Bailey JCN, Loomis SJ, Kang JH, Allingham RR, Gharahkhani P, Khor CC, Burdon KP, Aschard H, Chasman DI, Igo RP, Hysi PG, Glastonbury CA, Ashley-Koch A, Brilliant M, Brown AA, Budenz DL, Buil A, Cheng C-Y, Choi H, Christen WG, Curhan G, De Vivo I, Fingert JH, Foster PJ, Fuchs C, Gaasterland D, Gaasterland T, Hewitt AW, Hu F, Hunter DJ, Khawaja AP, Lee RK, Li Z, Lichter PR, Mackey DA, McGuffin P, Mitchell P, Moroi SE, Perera SA, Pepper KW, Qi Q, Realini T, Richards JE, Ridker PM, Rimm E, Ritch R, Ritchie M, Schuman JS, Scott WK, Singh K, Sit AJ, Song YE, Tamimi RM, Topouzis F, Viswanathan AC, Verma SS, Vollrath D, Wang JJ, Weisschuh N, Wissinger B, Wollstein G, Wong TY, Yaspan BL, Zack DJ, Zhang K, Study E-NE, Study E-NE, Weinreb RN, Pericak-Vance MA, Small K, Hammond CJ, Aung T, Liu Y, Vithana EN, Macgregor S, Craig JE, Kraft P, Howell G, Hauser MA, Pasquale LR, Haines JL, Wiggs JL. Genome-wide association analysis identifies TXNRD2, ATXN2 and FOXC1 as susceptibility loci for primary open-angle glaucoma. Nat Genet 2016;48(2):189-94.Abstract
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. To identify new susceptibility loci, we performed meta-analysis on genome-wide association study (GWAS) results from eight independent studies from the United States (3,853 cases and 33,480 controls) and investigated the most significantly associated SNPs in two Australian studies (1,252 cases and 2,592 controls), three European studies (875 cases and 4,107 controls) and a Singaporean Chinese study (1,037 cases and 2,543 controls). A meta-analysis of the top SNPs identified three new associated loci: rs35934224[T] in TXNRD2 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.78, P = 4.05 × 10(-11)) encoding a mitochondrial protein required for redox homeostasis; rs7137828[T] in ATXN2 (OR = 1.17, P = 8.73 × 10(-10)); and rs2745572[A] upstream of FOXC1 (OR = 1.17, P = 1.76 × 10(-10)). Using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, we show TXNRD2 and ATXN2 expression in retinal ganglion cells and the optic nerve head. These results identify new pathways underlying POAG susceptibility and suggest new targets for preventative therapies.
Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease associated with inflammation of exocrine glands with clinical manifestations of dry eye and dry mouth. Dry eye in this disease involves inflammation of the ocular surface tissues - cornea and conjunctiva. While systemic blockade of adhesion molecules has been used to treat autoimmune diseases, the purpose of this study was to determine the therapeutic efficacy of topical application of an integrin α4 adhesion molecule antagonist in a mouse model of dry eye associated with Sjögren's syndrome. To assess this spontaneously developed ocular surface inflammation related to Sjögren's syndrome in TSP-1null mice (12 wks) was evaluated. Mice were treated with topical formulations containing 0.1% dexamethasone or 30 mg/ml GW559090 or vehicle control. Corneal fluorescein staining and conjunctival goblet cell density were assessed. Real-time PCR analysis was performed to assess expression of the inflammatory marker IL-1β in the cornea and Tbet and RORγt in the draining lymph nodes. Ocular surface inflammation was detectable in TSP-1null mice (≥12 wk old), which resulted in increased corneal fluorescein staining indicative of corneal barrier disruption and reduced conjunctival goblet cell density. These changes were accompanied by increased corneal expression of IL-1β as compared to WT controls and an altered balance of Th1 (Tbet) and Th17 (RORγt) markers in the draining lymph nodes. Topically applied dexamethasone and GW559090 significantly reduced corneal fluorescein staining compared to vehicle treatment (p = 0.023 and p < 0.001, respectively). This improved corneal barrier integrity upon adhesion molecule blockade was consistent with significantly reduced corneal expression of pro-inflammatory IL-1β compared to vehicle treated groups (p < 0.05 for both treatments). Significant improvement in goblet cell density was also noted in mice treated with 0.1% dexamethasone and GW559090 (p < 0.05 for both). We conclude that similar to topical dexamethasone, topically administered GW559090 successfully improved corneal barrier integrity and inflammation in an established ocular surface disease associated with Sjögren's syndrome.
