Colour vision is only achieved in the presence of healthy and functional cone photoreceptors found in the retina. It is an essential component of human vision and usually the first complaint patients undergoing vision degeneration have is the loss of daylight colour vision. Therefore, an understanding of the biology and basic mechanisms behind cone death under the degenerative state of retinal dystrophies and how the activation of the apoptotic pathway is triggered will provide valuable knowledge. It will also have broader applications for a spectrum of visual disorders and will be critical for future advances in translational research.
More than one hundred naturally occurring variants of adeno-associated virus (AAV) have been identified, and this library has been further expanded by an array of techniques for modification of the viral capsid. AAV capsid variants possess unique antigenic profiles and demonstrate distinct cellular tropisms driven by differences in receptor binding. AAV capsids can be chemically modified to alter tropism, can be produced as hybrid vectors that combine the properties of multiple serotypes, and can carry peptide insertions that introduce novel receptor-binding activity. Furthermore, directed evolution of shuffled genome libraries can identify engineered variants with unique properties, and rational modification of the viral capsid can alter tropism, reduce blockage by neutralizing antibodies, or enhance transduction efficiency. This large number of AAV variants and engineered capsids provides a varied toolkit for gene delivery to the CNS and retina, with specialized vectors available for many applications, but selecting a capsid variant from the array of available vectors can be difficult. This chapter describes the unique properties of a range of AAV variants and engineered capsids, and provides a guide for selecting the appropriate vector for specific applications in the CNS and retina.
IMPORTANCE: Understanding the criteria for when strabismus becomes detectable by non-health care professionals could influence the goals for determining the success of surgical intervention and how patients with such misalignments are counseled. OBJECTIVE: To examine the magnitude at which strabismus is detectable by lay observers in an ethnically diverse set of images. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Photographs of 12 ethnically diverse models (black, white, and Asian) were simulated to have strabismus from esotropia of 21 prism diopters (∆) to exotropia of 21∆. From July 1, 2007, to October, 1, 2008, images were presented to 120 non-health care professionals aged 21 years or older from the general community in Boston, Massachusetts, who were asked whether strabismus was present. Analysis was conducted from November 1, 2008, to March 31, 2009. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The threshold angle for detecting strabismus to enable 70% of lay observers to make a positive determination whether strabismus is present. RESULTS: In white and black models, the threshold allowing a 70% positive detection rate was higher for esotropia than for exotropia (P < .001 for both). For white models, the threshold was 23.2∆ (95% CI, 21.0∆ to 26.5∆) for esotropia and 13.5∆ (95% CI, 12.5∆ to 14.6∆) for exotropia. For black models, the threshold was 20.8∆ (95% CI, 19.2∆ to 22.2∆) for esotropia and 16.3∆ (95% CI, 15.5∆ to 17.2∆) for exotropia. Asian models showed an opposite trend, with the threshold allowing a 70% positive detection rate for esotropia (14.3∆; 95% CI, 13.2∆ to 15.7∆) being lower than that for exotropia (20.9∆; 95% CI, 18.0∆ to 24.6∆) (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Esotropia was easier for lay observers to detect than exotropia in Asian models, and exotropia was easier to detect than esotropia in white and black models. This information should be considered when managing patients who have concerns about the social significance of their strabismus. Future studies should include diverse individuals and make an effort to account for individual factors that may alter the perception of strabismus.
In March 2015, a meeting was held in London, United Kingdom, to address the progress in targeting the unmet need for dry eye disease (DED) treatment. The meeting, which launched the i(2) = initiating innovation series, was sponsored by the Tear Film & Ocular Surface Society (TFOS; www.TearFilm.org) and supported by Dompé. The TFOS i(2) meeting was designed to review advances in the understanding of DED since publication of the 2007 TFOS International Dry Eye WorkShop (DEWS) report, and to help launch the highly anticipated sequel, DEWS II. The meeting was structured to discuss the scope of the DED problem, to review the clinical challenges of DED, and to consider the treatment challenges of DED. This article provides a synopsis of the presentations of this TFOS i(2) meeting.
