalovirus infections. Recently, topical ganciclovir has become available for use in patients with HSK. Ganciclovir 0.15% ophthalmic gel has been shown to be both safe and effective against viruses of the herpes family. Topical ganciclovir ophthalmic gel is well tolerated and does not cause significant toxic effects on the ocular surface. Several multicenter studies have revealed the potential role of ganciclovir ophthalmic gel in the treatment and prophylaxis of epithelial HSK. In this paper, we have reviewed the pharmacology, efficacy, side effects, and the role of ganciclovir ophthalmic gel 0.15% in the treatment of acute herpetic keratitis.
OBJECTIVE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is associated with hyperglycemia-driven microvascular pathology and neuronal compromise in the retina. However, DR is also linked to dyslipidemia. As omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are protective in proliferative retinopathy, we investigated the capacity of ω-3PUFAs to preserve retinal function in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). DESIGN: Male leptin-receptor-deficient (db/db) mice were maintained for 22 weeks (4 weeks-26 weeks of life) on calorically and compositionally matched diets, except for 2% enrichment in either ω-3 or ω-6PUFAs. Visual function was assessed at 9, 14 and 26 weeks by electroretinography. Retinal capillary and neuronal integrity, as well as glucose challenge responses, were assessed on each diet. RESULTS: The ω-3PUFA diet significantly preserved retinal function in the mouse model of T2DM to levels similar to those observed in nondiabetic control mice on normal chow. Conversely, retinal function gradually deteriorated in db/db mice on a ω-6PUFA-rich diet. There was also an enhanced ability of ω-3PUFA-fed mice to respond to glucose challenge. The protection of visual function appeared to be independent of cytoprotective or anti-inflammatory effects of ω-3PUFAs. CONCLUSION: This study identifies beneficial effects of dietary ω-3PUFAs on visual function in T2DM. The data are consistent with dyslipidemia negatively impacting retinal function. As ω-3PUFA lipid dietary interventions are readily available, safe and inexpensive, increasing ω-3PUFA intake in diabetic patients may slow the progression of vision loss in T2DM.
Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) has recently emerged as an important modality for imaging of the cornea. Since its introduction less than a decade ago, it has been clinically used for the diagnosis and management of an expanding number of corneal conditions. In this review, we will discuss the applications of anterior segment optical coherence tomography after corneal surgery, focusing on penetrating and lamellar keratoplasty, keratoprosthesis, intracorneal ring segments, collagen cross-linking and refractive surgery. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography is useful in evaluating outcomes, detecting adverse events, determining prognosis, guiding management decisions, and surgical planning.
Human corneal endothelial cells (HCEnCs) form a monolayer of hexagonal cells whose main function is to maintain corneal clarity by regulating corneal hydration. HCEnCs are derived from neural crest and are arrested in the post-mitotic state. Thus cell loss due to aging or corneal endothelial disorders leads to corneal edema and blindness-the leading indication for corneal transplantation. Here we show the existence of morphologically distinct subpopulations of HCEnCs that are interspersed among primary cells and exhibit enhanced self-renewal competence and lack of phenotypic signs of cellular senescence. Colonies of these uniform and hexagonal HCEnCs (HCEnC-21) were selectively isolated and demonstrated high proliferative potential that was dependent on endogenous upregulation of telomerase and cyclin D/CDK4. Further transduction of HCEnC-21 with telomerase yielded a highly proliferative corneal endothelial cell line (HCEnT-21T) that was devoid of oncogenic transformation and retained critical corneal endothelial cell characteristics and functionality. This study will significantly impact the fields of corneal cell biology and regenerative medicine.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of progenitor cells in the uninjured, adult rat lacrimal gland (LG). METHODS: The presence of progenitor cells was examined in LG sections from male rats using antibodies against selected stem cell markers and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), which marks myoepithelial cells (MECs), by immunofluorescence microscopy (IF). Small, immature cells were isolated after digestion of LG with collagenase and culture in RPMI 1640 for 2 weeks. Immature cells were examined for expression of stem cell markers by IF. Immature cell were grown in neuronal, epithelial, and myoepithelial cell media, and examined by light morphology and IF using antibodies to markers of different cell lineages. RESULTS: In the intact LGs, MECs expressed the stem cell markers nestin, Musashi 1, ABCG2, Pax6, Chx 10, ΔN p63, and Sox 2. All markers colocalized with SMA. Isolated immature cells contained Ki-67, nestin, Musashi 1, Pax 6, and CHX 10. In neuronal media, immature cells differentiated and assumed a neuronal cell morphology expressing neurofilament 200. In media for human corneal endothelial cells, immature cells differentiated, assumed cobblestone morphology, and labeled with the epithelial marker AE1/AE3. In RPMI media immature cells differentiated into cells with MEC-like morphology, and expressed the MEC markers SMA, α-actinin, adenylate cyclase II, and vimentin. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that uninjured, adult LG contains progenitor cells that may be MECs, which can be isolated and differentiated into multiple lineages.