PURPOSE: To test whether increased intereye retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) asymmetry may be indicative of glaucoma. To determine the best statistical methods and intereye RNFL cutoffs for differentiating between normal and glaucoma subjects to better alert clinicians to early glaucomatous damage. METHODS: Sixty-six primary open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and 40 age-matched normal subjects had both eyes imaged at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary with a commercially available spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) machine. Statistical methodologies were used to find cutoffs that achieved the best sensitivities and specificities for differentiating OAG from normal subjects. RESULTS: Intereye RNFL asymmetry for global average, all quadrants, and all sectors was significantly greater in OAG than normal subjects. Intereye RNFL asymmetry for global average showed the greatest statistical difference (P<0.001) between OAG (23.64±14.90 μm) and normal eyes (3.58±3.96 μm), with 6.60 times greater asymmetry in OAG eyes. The inferior quadrant showed the second greatest difference, with 3.91 times greater asymmetry in OAG eyes. Using a statistically determined cutoff of 6.0 μm as abnormal, intereye RNFL asymmetry for global average achieved a sensitivity of 74.24% and specificity of 90% in differentiating between normal and OAG subjects, achieving a better combination of sensitivity and specificity than intereye RNFL asymmetry of any quadrant or sector. CONCLUSIONS: Intereye RNFL asymmetry may be a useful clinical OCT measurement to provide quantitative assessment of early glaucomatous damage. Newly developed algorithms for intereye RNFL asymmetry may improve the ability to detect glaucoma.
Fritsche LG, Igl W, Bailey JCN, Grassmann F, Sengupta S, Bragg-Gresham JL, Burdon KP, Hebbring SJ, Wen C, Gorski M, Kim IK, Cho D, Zack D, Souied E, Scholl HPN, Bala E, Lee KE, Hunter DJ, Sardell RJ, Mitchell P, Merriam JE, Cipriani V, Hoffman JD, Schick T, Lechanteur YTE, Guymer RH, Johnson MP, Jiang Y, Stanton CM, Buitendijk GHS, Zhan X, Kwong AM, Boleda A, Brooks M, Gieser L, Ratnapriya R, Branham KE, Foerster JR, Heckenlively JR, Othman MI, Vote BJ, Liang HH, Souzeau E, McAllister IL, Isaacs T, Hall J, Lake S, Mackey DA, Constable IJ, Craig JE, Kitchner TE, Yang Z, Su Z, Luo H, Chen D, Ouyang H, Flagg K, Lin D, Mao G, Ferreyra H, Stark K, von Strachwitz CN, Wolf A, Brandl C, Rudolph G, Olden M, Morrison MA, Morgan DJ, Schu M, Ahn J, Silvestri G, Tsironi EE, Park KH, Farrer LA, Orlin A, Brucker A, Li M, Curcio CA, Mohand-Saïd S, Sahel J-A, Audo I, Benchaboune M, Cree AJ, Rennie CA, Goverdhan SV, Grunin M, Hagbi-Levi S, Campochiaro P, Katsanis N, Holz FG, Blond F, Blanché H, Deleuze J-F, Igo RP, Truitt B, Peachey NS, Meuer SM, Myers CE, Moore EL, Klein R, Hauser MA, Postel EA, Courtenay MD, Schwartz SG, Kovach JL, Scott WK, Liew G, Tan AG, Gopinath B, Merriam JC, Smith TR, Khan JC, Shahid H, Moore AT, McGrath AJ, Laux R, Brantley MA, Agarwal A, Ersoy L, Caramoy A, Langmann T, Saksens NTM, de Jong EK, Hoyng CB, Cain MS, Richardson AJ, Martin TM, Blangero J, Weeks DE, Dhillon B, van Duijn CM, Doheny KF, Romm J, Klaver CCW, Hayward C, Gorin MB, Klein ML, Baird PN, den Hollander AI, Fauser S, Yates JRW, Allikmets R, Wang JJ, Schaumberg DA, Klein BEK, Hagstrom SA, Chowers I, Lotery AJ, Léveillard T, Zhang K, Brilliant MH, Hewitt AW, Swaroop A, Chew EY, Pericak-Vance MA, DeAngelis M, Stambolian D, Haines JL, Iyengar SK, Weber BHF, Abecasis GR, Heid IM. A large genome-wide association study of age-related macular degeneration highlights contributions of rare and common variants. Nat Genet 2016;48(2):134-43.Abstract
Advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly, with limited therapeutic options. Here we report on a study of >12 million variants, including 163,714 directly genotyped, mostly rare, protein-altering variants. Analyzing 16,144 patients and 17,832 controls, we identify 52 independently associated common and rare variants (P < 5 × 10(-8)) distributed across 34 loci. Although wet and dry AMD subtypes exhibit predominantly shared genetics, we identify the first genetic association signal specific to wet AMD, near MMP9 (difference P value = 4.1 × 10(-10)). Very rare coding variants (frequency <0.1%) in CFH, CFI and TIMP3 suggest causal roles for these genes, as does a splice variant in SLC16A8. Our results support the hypothesis that rare coding variants can pinpoint causal genes within known genetic loci and illustrate that applying the approach systematically to detect new loci requires extremely large sample sizes.
OBJECTIVE: To provide artificially-elicited vision that is temporally dynamic, retinal prosthetic devices will need to repeatedly stimulate retinal neurons. However, given the diversity of physiological types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) as well as the heterogeneity of their responses to electric stimulation, temporal properties of RGC responses have not been adequately investigated. Here, we explored the cell type dependence of network-mediated RGC responses to repetitive electric stimulation at various stimulation rates. APPROACH: We examined responses of ON and OFF types of RGCs in the rabbit retinal explant to five consecutive stimuli with varying inter-stimulus intervals (10-1000 ms). Each stimulus was a 4 ms long monophasic sinusoidal cathodal current, which was applied epiretinally via a conical electrode. Spiking activity of targeted RGCs was recorded using a cell-attached patch electrode. MAIN RESULTS: ON and OFF cells had distinct responses to repetitive stimuli. Consistent with earlier studies, OFF cells always generated reduced responses to subsequent stimuli compared to responses to the first stimulus. In contrast, a new stimulus to ON cells suppressed all pending/ongoing responses from previous stimuli and initiated its own response that was remarkably similar to the response from a single stimulus in isolation. This previously unreported 'reset' behavior was observed exclusively and consistently in ON cells. These contrasts between ON and OFF cells created a range of stimulation rates (4-7 Hz) that maximized the ratio of the responses arising in ON versus OFF cells. SIGNIFICANCE: Previous clinical testing reported that subjects perceive bright phosphenes (ON responses) and also prefer stimulation rates of 5-7 Hz. Our results suggest that responses of ON cells are weak at high rates of stimulation (> ∼7 Hz) due to the reset while responses of OFF cells are strong at low rates (< ∼4 Hz) due to reduced desensitization, both reducing the ratio of ON to OFF responses. In combination with previous results indicating that responses in ON cells more closely match physiological patterns (Im and Fried 2015 J. Physiol. 593 3577-96), our results offer a potential reason for the user preference of intermediate rates (5-7 Hz).