AIMS: The RiGOR study's primary outcome measure was a 15% reduction in intraocular pressure (IOP) for patients with open-angle glaucoma at 1 year. METHODS: Patients received treatment according to the ophthalmologist's usual practice. RESULTS: A higher proportion of patients in the incisional and other surgery group achieved a 15% reduction in IOP than in the laser surgery or additional medication groups (82, 57, and 57% respectively). In multivariate regression analyses, incisional surgery patients were 2.7-times as likely as patients treated with additional medication to achieve a 15% reduction in IOP (odds ratio: 2.67; 95% CI: 2.01-3.57). CONCLUSION: Incisional and other surgical procedures are effective treatments. There were no differences in treatment response by race or ethnicity.
AIMS: The RigOR study was designed to assess comparative effectiveness of medications, laser trabeculoplasty and incisional surgery in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in the community initiating a new or additional course of therapy as judged necessary by their ophthalmologist. This paper focuses specifically on demographic and clinical characteristics of OAG patients at enrollment. PATIENTS & METHODS: A total of 2597 with OAG already on medical therapy were enrolled from 45 community and academic practices throughout the USA. RESULTS: Overall, 784 (30%) patients were treated with laser surgery, 436 with other surgical procedures (17%), and 1377 with additional medication (53%). Patients had mild (35%) or moderate (31%) glaucoma, with 28% with severe glaucoma. CONCLUSION: The RiGOR study enrolled a diverse population and will provide valuable information regarding visual function and treatment patterns among different racial/ethnic populations. African-American and Hispanic patients entered the study with poorer visual acuity and more severe glaucoma.
AIMS: The RiGOR study evaluated the association of treatment and patient-reported outcomes for open-angle glaucoma patients. METHODS: The Glaucoma Symptom Scale (National Eye Institute-Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) and visual acuity (VA) were collected as quality of life measures. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with improvement of at least two lines of vision was highest in the incisional surgery group (14.2% compared with 9.9% for laser surgery and 10.9% for additional medication). CONCLUSION: No clinically relevant differences were seen in benefit for the laser surgery or incisional surgery groups compared with additional medications for the Glaucoma Symptom Scale or NEI-VFQ measures or subscales. Differences in quality of life by race need to be explored in further studies.
AIMS: The RiGOR study provides a current picture of the types of glaucoma treatment over 12 months. METHODS: Patients were identified and enrolled at the time of decision to proceed with laser surgery procedure or other procedure such as incisional surgery or drainage device implantation, or initiation of a new or additional course of therapy with medication for glaucoma treatment. RESULTS: The most frequent type of treatments were prostaglandin analogues (60%) among patients with additional medication, selective laser trabeculoplasty (87%) among patients with laser surgery and trabeculectomy (57%) among patients with incisional surgery. CONCLUSION: For 36% of patients, a treatment cascade involves two or more therapies over a year. This demonstrates the complex nature of open-angle glaucoma treatment.
Scleritis and uveitis are potentially blinding conditions that can be associated with systemic inflammatory diseases. Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a common rheumatic disorder of the elderly of uncertain etiology. Although there are a few published reports of scleritis and uveitis in PMR patients, the association of PMR to ocular inflammation has not been well established. The aim of this study is to report a series of PMR patients with scleritis and/or uveitis and review the prior published reports of this potential association. We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of patients with PMR and scleritis or uveitis who were examined in the Ocular Immunology Service of Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. We also performed a systematic literature search (PubMed; January 1990 until January 2014) to identify earlier published reports. Seven PMR patients with ocular inflammatory disease (OID) were included in our study: two with scleritis, three with anterior uveitis, and two with panuveitis. The onset of PMR preceded the occurrence of OID in six patients, and in one patient uveitis developed 2 months prior to PMR. Five patients demonstrated a temporal association between flares of PMR and OID. In four patients, OID flares developed during tapering of systemic prednisone prescribed for PMR. Four of the five patients who had relapsing PMR had recurrent or persistent uveitis over the course of follow-up. PMR may be associated with both scleritis and uveitis and should be considered as a possible underlying cause of OID.
