Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) often presents with deficits associated with higher order visual processing. We report a case of an individual with CVI who uses a verbal mediation strategy to perceive and interact with his visual surroundings. Visual perceptual performance was assessed using a virtual reality based visual search task combined with eye tracking. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was employed to identify the neural correlates associated with this strategy. We found that when using verbal mediation, the individual could readily detect and track the target within the visual scene which was associated with robust activation within a network of occipito-parieto-temporal visual cortical areas. In contrast, when not using verbal mediation, the individual was completely unable to perform the task, and this was associated with dramatically reduced visual cortical activation. This unique compensatory strategy may be related to the individual's use of verbal working memory for the purposes of understanding complex visual information.
Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) - targeted antibody-drug conjugate that is approved for patients previously treated with trastuzumab and a taxane for Her2-positive advanced breast cancer and those who have progressed within 6 months of completion of adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as for patients with residual invasive Her2-positive disease after the completion of adjuvant chemotherapy. Peripheral neuropathy is a common adverse event; however, ocular events have also been described. With the current report we present the case of a 67-year old woman who developed transient grade 2-3 blurred vision after the first T-DM1 infusion, which was complicated with grade 2 diplopia causing vertigo after the second infusion. After extended investigation, this symptomatology was attributed to central neurotoxicity, and gradually resolved after T-DM1 discontinuation.
of Partnership GES, Li Z, Wang Z, Lee MC, Zenkel M, Peh E, Ozaki M, Topouzis F, Nakano S, Chan A, Chen S, Williams SEI, Orr A, Nakano M, Kobakhidze N, Zarnowski T, Popa-Cherecheanu A, Mizoguchi T, Manabe S-I, Hayashi K, Kazama S, Inoue K, Mori Y, Miyata K, Sugiyama K, Higashide T, Chihara E, Ideta R, Ishiko S, Yoshida A, Tokumo K, Kiuchi Y, Ohashi T, Sakurai T, Sugimoto T, Chuman H, Aihara M, Inatani M, Mori K, Ikeda Y, Ueno M, Gaston D, Rafuse P, Shuba L, Saunders J, Nicolela M, Chichua G, Tabagari S, Founti P, Sim KS, Meah WY, Soo HM, Chen XY, Chatzikyriakidou A, Keskini C, Pappas T, Anastasopoulos E, Lambropoulos A, Panagiotou ES, Mikropoulos DG, Kosior-Jarecka E, Cheong A, Li Y, Lukasik U, Nongpiur ME, Husain R, Perera SA, Álvarez L, García M, González-Iglesias H, Cueto AFV, Cueto LFV, Martinón-Torres F, Salas A, Oguz Ç, Tamcelik N, Atalay E, Batu B, Irkec M, Aktas D, Kasim B, Astakhov YS, Astakhov SY, Akopov EL, Giessl A, Mardin C, Hellerbrand C, Cooke Bailey JN, Igo RP, Haines JL, Edward DP, Heegaard S, Davila S, Tan P, Kang JH, Pasquale LR, Kruse FE, Reis A, Carmichael TR, Hauser M, Ramsay M, Mossböck G, Yildirim N, Tashiro K, Konstas AGP, Coca-Prados M, Foo JN, Kinoshita S, Sotozono C, Kubota T, Dubina M, Ritch R, Wiggs JL, Pasutto F, Schlötzer-Schrehardt U, Ho YS, Aung T, Tam WL, Khor CC. Association of Rare CYP39A1 Variants With Exfoliation Syndrome Involving the Anterior Chamber of the Eye. JAMA 2021;325(8):753-764.Abstract
Importance: Exfoliation syndrome is a systemic disorder characterized by progressive accumulation of abnormal fibrillar protein aggregates manifesting clinically in the anterior chamber of the eye. This disorder is the most commonly known cause of glaucoma and a major cause of irreversible blindness. Objective: To determine if exfoliation syndrome is associated with rare, protein-changing variants predicted to impair protein function. Design, Setting, and Participants: A 2-stage, case-control, whole-exome sequencing association study with a discovery cohort and 2 independently ascertained validation cohorts. Study participants from 14 countries were enrolled between February 1999 and December 2019. The date of last clinical follow-up was December 2019. Affected individuals had exfoliation material on anterior segment structures of at least 1 eye as visualized by slit lamp examination. Unaffected individuals had no signs of exfoliation syndrome. Exposures: Rare, coding-sequence genetic variants predicted to be damaging by bioinformatic algorithms trained to recognize alterations that impair protein function. