Purpose : To describe emerging applications of machine learning (ML) in pediatric ophthalmology with an emphasis on the diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting visual development. Methods : Literature review of studies applying ML algorithms to problems in pediatric ophthalmology. Results : At present, the ML literature emphasizes applications in retinopathy of prematurity. However, there are increasing efforts to apply ML techniques in the diagnosis of amblyogenic conditions such as pediatric cataracts, strabismus, and high refractive error. Conclusions : A greater understanding of the principles governing ML will enable pediatric eye care providers to apply the methodology to unexplored challenges within the subspecialty.