Ocular inflammatory disease is a leading cause of vision loss worldwide. Uveitis encompasses a wide spectrum of pathology, both with respect to its etiology and the anatomic location within the eye. Inflammation can be confined to the eye and may also be seen systemically. The cornerstone of management of ocular inflammatory disease historically has been corticosteroids, which are invaluable in the immediate control of inflammation; however, corticosteroids are inappropriate for long-term use as they are associated with a wide array of toxic side effects. As we continue to learn more about the various etiologies and elucidate the basic science pathways and mechanisms of action that cause intraocular inflammation, new therapeutic approaches have evolved. They include employment of immunomodulatory agents (corticosteroid-sparing therapies) that have expanded our treatment options for these vision-threatening diseases. These pharmacologics provide therapy for ocular and systemic inflammation in an individualized, patient-tailored, stepladder approach with the ultimate goal of durable, corticosteroid-free remission. We review the preferred practice patterns of a tertiary care center specializing in ocular inflammatory disease.
Goblet cells populate wet-surfaced mucosa including the conjunctiva of the eye, intestine, and nose, among others. These cells function as part of the innate immune system by secreting high molecular weight mucins that interact with environmental constituents including pathogens, allergens, and particulate pollutants. Herein, we determined whether interferon gamma (IFN-γ), a Th1 cytokine increased in dry eye, alters goblet cell function. Goblet cells from rat and human conjunctiva were cultured. Changes in intracellular [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]i), high molecular weight glycoconjugate secretion, and proliferation were measured after stimulation with IFN-γ with or without the cholinergic agonist carbachol. IFN-γ itself increased [Ca(2+)]i in rat and human goblet cells and prevented the increase in [Ca(2+)]i caused by carbachol. Carbachol prevented IFN-γ-mediated increase in [Ca(2+)]i. This cross-talk between IFN-γ and muscarinic receptors may be partially due to use of the same Ca(2+)i reservoirs, but also from interaction of signaling pathways proximal to the increase in [Ca(2+)]i. IFN-γ blocked carbachol-induced high molecular weight glycoconjugate secretion and reduced goblet cell proliferation. We conclude that increased levels of IFN-γ in dry eye disease could explain the lack of goblet cells and mucin deficiency typically found in this pathology. IFN-γ could also function similarly in respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.
The repair of wounds through collective movement of epithelial cells is a fundamental process in multicellular organisms. In stratified epithelia such as the cornea and skin, healing occurs in three steps that include a latent, migratory, and reconstruction phases. Several simple and inexpensive assays have been developed to study the biology of cell migration in vitro. However, these assays are mostly based on monolayer systems that fail to reproduce the differentiation processes associated to multilayered systems. Here, we describe a straightforward in vitro wound assay to evaluate the healing and restoration of barrier function in stratified human corneal epithelial cells. In this assay, circular punch injuries lead to the collective migration of the epithelium as coherent sheets. The closure of the wound was associated with the restoration of the transcellular barrier and the re-establishment of apical intercellular junctions. Altogether, this new model of wound healing provides an important research tool to study the mechanisms leading to barrier function in stratified epithelia and may facilitate the development of future therapeutic applications.
Mucolipidosis IV is a debilitating developmental lysosomal storage disorder characterized by severe neuromotor retardation and progressive loss of vision, leading to blindness by the second decade of life. Mucolipidosis IV is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the MCOLN1 gene, which encodes the transient receptor potential channel protein mucolipin-1. Ophthalmic pathology in patients includes corneal haze and progressive retinal and optic nerve atrophy. Herein, we report ocular pathology in Mcoln1(-/-) mouse, a good phenotypic model of the disease. Early, but non-progressive, thinning of the photoreceptor layer, reduced levels of rhodopsin, disrupted rod outer segments, and widespread accumulation of the typical storage inclusion bodies were the major histological findings in the Mcoln1(-/-) retina. Electroretinograms showed significantly decreased functional response (scotopic a- and b-wave amplitudes) in the Mcoln1(-/-) mice. At the ultrastructural level, we observed formation of axonal spheroids and decreased density of axons in the optic nerve of the aged (6-month-old) Mcoln1(-/-) mice, which indicates progressive axonal degeneration. Our data suggest that mucolipin-1 plays a role in postnatal development of photoreceptors and provides a set of outcome measures that can be used for ocular therapy development for mucolipidosis IV.
