Entry of Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis-Associated Human Adenovirus Type 37 in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells


Lee JS, Mukherjee S, Lee JY, Saha A, Chodosh J, Painter DF, Rajaiya J. Entry of Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis-Associated Human Adenovirus Type 37 in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2020;61(10):50.

Date Published:

2020 Aug 03


Purpose: Ocular infection by human adenovirus species D type 37 (HAdV-D37) causes epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, a severe, hyperacute condition. The corneal component of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis begins upon infection of corneal epithelium, and the mechanism of viral entry dictates subsequent proinflammatory gene expression. Therefore, it is important to understand the specific pathways of adenoviral entry in these cells. Methods: Transmission electron microscopy of primary and tert-immortalized human corneal epithelial cells infected with HAdV-D37 was performed to identify the means of viral entry. Confocal microscopy was used to determine intracellular trafficking. The results of targeted small interfering RNA and specific chemical inhibitors were analyzed by quantitative PCR, and Western blot. Results: By transmission electron microscopy, HAdV-D37 was seen to enter by both clathrin-coated pits and macropinocytosis; however, entry was both pH and dynamin 2 independent. Small interfering RNA against clathrin, AP2A1, and lysosome-associated membrane protein 1, but not early endosome antigen 1, decreased early viral gene expression. Ethyl-isopropyl amiloride, which blocks micropinocytosis, did not affect HAdV-D37 entry, but IPA, an inhibitor of p21-activated kinase, and important to actin polymerization, decreased viral entry in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: HAdV-D37 enters human corneal epithelial cells by a noncanonical clathrin-mediated pathway involving lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 and PAK1, independent of pH, dynamin, and early endosome antigen 1. We showed earlier that HAdV-D37 enters human keratocytes through caveolae. Therefore, epidemic keratoconjunctivitis-associated viruses enter different corneal cell types via disparate pathways, which could account for a relative paucity of proinflammatory gene expression upon infection of corneal epithelial cells compared with keratocytes, as seen in prior studies.

See also: Cornea, August 2020, All, 2020
Last updated on 08/31/2020