Influence of Human Milk and Parenteral Lipid Emulsions on Serum Fatty Acid Profiles in Extremely Preterm Infants


Nilsson AK, Löfqvist C, Najm S, Hellgren G, Sävman K, Andersson MX, Smith LEH, Hellström A. Influence of Human Milk and Parenteral Lipid Emulsions on Serum Fatty Acid Profiles in Extremely Preterm Infants. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2019;43(1):152-161.

Date Published:

2019 Jan


BACKGROUND: Infants born prematurely are at risk of a deficiency in ω-6 and ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We investigated how fatty acids from breast milk and parenteral lipid emulsions shape serum LC-PUFA profiles in extremely preterm infants during early perinatal life. METHODS: Ninety infants born < 28 weeks gestational age were randomized to receive parenteral lipids with or without the ω-3 LC-PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA (SMOFlipid: Fresenius Kabi, Uppsala, Sweden, or Clinoleic: Baxter Medical AB, Kista, Sweden, respectively). The fatty acid composition of infant serum phospholipids was determined from birth to postmenstrual age 40 weeks, and in mother's milk total lipids on postnatal day 7. Enteral and parenteral intake of LC-PUFAs was correlated with levels in infant serum. RESULTS: Infants administered parenteral ω-3 LC-PUFAs received 4.4 and 19.3 times more DHA and EPA, respectively, over the first 2 weeks of life. Parenteral EPA but not DHA correlated with levels in infant serum. We found linear relationships between dietary EPA and DHA and infant serum levels in the Clinoleic (Baxter Medical AB) group. The volume of administered SMOFlipid (Fresenius Kabi) was inversely correlated with serum AA, whereas Clinoleic (Baxter Medical AB) inversely correlated with serum EPA and DHA. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be no or low correlation between the amount of DHA administered parenterally and levels measured in serum. Whether this observation reflects serum phospholipid fraction only or truly represents the amount of accreted DHA needs to be investigated. None of the parenteral lipid emulsions satisfactorily maintained high levels of both ω-6 and ω-3 LC-PUFAs in infant serum.

Last updated on 01/31/2019