A 49-year-old male presented with proptosis and was found to have optic nerve edema with peripapillary hemorrhages. Diagnostic testing showed a suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone. CT orbits showed homogenous tendon-sparing enlargement of the medial and inferior rectus muscles, characteristic of thyroid eye disease. Intravenous methylprednisolone was administered given the concern for compressive optic neuropathy. He initially had improvement of his symptoms, so orbital decompression was deferred. Subsequently he presented with worsening diplopia and right proptosis, a new afferent pupillary defect, and a cecocentral visual field defect. Dilated examination revealed significant optic nerve head edema and diffuse retinal hemorrhages in all 4 quadrants consistent with a central retinal vein occlusion. The patient underwent an urgent 3-wall orbital decompression on the right. Close follow up postoperatively showed resolution of the central retinal vein occlusion and the associated optic disc edema, peripapillary hemorrhages, and macular edema. Orbital decompression is known to improve many manifestations of thyroid eye disease, but this is the first report of orbital decompression resulting in resolution of a central retinal vein occlusion.
BACKGROUND: The role of VEGF in the pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) has been clearly established. However, little is known about temporal changes in circulating VEGF concentrations in the preterm infant. The objective was to determine the longitudinal serum concentrations of VEGF in relation to ROP. METHODS: This study included 52 infants born at <31 weeks gestational age (non-ROP n=33, non-proliferative ROP n=10, treated for ROP n=9). VEGF concentrations were analyzed in blood samples collected at birth, at 3 days postnatal age, and then weekly until at least a gestational age of 35 weeks. RESULTS: VEGF concentrations at birth did not differ between groups, independent of later ROP status. In contrast, VEGF serum concentrations were significantly higher at first detection of ROP in infants who were later treated for ROP compared to infants without ROP. At the time of laser therapy, serum VEGF concentrations did not differ between groups. CONCLUSION: Circulatory concentrations of VEGF, in infants who later developed severe ROP, were elevated at the time when ROP first was detected but not at the time when current treatment most often occurred. This supports the need for further studies of circulating VEGF in relation to the timing of ROP treatment.Pediatric Research (2015); doi:10.1038/pr.2015.181.
PURPOSE: To assess the safety and tolerability of E10030 (Fovista; Ophthotech, New York, NY), a platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) antagonist, when administered in combination with an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent, ranibizumab (Lucentis; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) 0.5 mg, by intravitreal injection in participants with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD). DESIGN: Prospective phase 1 clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 23 participants diagnosed with NVAMD and aged 50 years or older were enrolled. METHODS: Part 1 included 15 participants. Three participants received a single intravitreal E10030 (0.03 mg) injection and were subsequently given intravitreal ranibizumab (0.5 mg) injections at weeks 2, 6, and 10. Twelve participants (3 per group) received E10030 (0.03, 0.3, 1.5, or 3.0 mg) in combination with ranibizumab (0.5 mg) at day 0, month 1, and month 2 in an ascending manner. In Part 2 (8 participants), E10030 (0.3, 1.5, or 3.0 mg) in combination with ranibizumab (0.5 mg) was injected at day 0, month 1, and month 2. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Safety at week 12 was the primary outcome and included assessment of vital signs, laboratory tests, and serial eye examinations. Other safety metrics included assessment through week 24 of Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) visual acuity (VA) and biomarker changes evaluated by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescein angiography (FA). RESULTS: All doses of intravitreal E10030 administered in combination with ranibizumab were well tolerated. No dose-limiting toxicities or relevant safety events were noted at any dose level during the study. Investigators did not report adverse events related to E10030 or ranibizumab. Mean VA change was a gain of 14 letters, and 59% of participants gained ≥15 letters from baseline at week 12. On FA at week 12, there was an 85.5% mean reduction from baseline in choroidal neovascularization (CNV) size. On OCT at the week 12 visit, there was a mean decrease in center point thickness and central subfield thickness of 38.9% and 33.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Intravitreal E10030 administered at doses up to 3 mg in combination with ranibizumab was well tolerated without evidence of systemic or ocular toxicity in participants with NVAMD. The changes in both mean VA and imaging biomarkers suggest a favorable short-term safety profile for the combination therapy of E10030 and ranibizumab.
