July 2016

Abusamra K, Oray M, Ebrahimiadib N, Lee S, Anesi S, Foster SC. Intraocular Lymphoma: Descriptive Data of 26 Patients Including Clinico-pathologic Features, Vitreous Findings, and Treatment Outcomes. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2016;:1-6.Abstract

PURPOSE: To describe clinical manifestations, diagnostic approaches, therapy, and outcomes of biopsy-proven intraocular lymphoma. METHODS: Review of tertiary referral center records between 2005 and 2015. RESULTS: A total of 51 eyes of 26 patients were included; mean age of onset was 60.42 years. Common ocular complaints included floaters (42%) and blurred vision (35%); 62% of patients had ocular and central nervous system involvement; 11% had systemic lymphoma; and 27% had only ocular involvement. Vitreous analysis was positive for malignant cells in 77% of patients on initial biopsy, and in 100% of patients on repeat biopsy. In total, 20/26 patients received systemic and topical treatment before IOL diagnosis was made; 25 patients received intravitreal methotrexate and/or rituximab; one patient received intracameral rituximab. All patients achieved remission by their final visit. CONCLUSIONS: Intraocular lymphoma often masquerades as intraocular inflammation, resulting in delayed or misdiagnosis with subsequent inappropriate management. Optimal therapy is a challenge for oncologists and ophthalmologists.

Campbell AA, Jakobiec FA, Rashid A, Dana R, Yoon MK. Bilateral Sequential Dacryocystitis in a Patient With Graft-Versus-Host Disease. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016;32(4):e89-92.Abstract

A 29-year-old woman with a history of 2 bone marrow transplants for acute myelogenous leukemia developed bilateral sequential dacryocystitis in the context of known ocular graft-versus-host disease. With each infection, the patient underwent uneventful dacryocystorhinostomy. Postoperatively, she developed severe dry eye disease requiring replacement of punctal plugs and use of a prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem lens. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination of the lacrimal sac showed a dense diffuse nonfollicular lymphocytic subepithelial infiltrate in the lacrimal sac that contained moderately more T-cells than B-cells. This is the first report of acute dacryocystitis associated with graft-versus-host disease. The authors caution that similar patients may develop worsening of ocular surface dryness due to restoration of normal lacrimal outflow.

Cho H, Shin YU, Siegel NH, Yu HG, Sobrin L, Patel A, Durand ML, Miller JW, Husain D. Endogenous Endophthalmitis in the American and Korean Population: An 8-year Retrospective Study. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2016;:1-8.Abstract

PURPOSE: To study the clinical features of endogenous endophthalmitis (EE) in sample patient populations from the USA and South Korea over an 8-year period. METHODS: We reviewed data from 128 eyes of 60 American and 48 Korean patients diagnosed with EE and compared their clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Fungemia and liver abscess were the most common extraocular infection sources among American (26.7%) and Korean patients (33.3%), respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida species were the most common pathogens of EE in the Korean and the American patients, respectively. Endophthalmitis caused by fungi had a better visual prognosis than that caused by bacteria (p = 0.001). Vitrectomy was beneficial for eyes with EE due to virulent bacteria presenting with worse than counting finger vision. CONCLUSIONS: The predisposing conditions and responsible organisms for EE vary in different regions of the world. The visual prognosis was strongly influenced by the underlying pathogen.

DeLoss KS, Le H-G, Gire A, Chiu GB, Jacobs DS, Carrasquillo KG. PROSE Treatment for Ocular Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease as a Clinical Network Expands. Eye Contact Lens 2016;42(4):262-6.Abstract