PURPOSE: To determine if central corneal thickness (CCT) impacts the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) in patients with ocular hypertension (OHT) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS: A retrospective chart review of consecutive patients, who underwent SLT as primary treatment for OHT and POAG, between 2002 and 2005, was performed. Partial correlation analysis was performed to correlate the CCT to the percentage of IOP reduction at 3 to 30 months after SLT. Independent samples t test was performed to compare mean percentage of IOP reduction in eyes with CCT less than 555 μm versus CCT 555 μm or greater. RESULTS: Eighty eyes of 47 patients were identified. The partial correlation coefficient value between the CCT and percentage of IOP reduction after SLT at 3 months was -0.253 (P = 0.025), at 12 months it was -0.22 (P = 0.049), and at 30 months it was 0.301 (P = 0.007). Independent samples t test showed that the mean percentage of IOP reduction in eyes with thinner corneas (CCT < 555 μm) was greater than that in thicker corneas (CCT ≥ 555 μm) at 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-, and 30-month post-SLT (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with POAG and OHT, percentage of IOP reduction after SLT was significantly greater in eyes with thinner corneas (CCT < 555 μm). These findings indicate that patients treated with SLT as primary therapy who had thinner corneas demonstrated better IOP control for at least 30 months after SLT.
The authors demonstrate a reproducible technique using processed pericardium to seal sclerostomy track during glaucoma shunt revision. The suggested method involves placement of a wedge-shaped processed pericardial graft into the old sclerostomy tract following tube explantation. The graft is trimmed and sutured to the sclera. The tube is reinserted into a new sclerostomy and then sutured in place and covered in the usual fashion. This method allowed relatively easy treatment of three patients with patulous sclerostomy with necrotic edges. A successful tube revision and repositioning of the tube using this technique was performed on three patients with exposed tubes. The intraocular pressure was between 8 and 12 mm Hg from postoperative day 1. The authors suggest the use of pericardium plug to adequately seal the old sclerostomy track during glaucoma shunt revision. The plug allows tube repositioning at a new site without the need to suture the friable sclerostomy edges.
PURPOSE: To report ocular injuries caused by airsoft guns in children. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of pediatric patients who sustained ocular injuries related to airsoft guns between November 2005 and December 2007. Place of trauma, presenting symptoms and signs, surgical interventions performed, and final visual outcome were reviewed. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients with a mean age of 8.8 ± 4.0 years (range: 1.5 to 18 years) were examined; 28 were boys (87.5%). Presenting visual acuity ranged from hand motions to 20/20 and could not be assessed in 2 patients. Hyphema was a common finding that was present in 24 cases, corneal abrasions were present in 10 cases, and raised intraocular pressure was present in 7 cases. Seven patients presented with traumatic cataract, and two had iridodialysis. Immediate surgical intervention was performed in 7 patients and 7 patients were scheduled for elective surgery. The patients presented after an average of 1.9 ± 1.9 days (range: 4 hours to 6 days) after the injury. Average follow-up was 18 days (range: 7 days to 5 months). Final visual acuity was 20/200 or worse in 5 patients, 20/40 or better in 23 patients, and could not be assessed in 2 cases. CONCLUSION: Airsoft guns can cause a variety of serious injuries, sometimes necessitating operative intervention. The long-term morbidity from some of these injuries is significant. Airsoft guns are capable of inflicting serious and permanent ocular damage.
In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) of the cornea is becoming an indispensable tool in the cellular study of corneal physiology and disease. This technique offers non-invasive imaging of the living cornea with images comparable to that of ex vivo histology. The ability to provide high-resolution images of all layers in the living cornea has resulted in new discoveries of corneal pathology at the cellular level. The IVCM analysis of corneal dystrophies is of importance to clinicians, as current methods of diagnosis involve slit-lamp characteristics, genetic analysis, and invasive biopsy. IVCM is helpful in evaluating the morphological characteristics of corneal dystrophies at the histological level and may be helpful in diagnosis, determination of progression, and understanding the pathophysiology of disease. The purpose of this review is to describe the principles, applications, and clinical correlation of IVCM in the study of corneal dystrophies.