A 79-year-old man underwent excision of an upper eyelid mass that had been enlarging for 3 months. Histopathologic evaluation demonstrated a cyst lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium with myriad goblet cells and cilia, and immunostaining revealed cytokeratins indicative of a respiratory origin. This rare condition, the first described exclusively in an eyelid, arises either from a congenital embryologic respiratory epithelial ectopia or the displacement of mature sinus mucosa following trauma or chronic sinus disease. The current case lacked any signs or symptoms of sinus disease or a history of trauma.
A 16-year-old African American male, the youngest patient to date, presented with a well-circumscribed upper eyelid lesion. On excision, the dermal nodule was contiguous with the epidermis, displayed trichohyalin-like bodies in an expanded outer root sheath, and was composed chiefly of small cellular clusters separated by a prominent network of periodic acid Schiff -positive hyaline bands of basement membrane material. The tumor cells were positive for high molecular weight cytokeratins (CK) 5/6, CK14, and CK34βE12 and were negative for CK7, carcinoembryonic antigen and epithelial membrane antigen. Negative S100, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and smooth muscle actin immunoreactions ruled out a myoepithelial lesion. The Ki-67 proliferation index was <10%. The diagnosis was a hyalinized trichilemmoma, contrasting with the more common lobular type. As an isolated lesion, trichilemmoma does not portend Cowden syndrome.
PURPOSE: Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly common systemic disease. Many diabetic patients seek cataract surgery for a better visual acuity. Unlike in the general population, the influence of cataract surgery on tear film function in diabetic patients remains elusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tear function in diabetic and nondiabetic patients following cataract surgery. METHODS: In this prospective, interventional case series, 174 diabetic patients without dry eye syndrome (DES) and 474 age-matched nondiabetic patients as control who underwent phacoemulsification were enrolled at two different eye centers between January 2011 and January 2013. Patients were followed up at baseline and at 7 days, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively. Ocular symptom scores (Ocular Surface Disease Index, OSDI) and tear film function including tear film stability (tear film break-up time, TBUT), corneal epithelium integrity (corneal fluorescein staining, CFS), and tear secretion (Schirmer's I test, SIT) were evaluated. RESULTS: In total, 83.9% of the diabetic patients (146 cases with 185 eyes) and 89.0% of the nondiabetic patients (422 cases with 463 eyes) completed all check-ups after the interventions (P = 0.095). The incidence of DES was 17.1% in the diabetic patients and 8.1% in the nondiabetic patients at 7 days after cataract surgery. In the diabetic patients, the incidence of DES remained 4.8% at 1 month postoperatively and decreased to zero at 3 months after surgery. No DES was diagnosed in nondiabetic patients at either the 1-month or 3-month follow-up. Compared with the baseline, the diabetic patients had worse symptom scores and lower TBUT values at 7 days and 1 month but not at 3 months postoperatively. In the nondiabetic patients, symptom scores and TBUT values had returned to preoperative levels at 1-month check-up. CFS scores and SIT values did not change significantly postoperatively in either group (P = 0.916 and P = 0.964, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Diabetic patients undergoing cataract surgery are prone to DES. Ocular symptoms and tear film stability are transiently worsened in diabetic patients and are restored more slowly than those in nondiabetic patients.