BACKGROUND: Keratoconjunctivitis sicca occurs in 40% to 90% of patients with ocular chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Ocular symptoms can have profound effects in both the visual function and quality of life of patients with GVHD. We report the impact of prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) treatment in patients with cGVHD as a clinical network expands. METHODS: We queried the BostonSight PROSE manufacturing database from January 2002 to December 2011. Patients treated for ocular cGVHD were reported by age, gender, year, and network site where the treatment was undertaken. The baseline and six-month follow-up scores of visual function using a standardized validated instrument, the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25), were evaluated for a period in 2006 and again in 2010 after network expansion had occurred. RESULTS: A total of 407 patients with a male:female ratio of 226:181, mean age was 51 years with ocular cGVHD underwent PROSE treatment from January 2002 to December 2011. By 2011, 67% of all cases were treated at network clinics. Baseline characteristics of patients treated throughout the network in 2010 were similar to that of 2006 and 2010 cohorts from the main center. There was a significant improvement of 41 points (P<0.001) in composite NEI VFQ score among patients treated across the network in 2010, similar to the improvement of 30 points (P<0.001) seen among the patients treated at the main center in 2010. There was a trend toward lower baseline self-reported general health status (SRGHS) and VFQ scores among patients treated at network clinics, suggesting that expansion of the network allows treatment of sicker patients (lower general health status) or those more severely affected by ocular cGVHD. CONCLUSIONS: PROSE treatment of ocular cGVHD has increased in the last decade with the establishment of BostonSight network clinics across the United States. Patients treated at network clinics showed similar levels of baseline visual function and SRGHS, and achieved a similar high level of improvement in visual function as those treated at the main center. Patient-reported measures of functional status are useful in evaluating treatment options for patients with cGVHD. PROSE treatment has significant positive impact on the visual function of patients with ocular cGVHD regardless of whether the patient is treated at the main center or at a network site.

Di Zazzo A, Tahvildari M, Florakis GJ, Dana R. Ocular Manifestations of Inherited Phospholipase-Cγ2-Associated Antibody Deficiency and Immune Dysregulation. Cornea 2016;Abstract

PURPOSE: To report the ocular manifestations of phospholipase-Cγ2-associated antibody deficiency and immune dysregulation (PLAID). METHODS: Case report and literature review. RESULTS: A 21-year-old woman diagnosed with PLAID was referred for evaluation of repeated episodes of ocular inflammation resulting in bilateral peripheral corneal pannus with episcleritis and corneal scarring accompanied by systemic manifestations including epidermolysis bullosa and interstitial lung disease. Systemic immunosuppression with corticosteroids and interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist (anakinra) was supplemented with topical anakinra to avoid systemic side effects, which resulted in partial improvement of the ocular symptoms. Oral prednisone was restarted to treat active lesions during bouts of inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Ocular PLAID is a bilateral chronic or recurrent inflammatory disease of the ocular surface leading to severe and early cicatricial ocular surface and corneal involvement because of high IL-1 production. Management of PLAID may require both topical and systemic immunomodulatory treatments, potentially including targeted local anti-IL-1 therapy.

Duan Y, Ma G, Huang X, D'Amore PA, Zhang F, Lei H. The Clustered, Regularly Interspaced, Short Palindromic Repeats-associated Endonuclease 9 (CRISPR/Cas9)-created MDM2 T309G Mutation Enhances Vitreous-induced Expression of MDM2 and Proliferation and Survival of Cells. J Biol Chem 2016;291(31):16339-47.Abstract

The G309 allele of SNPs in the mouse double minute (MDM2) promoter locus is associated with a higher risk of cancer and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), but whether SNP G309 contributes to the pathogenesis of PVR is to date unknown. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated endonuclease (Cas) 9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) can be harnessed to manipulate a single or multiple nucleotides in mammalian cells. Here we delivered SpCas9 and guide RNAs using dual adeno-associated virus-derived vectors to target the MDM2 genomic locus together with a homologous repair template for creating the mutation of MDM2 T309G in human primary retinal pigment epithelial (hPRPE) cells whose genotype is MDM2 T309T. The next-generation sequencing results indicated that there was 42.51% MDM2 G309 in the edited hPRPE cells using adeno-associated viral CRISPR/Cas9. Our data showed that vitreous induced an increase in MDM2 and subsequent attenuation of p53 expression in MDM2 T309G hPRPE cells. Furthermore, our experimental results demonstrated that MDM2 T309G in hPRPE cells enhanced vitreous-induced cell proliferation and survival, suggesting that this SNP contributes to the pathogenesis of PVR.