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the presence of exfoliation syndrome. Exome-wide significance for detected variants was defined as P < 2.5 × 10-6. The secondary outcomes included biochemical enzymatic assays and gene expression analyses. Results: The discovery cohort included 4028 participants with exfoliation syndrome (median age, 78 years [interquartile range, 73-83 years]; 2377 [59.0%] women) and 5638 participants without exfoliation syndrome (median age, 72 years [interquartile range, 65-78 years]; 3159 [56.0%] women). In the discovery cohort, persons with exfoliation syndrome, compared with those without exfoliation syndrome, were significantly more likely to carry damaging CYP39A1 variants (1.3% vs 0.30%, respectively; odds ratio, 3.55 [95% CI, 2.07-6.10]; P = 6.1 × 10-7). This outcome was validated in 2 independent cohorts. The first validation cohort included 2337 individuals with exfoliation syndrome (median age, 74 years; 1132 women; n = 1934 with demographic data) and 2813 individuals without exfoliation syndrome (median age, 72 years; 1287 women; n = 2421 with demographic data). The second validation cohort included 1663 individuals with exfoliation syndrome (median age, 75 years; 587 women; n = 1064 with demographic data) and 3962 individuals without exfoliation syndrome (median age, 74 years; 951 women; n = 1555 with demographic data). Of the individuals from both validation cohorts, 5.2% with exfoliation syndrome carried CYP39A1 damaging alleles vs 3.1% without exfoliation syndrome (odds ratio, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.47-2.26]; P < .001). Biochemical assays classified 34 of 42 damaging CYP39A1 alleles as functionally deficient (median reduction in enzymatic activity compared with wild-type CYP39A1, 94.4% [interquartile range, 78.7%-98.2%] for the 34 deficient variants). CYP39A1 transcript expression was 47% lower (95% CI, 30%-64% lower; P < .001) in ciliary body tissues from individuals with exfoliation syndrome compared with individuals without exfoliation syndrome. Conclusions and Relevance: In this whole-exome sequencing case-control study, presence of exfoliation syndrome was significantly associated with carriage of functionally deficient CYP39A1 sequence variants. Further research is needed to understand the clinical implications of these findings.
Purpose: To describe the ocular phenotype of spontaneous glaucoma in a non-human primate colony. Methods: In total, 722 Rhesus macaque monkeys aged 10 to 25 years underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus photography (FP), and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements. Monkeys with baseline cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) <0.5 were used to establish baseline ocular features. A subset was followed longitudinally for three years and compared to glaucoma suspects on the basis of OCT/FP criteria. Results: The average IOP under ketamine sedation and average CDR for the entire colony was 13.0 ± 4.3 mm Hg and 0.38 ± 0.07, respectively. The mean baseline conscious IOP of glaucoma suspects (N = 18) versus controls (N = 108) was 16.2 ± 3.5 mm Hg and 13.9 ± 2.3 mm Hg, respectively (P = 0.001). All glaucoma suspects had unremarkable slit lamp examinations and open angles based on anterior segment OCT. Baseline global circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness was 91.5 ± 11.0 µM versus 102.7 ± 8.5 µM in suspects and controls, respectively (P < 0.0001). All sectors on the baseline circumpapillary OCT showed a significant reduction in RNFL thickness versus controls (P ≤ 0.0022) except for the temporal sector (P ≥ 0.07). In three-year longitudinal analysis, neither CDR nor OCT parameters changed in controls (N = 40; P ≥ 0.16), whereas significant increase in CDR (P = 0.018) and nominally significant decreases in two OCT sectors (nasal, P = 0.023 and nasal inferior, P = 0.046) were noted in suspects. Conclusions: Members of a nonhuman primate colony exhibit important ophthalmic features of human primary open-angle glaucoma. Translational Relevance: Identification of a spontaneous model of glaucoma in nonhuman primates represents an unprecedented opportunity to elucidate the natural history, pathogenesis and effective therapeutic strategies for the disease.