PURPOSE: To review the diagnostic categories of a group of conditions referred to as "primary acquired melanosis." DESIGN: Literature review on the subject and proposal of an alternative diagnostic schema with histopathologic and immunohistochemical illustrations. METHODS: Standard hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections and immunohistochemical stains for MART-1, HMB-45, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF), and Ki-67 for calculating the proliferation index are illustrated. RESULTS: "Melanosis" is an inadequate and misleading term because it does not distinguish between conjunctival intraepithelial melanin overproduction ("hyperpigmentation") and intraepithelial melanocytic proliferation. It is recommended that "intraepithelial melanocytic proliferation" be adopted for histopathologic diagnosis. Atypical proliferations are characterized either by bloated dendritic melanocytes with enlarged cell components (dendrites, cell bodies, and nuclei) or by epithelioid melanocytes without dendrites. Atypical polygonal or epithelioid pagetoid cells may reach higher levels of the epithelium beyond the basal layer. Immunohistochemistry defines the degree of melanocytic proliferation or the cellular shape (dendritic or nondendritic) (MART-1, HMB-45) or identifies the melanocytic nuclei (MiTF). Intraepithelial melanocytic proliferation without atypia represents increased numbers of normal-appearing dendritic melanocytes (hyperplasia or early neoplasia) that generally remain confined to the basal/basement membrane region. Intraepithelial nonproliferative melanocytic pigmentation signifies the usually small number of conjunctival basal dendritic melanocytes that synthesize increased amounts of melanin that is transferred to surrounding keratinocytes. CONCLUSION: All pre- and postoperative biopsies of flat conjunctival melanocytic disorders should be evaluated immunohistochemically if there is any question regarding atypicality. This should lead to a clearer microscopic descriptive diagnosis that is predicated on an analysis of the participating cell types and their architectural patterns. This approach is conducive to a better appreciation of features indicating when to intervene therapeutically. An accurate early diagnosis should forestall unnecessary later surgery.
PURPOSE: To investigate associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and dry eye syndrome (DES), and to evaluate the differential effect of vitamin D on ocular diseases including age-related macular disease (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), cataract, and DES. METHODS: A total of 16,396 participants aged >19 years were randomly selected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. All participants participated in standardized interviews, blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D level evaluations, and comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. DES was defined by a history of clinical diagnosis of dry eyes by a physician. The association between vitamin D and DES was compared to the associations between vitamin D and AMD, DR, cataract, and DES from our previous studies. RESULTS: The odds of DES non-significantly decreased as the quintiles of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels increased (quintile 5 versus 1, OR = 0.85, 95%CI: 0.55-1.30, P for trend = 0.076) after adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, and sunlight exposure times. The relative odds of DES (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.30-1.64) and cataract (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.59-0.99) were relatively high, while those of DR (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.18-0.76) and late AMD (OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.12-0.81) were lower in men. CONCLUSIONS: The present study does not support an association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and DES. The preventive effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D may be more effective for DR and late AMD than it is for cataract and DES.
Tissue decellularization strategies have enabled engineering of scaffolds that preserve native extracellular matrix (ECM) structure and composition. In this study, we developed decellularized retina (decell-retina) thin films. We hypothesized that these films, mimicking the retina niche, would promote human retinal progenitor cell (hRPC) attachment, proliferation and differentiation. Retinas isolated from bovine eyes were decellularized using 1% w/v sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and pepsin digested. The resulting decell-retina was biochemically assayed for composition and cast dried to develop thin films. Attachment, viability, morphology, proliferation and gene expression of hRPC cultured on the films were studied in vitro. Biochemical analyses of decell-retina compared to native retina indicated the bulk of DNA (94%) was removed, while the majority of sulfated GAGs (55%), collagen (83%), hyaluronic acid (87%), and key growth factors were retained. The decell-retina films supported hRPC attachment and growth, with cell number increasing 1.5-fold over a week. RT-PCR analysis revealed hRPC expression of rhodopsin, rod outer membrane, neural retina-specific leucine zipper neural and cone-rod homeobox gene on decell-retina films, indicating photoreceptor development. In conclusion, novel decell-retina films show promise as potential substrates for culture and/or transplantation of retinal progenitor cells to treat retinal degenerative disorders.