Ebrahimiadib N, Abusamra K, Domina AM, Stiles ER, Ewer R, Bocian CP, Foster SC. A Novel NOD2-associated Mutation and Variant Blau Syndrome: Phenotype and Molecular Analysis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2016;:1-8.Abstract

PURPOSE: To describe the clinical and molecular implications of a novel mutation in the NOD2/CARD15 gene on a family and its seven affected members. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical presentations of family members who came to our center for refractory uveitis. Genetic testing and molecular testing was performed. RESULTS: All affected members had adult onset recurrent non-granulomatous panuveitis. The inheritance pattern suggested an autosomal dominant disease and genetic analysis identified a novel mutation in the NOD2 gene that converted amino acid 600 from glutamate to alanine (E600A). Transfection of the E600A NOD2 into human embryonic kidney-293 (HEK293) cells revealed constitutive activation and a reduced ability to respond to the NOD2 ligand, muramyl dipeptide (MDP) as compared with wild-type NOD2. CONCLUSIONS: The E600A mutation in the NOD2 gene may confer a higher penetrance of uveitis but a later onset of milder forms of non-ocular involvement.

Gómez-Laberge C, Smolyanskaya A, Nassi JJ, Kreiman G, Born RT. Bottom-Up and Top-Down Input Augment the Variability of Cortical Neurons. Neuron 2016;91(3):540-7.Abstract

Neurons in the cerebral cortex respond inconsistently to a repeated sensory stimulus, yet they underlie our stable sensory experiences. Although the nature of this variability is unknown, its ubiquity has encouraged the general view that each cell produces random spike patterns that noisily represent its response rate. In contrast, here we show that reversibly inactivating distant sources of either bottom-up or top-down input to cortical visual areas in the alert primate reduces both the spike train irregularity and the trial-to-trial variability of single neurons. A simple model in which a fraction of the pre-synaptic input is silenced can reproduce this reduction in variability, provided that there exist temporal correlations primarily within, but not between, excitatory and inhibitory input pools. A large component of the variability of cortical neurons may therefore arise from synchronous input produced by signals arriving from multiple sources.

Gonzalez-Gonzalez LA, Payal AR, Gonzalez-Monroy JE, Daly MK. Ophthalmic Surgical Simulation in Training Dexterity in Dominant and Nondominant Hands: Results From a Pilot Study. J Surg Educ 2016;73(4):699-708.Abstract

PURPOSE: To determine whether a structured training program using the validated EYESI surgical simulator improves dexterity in nondominant (ND) hands. SETTING: Academic tertiary referral center. DESIGN: Nonrandomized, prospective study. METHODS: Subjects who chose to participate and provided informed consent completed a structured simulation training program, which included a baseline test, 3 sessions of repeated tasks, and a final test on capsulorhexis in dominant (D) and ND hands. Participants completed demographic and satisfaction questionnaires. Performances at each session were recorded. We compared overall scores at baseline and at the end of the study, and analyzed trends over time. Statistical analysis was performed using JMP by SAS. RESULTS: Overall, 14 subjects completed the training program. In all, 3 (21.4%) were attending physicians and 11 (78.6%) were trainees. There was a significant improvement in the average overall scores (baseline vs. final) in both the D hand (33.4 vs. 46.5; p < 0.05) and the ND hand (28.9 vs. 47.7; p < 0.001). The structured training program demonstrated significantly faster performance times in both hands at the end of the study (D p< 0.001, ND p < 0.02). However, the learning curve was significantly steeper in the ND hand (p < 0.01). Participants agreed that simulation training improved the ND hand dexterity. CONCLUSIONS: We found a significantly greater trend for improvement in the ND compared with the D hand. These results suggest that an elaborate, structured curriculum targeting teaching dexterity results in better simulated performance.