PURPOSE: To describe a case of new-onset benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) after uncomplicated Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty. METHODS: Case report and review of literature. RESULTS: A 61-year-old woman with a history of steroid-induced glaucoma and penetrating keratoplasty for Fuchs endothelial dystrophy, and no history of BPPV or other vertigo, underwent Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty for penetrating keratoplasty graft failure. On the third postoperative day, she developed acute spinning vertigo, nausea, and headache on sitting up after 3 days of strict supine positioning. Her ophthalmic examination was benign, with no evidence of a pupillary block, and she was diagnosed by an otologist with BPPV. Her symptoms resolved after 1 week without further intervention. CONCLUSIONS: BPPV is a benign but rare complication of nonotologic surgery and has not been previously reported with ophthalmic surgery. The overlap in symptomatology between BPPV and other serious and potentially vision-threatening causes of postoperative nausea and headache, such as pupillary block glaucoma, makes this a relevant etiology to consider in the spectrum of postendothelial keratoplasty complications.
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To report a case of acute recurrent central serous chorioretinopathy that developed after a regimen of corticosteroid enemas and suppositories. METHODS: Observational case report. Fluorescein angiography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. RESULTS: A 47-year-old male patient with ulcerative colitis managed through hydrocortisone enemas presented to clinic with a 1-day history of blurry vision of his left eye. Posterior segment examination revealed subretinal fluid in the superotemporal macula of the left eye extending centrally. After diagnosis of acute central serous chorioretinopathy, the patient was advised to taper steroid enemas and his visual symptoms and subretinal fluid resolved within the month. Seven years later, several months after using steroid suppositories for the first time since the original central serous chorioretinopathy episode, asymptomatic subretinal fluid accumulation with foveal sparing was found on routine ophthalmic examination. Three months later, most of this fluid had resolved with minimal residual subretinal fluid on clinical examination. CONCLUSION: Acute central serous chorioretinopathy may develop after corticosteroid enema or suppository use, a route of administration that has not been previously reported in association with the disease.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: LECs were cultured and induced with TGF-β2 (10 ng/mL). SiRNA against MALAT1 (Si-MALAT1) was transfected into LECs to knockdown the expression of MALAT1. To overexpress or knockdown miR-204-5p, miR-204-5p mimics (miR-204-5p mimics) and anti-miR-204-5p (miR-204-5p inhibitor) were transfected into LECs. We used RNA FISH to identify the location of MALAT1. RNA levels of MALAT1 and miR-204-5p were analyzed by RT-qPCR. Additionally, target protein levels of Smad4, epithelial differentiation and mesenchymal markers were analyzed with Western blot. We employed EdU Labeling to measured cell proliferation and performed Transwell Assay to analyze the cell migration. Dual-luciferase reporter assays in LECs were conducted to verify whether miRNA-204-5p was negatively regulated by MALAT1 and Smad4 was a direct target of miR-204-5p. RESULTS: The expression of MALAT1 was upregulated in PCO specimens. MALAT1 was overexpressed in TGF-β2 induced LECs, and the knockdown of MALAT1 could attenuate TGF-β2 induced EMT. Besides, the upregulation of MALAT1 was correlated with the downregulation of miR-204-5p and upregulation of Smad4. Importantly, MALAT1 was revealed to be located in the cytoplasm of LECs. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assays confirmed that MALAT1 could negatively regulate the expression of miR-204-5p and then regulate its direct target Smad4. Finally, the knockdown of MALAT1 could inhibit the EMT, proliferation, and migration of LECs; however, those can be reversed by anti-miR-204-5p. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal that MALAT1 may regulate EMT, proliferation, and migration of LECs as a ceRNA by "sponging" miR-204-5p and targeting Smad4, and serve as a promising therapeutic target in preventing PCO.
PURPOSE: To describe a surgical approach for the resection of schwannomas occurring in the medial aspect of the orbit and to review a series of patients who underwent this novel technique. METHODS: This retrospective, non-comparative case series presents the surgical technique and outcomes of patients who underwent removal of a medial orbital schwannoma via an endoscopic endonasal approach combined with a small-incision medial orbitotomy by a team of two surgeons (BSB and SKF). Patient demographics, pre- and post-operative clinical examination findings, visual field testing, and radiographic studies were reviewed. Operative reports were reviewed for technical details and complications. RESULTS: The patients included a 12 year-old male, 73 year-old female and 8 year-old male. Indications for surgery included: decreased visual acuity, diplopia, proptosis and Humphrey visual field (HVF) deficit, in the presence of a medial orbital biopsy-proven schwannoma. The surgical approach in all three patients was primarily endoscopic endonasal. Additionally, two had transcaruncular orbitotomies and one had a small-incision medial lid crease orbitotomy to assist with lateral tumor dissection. Tumor resection was complete in one case and near-total in two cases. There were no intra-operative surgical complications. Average resected specimen volume was 3.41 cm3 ± 2.20. All patients had post-operative improvement in visual acuity (VA) and proptosis. Post-operative follow-up intervals were 27.5 months, 12.3 months and 3.5 months, respectively. CONCLUSION: Resection of orbital schwannomas using an endoscopic endonasal approach with small-incision medial transorbital assistance is a safe and effective option for a multidisciplinary surgical team.