PURPOSE: To compare nonmydriatic stereoscopic Optomap ultrawide field images with dilated stereoscopic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study 7-standard field 35-mm color 30-degree fundus photographs (ETDRS photography) and clinical examination for determining diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) severity. DESIGN: Single-site, prospective, comparative, instrument validation study. METHODS: One hundred three diabetic patients (206 eyes) representing the full spectrum of DR severity underwent nonmydriatic ultrawide field 100-degree and 200-degree imaging, dilated ETDRS photography, and dilated fundus examination by a retina specialist. Two independent readers graded images to determine DR and DME severity. A third masked retina specialist adjudicated discrepancies. RESULTS: Based on ETDRS photography (n = 200), the results were as follows: no DR (n = 25 eyes [12.5%]), mild nonproliferative DR (NPDR; 47 [23.5%]), moderate NPDR (61 [30.5%]), severe NPDR (11 [5.5%]), very severe NPDR (3 [1.5%]), and proliferative DR (52 [2.5%]). One (0.5%) eye was ungradable and 6 eyes did not complete ETDRS photography. No DME was found in 114 eyes (57.0%), DME was found in 28 eyes (14.0%), and clinically significant DME was found in 47 eyes (23.5%), and 11 (5.5%) eyes were ungradable. Exact DR severity agreement between ultrawide field 100-degree imaging and ETDRS photography occurred in 84%, with agreement within 1 level in 91% (K(W) = 0.85; K = 0.79). Nonmydriatic ultrawide field images exactly matched clinical examination results for DR in 70% and were within 1 level in 93% (K(W) = 0.71; K = 0.61). Nonmydriatic ultrawide field imaging acquisition time was less than half that of dilated ETDRS photography (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Nonmydriatic ultrawide field images compare favorably with dilated ETDRS photography and dilated fundus examination in determining DR and DME severity; however, they are acquired more rapidly. If confirmed in broader diabetic populations, nonmydriatic ultrawide field imaging may prove to be beneficial in DR evaluation in research and clinical settings.
The genome of human adenovirus (HAdV) D30 was sequenced in depth. Sequence assembly and analysis revealed two distinct viral sequences with identical hexon genes, which were the same as the one previously reported for HAdV-D30. However, one of the two viruses was found to be a recombinant of HAdV-D29. Exclusive reliance on serum neutralization can lead to mischaracterization of adenoviruses and miss coinfections. Whole-genome sequencing remains the gold standard for proper classification of HAdVs.
PURPOSE: To investigate whether the 2 subtypes of advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD), choroidal neovascularization (CNV), and geographic atrophy (GA) segregate separately in families and to identify which genetic variants are associated with these 2 subtypes. DESIGN: Sibling correlation study and genome-wide association study (GWAS). PARTICIPANTS: For the sibling correlation study, 209 sibling pairs with advanced AMD were included. For the GWAS, 2594 participants with advanced AMD subtypes and 4134 controls were included. Replication cohorts included 5383 advanced AMD participants and 15 240 controls. METHODS: Participants had the AMD grade assigned based on fundus photography, examination, or both. To determine heritability of advanced AMD subtypes, a sibling correlation study was performed. For the GWAS, genome-wide genotyping was conducted and 6 036 699 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were imputed. Then, the SNPs were analyzed with a generalized linear model controlling for genotyping platform and genetic ancestry. The most significant associations were evaluated in independent cohorts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Concordance of advanced AMD subtypes in sibling pairs and associations between SNPs with GA and CNV advanced AMD subtypes. RESULTS: The difference between the observed and expected proportion of siblings concordant for the same subtype of advanced AMD was different to a statistically significant degree (P = 4.2 × 10(-5)), meaning that in siblings of probands with CNV or GA, the same advanced subtype is more likely to develop. In the analysis comparing participants with CNV to those with GA, a statistically significant association was observed at the ARMS2/HTRA1 locus (rs10490924; odds ratio [OR], 1.47; P = 4.3 × 10(-9)), which was confirmed in the replication samples (OR, 1.38; P = 7.4 × 10(-14) for combined discovery and replication analysis). CONCLUSIONS: Whether CNV versus GA develops in a patient with AMD is determined in part by genetic variation. In this large GWAS meta-analysis and replication analysis, the ARMS2/HTRA1 locus confers increased risk for both advanced AMD subtypes, but imparts greater risk for CNV than for GA. This locus explains a small proportion of the excess sibling correlation for advanced AMD subtype. Other loci were detected with suggestive associations that differ for advanced AMD subtypes and deserve follow-up in additional studies.