PURPOSE: To describe the natural history of dry eye disease (DED), which chronically affects millions of people in the United States. DESIGN: This study is based on the Women's Health Study and Physicians' Health Studies, and uses questionnaires and medical records. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 398 men and 386 women who reported a diagnosis of DED and responded to a questionnaire about change in disease since diagnosis. METHODS: Three subscales were developed using factor analysis of questionnaire responses: ocular surface symptoms, vision-related symptoms, and social impact. We examined correlates of worsening on each subscale, obtained medical records from a subset of 261 study participants, and examined changes in clinical signs of DED over time. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Worsening in ocular surface symptoms, vision-related symptoms, and social impact plus clinical signs. RESULTS: The average duration of DED of 10.5 years (standard deviation, 9.5 years). Worsening was reported by 24% for ocular surface symptoms, 29% for vision-related symptoms, and 10% for social impact. Factors associated with worsening on at least 2 of 3 subscales included a previous report of severe DED symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 2.17 for ocular surface symptoms; OR, 2.35 for vision-related symptoms), spending >$20 per month on DED treatments (OR, 1.80 for ocular surface symptoms; OR, 1.99 for vision-related symptoms), history of blepharitis or meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) (OR, 1.57 for vision-related symptoms; OR, 2.12 for social impact), and use of systemic beta-blockers (OR, 1.62 for ocular surface symptoms; OR, 1.84 for vision-related symptoms; OR, 1.86 for the social impact of DED). Presence of corneal staining based on review of medical records was associated with use of level 2 or higher DED treatments (OR, 1.54; confidence interval [CI], 1.01-2.36), a previous report of severe DED symptoms (OR, 1.79; CI, 1.07-3.00), having a tear break-up test performed (OR, 2.73; CI, 1.72-4.36), and having blepharitis or MGD (OR, 0.59; CI, 0.35-0.98). CONCLUSIONS: A proportion of patients with DED experience worsening over time, tending to report with more severe symptoms earlier in the disease. Forthcoming data on the natural history of DED from prospective studies should help clarify some of the limitations of this retrospective study.
PURPOSE: We performed a literature synthesis to identify the full spectrum of compounds implicated in drug-induced, bilateral secondary angle-closure glaucoma (2° ACG). METHODS: Systematic PubMed literature review identified relevant bilateral 2° ACG case reports. We evaluated these reports with both the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale to assess the causality of reported drug reactions and a 2° ACG scale scoring system we developed to determine the likelihood that the event represented bilateral 2° ACG. Two independent graders performed these analyses and their scores were averaged for interpretation. The Naranjo scale ranges from -4 to +13 and the drug reaction was considered definite if the score was ≥9, probable if 5 to 8, possible if 1 to 4, and doubtful if ≤0. The 2° ACG score ranges from 0 to 7. We considered a 2° ACG score of ≥4 as evidence of significant likelihood that the drug reaction represented bilateral 2° ACG. RESULTS: No drug had a definite Naranjo score, but the following drug entities had probable Naranjo scores and 2° ACG scores ≥4: acetazolamide, "anorexiant mix," bupropion, cabergoline, "ecstasy," escitalopram, flavoxate, flucloxacillin, hydrochlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide/triamterene, mefenamic acid, methazolamide, oseltamivir, topiramate, topiramate/bactrim, and venlafaxine. Root chemical analysis revealed that sulfur-containing and non-sulfur-containing compounds contributed to bilateral 2° ACG. CONCLUSIONS: Several compound preparations were implicated in drug-induced bilateral 2° ACG. Treating physicians should be aware that some forms of recreational drug use, which the patient may not admit to, could contribute to this vision-threatening side effect.
PURPOSE: To report visual outcomes in patients undergoing proton beam irradiation of tumors located within 1 disc diameter of the fovea. DESIGN: Retrospective review. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with choroidal melanoma involving the fovea treated with proton beam therapy between 1975 and 2009. METHODS: Three hundred fifty-one patients with choroidal melanomas located 1 disc diameter (DD) or less from the fovea and more than 1 DD away from the optic nerve were included in this study. In a subgroup of 203 of the patients with small and medium choroidal melanomas, the effect of a reduced dose of radiation, 50 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]) versus 70 Gy (RBE), on visual outcomes was analyzed. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were performed to calculate cumulative rates of vision loss and to assess risk factors for vision loss, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual acuity and radiation complications, which included radiation maculopathy, papillopathy, retinal detachment, and rubeosis, were assessed. RESULTS: Three hundred fifty-one patients were included in this study with a mean follow-up time of 68.7 months. More than one-third of patients (35.5%) retained 20/200 or better vision 5 years after proton beam irradiation. For those patients with a baseline visual acuity of 20/40 or better, 16.2% of patients retained this level of vision 5 years after proton beam irradiation. Tumor height less than 5 mm and baseline visual acuity 20/40 or better were associated significantly with a better visual outcome (P < 0.001). More than two-thirds (70.4%) of patients receiving 50 Gy (RBE) and nearly half (45.1%) of patients receiving 70 Gy (RBE) retained 20/200 or better vision 5 years after treatment, but this difference was not significant. Approximately 20% of patients with these smaller macular tumors retained 20/40 vision or better 5 years after irradiation. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this retrospective analysis demonstrate that despite receiving a full dose of radiation to the fovea, many patients with choroidal melanoma with foveal involvement maintain useful vision. A radiation dose reduction from 70 to 50 Gy (RBE) did not seem to increase the proportion of patients who retain usable vision.