Artificial intelligence (AI), with its subdivisions (machine and deep learning), is a new branch of computer science that has shown impressive results across a variety of domains. The applications of AI to medicine and biology are being widely investigated. Medical specialties that rely heavily on images, including radiology, dermatology, oncology and ophthalmology, were the first to explore AI approaches in analysis and diagnosis. Applications of AI in ophthalmology have concentrated on diseases with high prevalence, such as diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and glaucoma. Here we provide an overview of AI applications for diagnosis, classification, and clinical management of AMD and other macular dystrophies.
Axon regenerative failure in the mature CNS contributes to functional deficits following many traumatic injuries, ischemic injuries, and neurodegenerative diseases. The complement cascade of the innate immune system responds to pathogen threat through inflammatory cell activation, pathogen opsonization, and pathogen lysis, and complement is also involved in CNS development, neuroplasticity, injury, and disease. Here, we investigated the involvement of the classical complement cascade and microglia/monocytes in CNS repair using the mouse optic nerve injury (ONI) model, in which axons arising from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are disrupted. We report that central complement C3 protein and mRNA, classical complement C1q protein and mRNA, and microglia/monocyte phagocytic complement receptor CR3 all increase in response to ONI, especially within the optic nerve itself. Importantly, genetic deletion of C1q, C3, or CR3 attenuates RGC axon regeneration induced by several distinct methods, with minimal effects on RGC survival. Local injections of C1q function-blocking antibody revealed that complement acts primarily within the optic nerve, not retina, to support regeneration. Moreover, C1q opsonizes and CR3+ microglia/monocytes phagocytose growth-inhibitory myelin debris after ONI, a likely mechanism through which complement and myeloid cells support axon regeneration. Collectively, these results indicate that local optic nerve complement-myeloid phagocytic signaling is required for CNS axon regrowth, emphasizing the axonal compartment and highlighting a beneficial neuroimmune role for complement and microglia/monocytes in CNS repair.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Despite the importance of achieving axon regeneration after CNS injury and the inevitability of inflammation after such injury, the contributions of complement and microglia to CNS axon regeneration are largely unknown. Whereas inflammation is commonly thought to exacerbate the effects of CNS injury, we find that complement proteins C1q and C3 and microglia/monocyte phagocytic complement receptor CR3 are each required for retinal ganglion cell axon regeneration through the injured mouse optic nerve. Also, whereas studies of optic nerve regeneration generally focus on the retina, we show that the regeneration-relevant role of complement and microglia/monocytes likely involves myelin phagocytosis within the optic nerve. Thus, our results point to the importance of the innate immune response for CNS repair.
INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the associations of clinical and demographic characteristics with visual acuity (VA) with over 5 years in a subspecialty noninfectious uveitis population. METHODS: Retrospective data from 5,530 noninfectious uveitis patients were abstracted by expert reviewers, and contemporaneous associations of VA with demographic and clinical factors were modeled. RESULTS: Patients were a median of 41 years old, 65% female, and 73% white. Eyes diagnosed ≥5 years prior to cohort entry had worse VA (-1.2 lines) than those diagnosed <6 months prior, and eyes with cataract surgery performed prior to entry had worse VA (-5.9 lines) than those performed during follow-up. Vitreous haze (-4.2 lines for 3+ vs quiet), hypotony (-2.5 lines for ≤5 mm Hg vs 6-23 mm Hg), and CNV (-1.8 lines) all were strongly associated with reduced VA. CONCLUSION: Factors associated with reduced VA included well-known structural complications, and lack of subspecialty care during cataract surgery.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Prematurely born infants undergo costly, stressful eye examinations to uncover the small fraction with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) that needs treatment to prevent blindness. The aim was to develop a prediction tool (DIGIROP-Screen) with 100% sensitivity and high specificity to safely reduce screening of those infants not needing treatment. DIGIROP-Screen was compared with four other ROP models based on longitudinal weights. METHODS: Data, including infants born at 24-30 weeks of gestational age (GA), for DIGIROP-Screen development (DevGroup, N=6991) originate from the Swedish National Registry for ROP. Three international cohorts comprised the external validation groups (ValGroups, N=1241). Multivariable logistic regressions, over postnatal ages (PNAs) 6-14 weeks, were validated. Predictors were birth characteristics, status and age at first diagnosed ROP and essential interactions. RESULTS: ROP treatment was required in 287 (4.1%)/6991 infants in DevGroup and 49 (3.9%)/1241 in ValGroups. To allow 100% sensitivity in DevGroup, specificity at birth was 53.1% and cumulatively 60.5% at PNA 8 weeks. Applying the same cut-offs in ValGroups, specificities were similar (46.3% and 53.5%). One infant with severe malformations in ValGroups was incorrectly classified as not needing screening. For all other infants, at PNA 6-14 weeks, sensitivity was 100%. In other published models, sensitivity ranged from 88.5% to 100% and specificity ranged from 9.6% to 45.2%. CONCLUSIONS: DIGIROP-Screen, a clinical decision support tool using readily available birth and ROP screening data for infants born GA 24-30 weeks, in the European and North American populations tested can safely identify infants not needing ROP screening. DIGIROP-Screen had equal or higher sensitivity and specificity compared with other models. DIGIROP-Screen should be tested in any new cohort for validation and if not validated it can be modified using the same statistical approaches applied to a specific clinical setting.
PURPOSE: The International Neonatal Consortium recently published a proposed retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) activity scale intended for use in clinical trials after validation. The aim of this study was to validate the ROP activity scale (ROP-ActS) in a ROP screened cohort with protocol based collected data by evaluating the ability of the ROP-Act scores to predict ROP treatment. In addition, we aimed to evaluate the scale's sensitivity characteristic of disease severity by studying association with gestational age (GA) in comparison with conventionally used ROP stage and zone. METHODS: A cohort of 535 preterm infants with 3324 ROP examinations with an end-point of ROP treatment or end of screening in Gothenburg, Sweden, was included. Median GA was 28.1 weeks, 47.5% were girls, and 74 (13.8%) infants were treated for ROP. The validation was performed by estimating probabilities for ROP treatment, and by applying logistic and linear regression. RESULTS: The original ROP-ActS was overall well-ordered with respect to ability to predict ROP treatment but could be improved by re-ordering score 3 (zone II stage 1) and 5 (zone III stage 3) based on our clinical cohort data. The modified ROP-ActS was superior to ROP stage and zone in the prediction analysis of ROP treatment. Modified ROP-ActS was more strongly related to GA than currently used ROP stage, but not zone. CONCLUSION: In the studied cohort, the modified ROP-ActS could better predict ROP treatment compared to ROP stage and zone. Retinopathy of Prematurity Activity Scale (ROP-ActS) had a superior sensitivity characteristic studied through association to GA than conventionally used ROP stage.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: As swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) simultaneously obtains 128 meridional scans, it is important to identify which scans are playing the main role in classifying gonioscopic angle closure to simplify the analysis. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of every meridional scan in its ability to detect gonioscopic angle closure. METHODS: Observational study with 2027 phakic subjects consecutively recruited from a community polyclinic. Gonioscopy and SS-OCT were performed. Gonioscopic angle closure was defined as non-visibility of the posterior trabecular meshwork in ≥180° of the angle, while SS-OCT was defined as iridotrabecular contact anterior to the scleral spur. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated to assess the diagnostic performance of each single scan, the sequential anticlockwise cumulative effect of those single scans and different combinations of them. RESULTS: The AUCs of each scan ranged from 0.73 to 0.82. The single scan at 80°-260° had the highest AUC (0.82, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.84) and performed significantly better than most of the temporonasal scans (from 0° to 52° and from 153° to 179°). The superoinferior scans achieved higher AUCs compared with the temporonasal ones. When assessing the cumulative effect of adding individual scans consecutively, the peak AUC (0.80) was obtained when considering the superoinferior scans closer to 80°-85°, but no further positive cumulative effect was seen when adding the rest of the temporonasal scans of the circumference. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the single SS-OCT scan at 80°-260° had the highest diagnostic performance. Our study suggests that the 360° evaluation may not translate to better clinical utility for detection of gonioscopic angle closure.