Greenwald SH, Charette JR, Staniszewska M, Shi LY, Brown SDM, Stone L, Liu Q, Hicks WL, Collin GB, Bowl MR, Krebs MP, Nishina PM, Pierce EA. Mouse Models of NMNAT1-Leber Congenital Amaurosis (LCA9) Recapitulate Key Features of the Human Disease. Am J Pathol 2016;186(7):1925-38.Abstract

The nicotinamide nucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 (NMNAT1) enzyme is essential for regenerating the nuclear pool of NAD(+) in all nucleated cells in the body, and mounting evidence also suggests that it has a separate role in neuroprotection. Recently, mutations in the NMNAT1 gene were associated with Leber congenital amaurosis, a severe retinal degenerative disease that causes blindness during infancy. Availability of a reliable mammalian model of NMNAT1-Leber congenital amaurosis would assist in determining the mechanisms through which disruptions in NMNAT1 lead to retinal cell degeneration and would provide a resource for testing treatment options. To this end, we identified two separate N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-generated mouse lines that harbor either a p.V9M or a p.D243G mutation. Both mouse models recapitulate key aspects of the human disease and confirm the pathogenicity of mutant NMNAT1. Homozygous Nmnat1 mutant mice develop a rapidly progressing chorioretinal disease that begins with photoreceptor degeneration and includes attenuation of the retinal vasculature, optic atrophy, and retinal pigment epithelium loss. Retinal function deteriorates in both mouse lines, and, in the more rapidly progressing homozygous Nmnat1(V9M) mutant mice, the electroretinogram becomes undetectable and the pupillary light response weakens. These mouse models offer an opportunity for investigating the cellular mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis, evaluating potential therapies for NMNAT1-Leber congenital amaurosis, and conducting in situ studies on NMNAT1 function and NAD(+) metabolism.

Hong J, Qian T, Wei A, Sun Z, Wu D, Chen Y, Marmalidou A, Lu Y, Sun X, Liu Z, Amparo F, Xu J. Nasolacrimal recanalization as an alternative to external dacryocystorhinostomy for treating failed nasolacrimal duct intubation. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016;95(30):e4350.Abstract

To compare the surgical duration and clinical outcomes of nasolacrimal recanalization versus external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) in the treatment of failed nasolacrimal duct intubation.This is a retrospective, comparative, and interventional study. We evaluated the outcomes of 66 consecutive patients undergoing either nasolacrimal recanalization (n = 32) or DCR (n = 34) in a tertiary lacrimal disease referral center. Length of surgical duration, clinical outcomes, and rate of recurrence at 18 months postoperatively were compared.The mean surgical duration was 18.5 minutes (range, 15-25 minutes) for nasolacrimal recanalization and 48.2 minutes (range, 45-61 minutes) for DCR, respectively (P < 0.001). The rate of success was 84.4% in the recanalization group and 85.3% in the DCR group, respectively (P = 0.91). The time to recurrence was 2.6 ± 1.1 months in the recanalization group and 5.6 ± 2.1 months in the DCR group (P < 0.001). Five failed cases in each group received a secondary DCR surgery with the same resolution rate (40%). The absence of ocular discharge at baseline was a significant predictor for a successful outcome in the recanalization group (P = 0.04) but not in the DCR group (P = 0.63).Nasolacrimal recanalization is an effective, safe, and time-saving alternative to DCR for the treatment of failed nasolacrimal duct intubation. Clinicians should be cautious in patients with discharge.

Jain R, Sharma N, Basu S, Iyer G, Ueta M, Sotozono C, Kannabiran C, Rathi VM, Gupta N, Kinoshita S, Gomes JAP, Chodosh J, Sangwan VS. Stevens-Johnson syndrome: The role of an ophthalmologist. Surv Ophthalmol 2016;61(4):369-99.Abstract

Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is an acute blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes. Acute SJS leads to the acute inflammation of the ocular surface and chronic conjunctivitis. If not properly treated, it causes chronic cicatricial conjunctivitis and cicatricial lid margin abnormalities. Persistent inflammation and ulceration of the ocular surface with cicatricial complications of the lids leads to chronic ocular sequelae, ocular surface damage, and corneal scarring. The destruction of the glands that secrete the tear film leads to a severe form of dry eye that makes the management of chronic SJS difficult. The option that is routinely used for corneal visual rehabilitation, keratoplasty, is best avoided in such cases. We describe the management strategies that are most effective during the acute and chronic stages of SJS. Although treatments for acute SJS involve immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapies, amniotic membrane transplantation is also useful. The options for visual rehabilitation in patients with chronic SJS are undergoing radical change. We describe the existing literature regarding the management of SJS and highlight recent advances in the management of this disorder.