The X-linked RP3 gene codes for the ciliary protein RPGR and accounts for over 10% of inherited retinal degenerations. The critical RPGR-ORF15 splice variant contains a highly repetitive purine-rich linker region that renders it unstable and difficult to adapt for gene therapy. To test the hypothesis that the precise length of the linker region is not critical for function, we evaluated whether adeno-associated virus-mediated replacement gene therapy with a human ORF15 variant containing in-frame shortening of the linker region could reconstitute RPGR function in vivo. We delivered human RPGR-ORF15 replacement genes with deletion of most (314 codons, 'short form') or 1/3 (126 codons, 'long form') of the linker region to Rpgr null mice. Human RPGR-ORF15 expression was detected post treatment with both forms of ORF15 transgenes. However, only the long form correctly localized to the connecting cilia and led to significant functional and morphological rescue of rods and cones. Thus the highly repetitive region of RPGR is functionally important but that moderate shortening of its length, which confers the advantage of added stability, preserves its function. These findings provide a theoretical basis for optimizing replacement gene design in clinical trials for X-linked RP3.
PURPOSE: To report logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) visual outcomes of the Boston keratoprosthesis type 1. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative parameters of 300 eyes of 300 patients who underwent implantation of a Boston keratoprosthesis type 1 device between January 2003 and July 2008 by 1 of 19 surgeons at 18 medical centers were collected. RESULTS: After an average of 17.1 ± 14.8 months, visual acuity improved significantly (P < .0001) to a mean final value of 0.89 ± 0.64 (20/150). There were also significantly fewer eyes with light perception (6.7%; n = 19; P < .0001), although 3.1% (n = 9) progressed to no light perception. There was no association between age (P = .08), sex (P = .959), operative side (P = .167), or failure (P = .494) and final visual acuity. The median time to achieve 20/200 visual acuity was 1 month (95% confidence interval 1.0-6.0) and it was retained for an average of 47.8 months. Multivariate analysis, controlling for preoperative visual acuity, demonstrated 2 factors associated with final visual outcome: chemical injury was associated with better final vision (P = .007), whereas age-related macular degeneration was associated with poorer vision (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: The Boston keratoprosthesis type 1 is an effective device for rehabilitation in advanced ocular surface disease, resulting in a significant improvement in visual acuity. Eyes achieved a mean value of 20/150 (0.89 ± 0.64 logMAR units) after 6 months and this was relatively stable thereafter. The best visual prognosis is observed in chemical injury eyes, whereas the worst prognosis is in aniridia, although the latter has limited visual potential.