PURPOSE: This proof-of-concept study evaluates the ability to assess eyelid measurements and the reproducibility of eyelid measurements using a simple measurement tool paired with digital cell phone photography in children. METHODS: Seventy consecutive patients and their siblings, 2-19 years of age, were prospectively enrolled. Participants underwent clinical examination and cell phone photography with a simple measurement tool. An ophthalmologist and nonophthalmologist assessed photographs for interpalpebral fissure distance (IPFD), margin reflex distance-1 (MRD1), and levator function (LF). Clinical examinations and photographs were repeated on the same day in a random sample (n = 20). The agreement of grading photographs compared to clinical examination was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. Intra-grader repeatability of the clinical examination, repeatability of photographic technique, and interobserver reproducibility of photographic assessment was evaluated with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). RESULTS: Of photographs acquired, both graders considered quality good/fair in 100% to assess IPFD and MRD1, and 70% to assess LF. The mean difference (limits of agreement) in mm between clinical examination and photographic assessment was 1.1 (-1.5 to 3.8) for IPFD, 0.7 (-1.8 to 3.1) for MRD1, and 1.1 (-3.5 to 5.7) for LF. Intraobserver repeatability on clinical examination was excellent for IPFD (ICC = 0.81), MRD1 (ICC = 0.88), and LF (ICC = 0.94). Repeatability of photographic technique was fair for IPFD (ICC = 0.44) and good for MRD1 (ICC = 0.74) and LF (ICC = 0.77). Interobserver photographic assessment repeatability was excellent for IPFD (ICC = 0.94), MRD1 (ICC = 0.96), and LF (ICC = 0.92). CONCLUSIONS: Photographic assessment of eyelid measurements in children is possible, highly reproducible between graders, and enables documentation for future comparison.
Importance: There is scant rigorous evidence about the real-world mobility benefit of electronic mobility aids. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a collision warning device on the number of contacts experienced by blind and visually impaired people in their daily mobility. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this double-masked randomized clinical trial, participants used a collision warning device during their daily mobility over a period of 4 weeks. A volunteer sample of 31 independently mobile individuals with severe visual impairments, including total blindness and peripheral visual field restrictions, who used a long cane or guide dog as their habitual mobility aid completed the study. The study was conducted from January 2018 to December 2019. Interventions: The device automatically detected collision hazards using a chest-mounted video camera. It randomly switched between 2 modes: active mode (intervention condition), where it provided alerts for detected collision threats via 2 vibrotactile wristbands, and silent mode (control condition), where the device still detected collisions but did not provide any warnings to the user. Scene videos along with the collision warning information were recorded by the device. Potential collisions detected by the device were reviewed and scored, including contacts with the hazards, by 2 independent reviewers. Participants and reviewers were masked to the device operation mode. Main Outcomes and Measures: Rate of contacts per 100 hazards per hour, compared between the 2 device modes within each participant. Modified intention-to-treat analysis was used. Results: Of the 31 included participants, 18 (58%) were male, and the median (range) age was 61 (25-73) years. A total of 19 participants (61%) had a visual acuity (VA) of light perception or worse, and 28 (90%) reported a long cane as their habitual mobility aid. The median (interquartile range) number of contacts was lower in the active mode compared with silent mode (9.3 [6.6-14.9] vs 13.8 [6.9-24.3]; difference, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.5-10.7; P < .001). Controlling for demographic characteristics, presence of VA better than light perception, and fall history, the rate of contacts significantly reduced in the active mode compared with the silent mode (β = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.54-0.73; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study involving 31 visually impaired participants, the collision warnings were associated with a reduced rate of contacts with obstacles in daily mobility, indicating the potential of the device to augment habitual mobility aids. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03057496.