Jakobiec FA, Stagner AM, Lee NG. Clear-Cell (Reticulated) Transformation of Eyelid Eccrine Sweat Glands. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016;Abstract

A 24-year-old man with a painful, recurrent left upper eyelid nodule underwent an excision. Histopathologic evaluation disclosed a granulomatous process, most likely in response to a ruptured epidermoid cyst. In the vicinity of the nodule were multiple eccrine sweat glands displaying a curious clear-cell appearance in the adlumenal cells, the first example of such a phenomenon in the eyelids. Alcian blue, periodic acid Schiff, and documented staining failed to disclose, respectively, any cytoplasmic mucosubstances, glycogen accumulation, or lipid in the adlumenal secretory cells. Cytokeratin 7 immunostained the adlumenal cells of the eccrine secretory coil, while cytokeratin 5/6 stained the ablumenal myoepithelial and ductular cells. Gross cystic disease fluid protein 15, normally demonstrable in the eccrine secretory cells, was not detectable. Clear-cell transformation should not be confused with syringoma of the lower eyelids, in which glycogen is responsible for the ablumenal clear-cell change.

Kim YJ, Payal AR, Daly MK. Effects of tear gases on the eye. Surv Ophthalmol 2016;61(4):434-42.Abstract

Chemical agents that target the eyes have been a popular choice for law enforcement during riots and for military training for nearly a century. The most commonly used agents are chloroacetophenone (formerly sold as Mace), o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile, and oleoresin capsicum (OC or pepper spray, current ingredient for Mace). Initially, most severe ocular injuries were caused by the explosive force rather than the chemical itself. The development of sprays reduced the mechanical severity of ocular injuries, but resulted in a variety of chemical injuries. The effects on eyes include conjunctival injection, complete corneal epithelial defects, pseudopterygium, corneal neovascularization, persistent conjunctivalization, corneal opacities, and reduced visual acuity. Current management, based on limited human studies, emphasizes decontamination and symptomatic treatment. We review the literature related to clinical and histopathologic effects of tear gas agents on the eye and their management.

Lowry EA, Hou J, Hennein L, Chang RT, Lin S, Keenan J, Wang SK, Ianchulev S, Pasquale LR, Han Y. Comparison of Peristat Online Perimetry with the Humphrey Perimetry in a Clinic-Based Setting. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2016;5(4):4.Abstract

PURPOSE: We determined the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for Peristat online perimetry at detecting varying degrees of glaucoma and the correlation between Peristat online perimetry and Humphrey visual field. METHODS: A prospective, comparative study of Peristat online perimetry (an achromatic static computer threshold testing program) and Humphrey visual field (HVF) 24-2 SITA standard testing was performed by 63 glaucoma patients and 30 healthy controls in random order. The number of total adjacent abnormal test points were identified for each test, and compared with Spearman correlation. Receive operating characteristic curves were generated for Peristat online perimetry detection of mild and moderate-severe glaucoma patients using contrast sensitivity thresholds of -16.7, -21.7, and -26.7 dB. RESULTS: The area under the ROC curve for glaucoma detection ranged from 0.77 to 0.81 for mild disease (mean deviation [MD], >-6 dB on HVF) and 0.85 to 0.87 for moderate to severe disease (MD, <-6 dB on HVF) depending on contrast threshold. Peristat online perimetry and Humphrey visual field abnormal points were highly correlated with Spearman rank correlations ranging from 0.55 to 0.77 (all P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Peristat online perimetry exhibits a reasonable ROC curve without specialized equipment and exhibited significant correlation with the conventional 24° Humphrey visual field test. TRANSLATIONAL RELEVANCE: Low cost widely available internet-based visual fields may complement traditional office-based visual field testing.