INTRODUCTION: Ocular and cutaneous disease are common chronic sequelae of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) and have been well described in the literature. Long-term complications affecting other organ systems have not been so well described. The purpose of this review article is to highlight non-ocular and non-cutaneous chronic complications of SJS/TEN. METHODS: The PubMed database was searched for the keywords "Stevens-Johnson syndrome" and "toxic epidermal necrolysis" through September 1, 2014. Relevant articles were then reviewed in full. RESULTS: 138 articles in the English language were found that described chronic sequelae of SJS/TEN. Our search revealed six affected organ systems other than the eyes and integument, with chronic sequelae from SJS/TEN: respiratory, gastrointestinal/hepatic, oral, otorhinolaryngologic, gynecologic/genitourinary, and renal. Complications involving these organs systems appeared likely to reduce the quality of life for SJS/TEN survivors. DISCUSSION: SJS/TEN is a multi-organ disease requiring multidisciplinary care from a variety of specialists. Affected patients have complex hospital stays, and their quality of life may be severely impacted by multiple long-term complications. We believe that preventative care in the acute setting might limit the development and progression of many of the sequelae described above.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation and agreement between optical coherence tomography (Cirrus HD-OCT) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness map and scan circle RNFL thickness measurements. METHODS: ImageJ and custom Perl scripts were used to derive RNFL thickness measurements from RNFL thickness maps of optic disc scans of healthy and glaucomatous eyes. Average, quadrant, and clock-hour RNFL thickness of the map, and RNFL thickness of the areas inside/outside the scan circle were obtained. Correlation and agreement between RNFL thickness map and scan circle RNFL thickness measurements were evaluated using R and Bland-Altman plots, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 104 scans from 26 healthy eyes and 120 scans from 30 glaucomatous eyes were analyzed. RNFL thickness map and scan circle measurements were highly reproducible (eg, in healthy eyes, average RNFL thickness coefficients of variation were 2.14% and 2.52% for RNFL thickness map and scan circle, respectively) and highly correlated (0.55≤R≤0.98). In general, the scan circle provided greater RNFL thickness than the RNFL thickness map in corresponding sectors and the differences tended to increase as RNFL thickness increased. The width of the 95% limits of agreement ranged between 5.28 and 36.80 μm in healthy eyes, and between 11.69 and 42.89 μm in glaucomatous eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Despite good correlation between RNFL thickness map and scan circle measurements, agreement was generally poor, suggesting that RNFL thickness assessment over the entire scan area may provide additional clinically relevant information to the conventional scan circle analysis. In the absence of available measurements from the entire peripapillary region, the RNFL thickness maps can be used to investigate localized RNFL thinning in areas not intercepted by the scan circle.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Invasive fungal infections of the head and neck are rare life-threatening infections where prompt diagnosis and intervention is critical for survival. The aim of this study is to determine the clinical characteristics and outcomes of invasive fungal disease of the sinus and orbit, and to compare mucormycosis and Aspergillus infection. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted from a single tertiary care eye and ear hospital over 20 years (1994-2014). Twenty-four patients with a confirmed pathological diagnosis of invasive fungal disease of the sinus and/or orbit were identified and their medical records were reviewed. The main outcome measures were type of fungus, location of disease, mortality and visual outcome. RESULTS: Patients with orbital involvement had a higher mortality and higher likelihood of mucormycosis infection compared with those with sinus-only disease (78.6% vs 20%, p=0.01; 86% vs 30%, p=0.01, respectively). Patients with mucormycosis had a higher mortality (71%) than patients with Aspergillus (29%); however, this was not statistically significant (p=0.16). All patients with orbital involvement and/or mucormycosis infections were immunosuppressed or had inadequately controlled diabetes, and had a cranial neuropathy or ocular motility dysfunction. All five post-transplant patients with orbital infections died, while the two transplant patients with sinus infections survived. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with orbital fungal infections are more likely to be infected with mucormycosis compared with Aspergillus and have a higher mortality compared with infections sparing the orbit. History of transplant portends a dismal prognosis in orbital infections. Invasive fungal disease should be considered in any immunocompromised patient presenting with a new cranial neuropathy or ocular motility abnormality.
This paper introduces the "hybrid foraging" paradigm. In typical visual search tasks, observers search for one instance of one target among distractors. In hybrid search, observers search through visual displays for one instance of any of several types of target held in memory. In foraging search, observers collect multiple instances of a single target type from visual displays. Combining these paradigms, in hybrid foraging tasks observers search visual displays for multiple instances of any of several types of target (as might be the case in searching the kitchen for dinner ingredients or an X-ray for different pathologies). In the present experiment, observers held 8-64 target objects in memory. They viewed displays of 60-105 randomly moving photographs of objects and used the computer mouse to collect multiple targets before choosing to move to the next display. Rather than selecting at random among available targets, observers tended to collect items in runs of one target type. Reaction time (RT) data indicate searching again for the same item is more efficient than searching for any other targets, held in memory. Observers were trying to maximize collection rate. As a result, and consistent with optimal foraging theory, they tended to leave 25-33% of targets uncollected when moving to the next screen/patch. The pattern of RTs shows that while observers were collecting a target item, they had already begun searching memory and the visual display for additional targets, making the hybrid foraging task a useful way to investigate the interaction of visual and memory search.