PURPOSE: Quantification of dark adaptation (DA) response using the conventional rod intercept time (RIT) requires very long testing time and may not be measurable in the presence of impairments due to diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The goal of this study was to investigate the advantages of using area under the DA curve (AUDAC) as an alternative to the conventional parameters to quantify DA response. METHODS: Data on 136 eyes (AMD: 98, normal controls: 38) from an ongoing longitudinal study on AMD were used. DA was measured using the AdaptDx 20 min protocol. AUDAC was computed from the raw DA characteristic curve at different time points, including 6.5 min and 20 min (default). The presence of AMD in the given eye was predicted using a logistic regression model within the leave-one-out cross-validation framework, with DA response as the predictor while adjusting for age and gender. The DA response variable was either the AUDAC values computed at 6.5 min (AUDAC6.5) or at 20 min (AUDAC20) cut-off, or the conventional RIT. RESULTS: AUDAC6.5 was strongly correlated with AUDAC20 (β=86, p<0.001, R=0.87). The accuracy of predicting the presence of AMD using AUDAC20 was 76%, compared with 79% when using RIT, the current gold standard. In addition, when limiting AUDAC calculation to 6.5 min cut-off, the predictive accuracy of AUDAC6.5 was 80%. CONCLUSIONS: AUDAC can be a valuable measure to quantify the overall DA response and can potentially facilitate shorter testing duration while maintaining diagnostic accuracy.
Purpose: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to enhance tissue repair as a cell-based therapy. In preparation for a phase I clinical study, we evaluated the safety, dosing, and efficacy of bone marrow-derived MSCs after subconjunctival injection in preclinical animal models of mice, rats, and rabbits. Methods: Human bone marrow-derived MSCs were expanded to passage 4 and cryopreserved. Viability of MSCs after thawing and injection through small-gauge needles was evaluated by vital dye staining. The in vivo safety of human and rabbit MSCs was studied by subconjunctivally injecting MSCs in rabbits with follow-up to 90 days. The potency of MSCs on accelerating wound healing was evaluated in vitro using a scratch assay and in vivo using 2-mm corneal epithelial debridement wounds in mice. Human MSCs were tracked after subconjunctival injection in rat and rabbit eyes. Results: The viability of MSCs after thawing and immediate injection through 27- and 30-gauge needles was 93.1% ± 2.1% and 94.9% ± 1.3%, respectively. Rabbit eyes demonstrated mild self-limiting conjunctival inflammation at the site of injection with human but not rabbit MSCs. In scratch assay, the mean wound healing area was 93.5% ± 12.1% in epithelial cells co-cultured with MSCs compared with 40.8% ± 23.1% in controls. At 24 hours after wounding, all MSC-injected murine eyes had 100% corneal wound closure compared with 79.9% ± 5.5% in controls. Human MSCs were detectable in the subconjunctival area and peripheral cornea at 14 days after injection. Conclusions: Subconjunctival administration of MSCs is safe and effective in promoting corneal epithelial wound healing in animal models. Translational Relevance: These results provide preclinical data to support a phase I clinical study.
PRECIS: A cross-sectional sample of the US ophthalmology residency graduating class of 2018 revealed that 18.4% of residents logged <5 traditional glaucoma surgeries, and 63.4% logged at least 1 microinvasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS). PURPOSE: Describe the state of MIGS in US ophthalmology residency training and propose a glaucoma procedure classification system for residents' surgical case logs. METHODS: Deidentified case logs from residents graduating in 2018 were requested from US residency program directors. RESULTS: Case logs were received for 152/488 (31%) residents from 36/115 (31%) programs. The mean number of traditional glaucoma surgeries per resident was 9.0±5.9 (range: 0 to 31). The mean number of MIGS per resident was 5.2±8.9 cases (range: 0 to 58). There were 28/152 (18.4%) residents from 16/36 (44.4%) programs who logged <5 traditional glaucoma surgeries as primary surgeon, and 3/152 (2.0%) residents from 3/36 (8.3%) programs who logged zero traditional glaucoma surgeries as primary surgeon. There were 98/152 (64.5%) residents from 32/36 (88.8%) programs who logged <5 MIGS as primary surgeon, and 48/152 (31.6%) residents from 25 of 36 (69.4%) programs who logged zero MIGS as primary surgeon. There were 104/152 (63.4%) residents from 33/36 (91.6%) programs who logged at least 1 MIGS as primary surgeon; there were 3/36 (8.3%) residency programs where no resident logged any MIGS as primary surgeon. CONCLUSIONS: US ophthalmology residents' MIGS experience varies widely. Residents can satisfy glaucoma surgery requirements with some MIGS, even in the absence of adequate traditional glaucoma surgeries. We propose a residency case log classification system that better reflects the growing role of MIGS in clinical practice and helps ophthalmic educators more accurately track procedures requiring related skills.