M Mallery R, Poolman P, J Thurtell M, Wang J-K, K Garvin M, Ledolter J, Kardon RH. The Pattern of Visual Fixation Eccentricity and Instability in Optic Neuropathy and Its Spatial Relationship to Retinal Ganglion Cell Layer Thickness. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2016;57(9):OCT429-37.Abstract

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinically useful measures of fixation instability and eccentricity can be derived from retinal tracking data obtained during optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with optic neuropathy (ON) and to develop a method for relating fixation to the retinal ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with ON underwent macular volume OCT with 30 seconds of confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO)-based eye tracking during fixation. Kernel density estimation quantified fixation instability and fixation eccentricity from the distribution of fixation points on the retina. Preferred ganglion cell layer loci (PGCL) and their relationship to the GCC thickness map were derived, accounting for radial displacement of retinal ganglion cell soma from their corresponding cones. RESULTS: Fixation instability was increased in ON eyes (0.21 deg2) compared with normal eyes (0.06982 deg2; P < 0.001), and fixation eccentricity was increased in ON eyes (0.48°) compared with normal eyes (0.24°; P = 0.03). Fixation instability and eccentricity each correlated moderately with logMAR acuity and were highly predictive of central visual field loss. Twenty-six of 35 ON eyes had PGCL skewed toward local maxima of the GCC thickness map. Patients with bilateral dense central scotomas had PGCL in homonymous retinal locations with respect to the fovea. CONCLUSIONS: Fixation instability and eccentricity measures obtained during cSLO-OCT assess the function of perifoveal retinal elements and predict central visual field loss in patients with ON. A model relating fixation to the GCC thickness map offers a method to assess the structure-function relationship between fixation and areas of preserved GCC in patients with ON.

Ma G, Duan Y, Huang X, Qian CX, Chee Y, Mukai S, Cui J, Samad A, Matsubara JA, Kazlauskas A, D'Amore PA, Gu S, Lei H. Prevention of Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy by Suppression of Phosphatidylinositol 5-Phosphate 4-Kinases. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2016;57(8):3935-43.Abstract

PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown that vitreous stimulates degradation of the tumor suppressor protein p53 and that knockdown of phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinases (PI5P4Kα and -β) abrogates proliferation of p53-deficient cells. The purpose of this study was to determine whether vitreous stimulated expression of PI5P4Kα and -β and whether suppression of PI5P4Kα and -β would inhibit vitreous-induced cellular responses and experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). METHODS: PI5P4Kα and -β encoded by PIP4K2A and 2B, respectively, in human ARPE-19 cells were knocked down by stably expressing short hairpin (sh)RNA directed at human PIP4K2A and -2B. In addition, we rescued expression of PI5P4Kα and -β by re-expressing mouse PIP4K2A and -2B in the PI5P4Kα and -β knocked-down ARPE-19 cells. Expression of PI5P4Kα and -β was determined by Western blot and immunofluorescence. The following cellular responses were monitored: cell proliferation, survival, migration, and contraction. Moreover, the cell potential of inducing PVR was examined in a rabbit model of PVR effected by intravitreal cell injection. RESULTS: We found that vitreous enhanced expression of PI5P4Kα and -β in RPE cells and that knocking down PI5P4Kα and -β abrogated vitreous-stimulated cell proliferation, survival, migration, and contraction. Re-expression of mouse PIP4Kα and -β in the human PI5P4Kα and -β knocked-down cells recovered the loss of vitreous-induced cell contraction. Importantly, suppression of PI5P4Kα and -β abrogated the pathogenesis of PVR induced by intravitreal cell injection in rabbits. Moreover, we revealed that expression of PI5P4Kα and -β was abundant in epiretinal membranes from PVR grade C patients. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study indicate that PI5P4Kα and -β could be novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of PVR.

Maleki A, Meese H, Sahawneh H, Foster SC. Progress in the understanding and utilization of biologic response modifiers in the treatment of uveitis. Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2016;12(7):775-86.Abstract

Uveitis is the third most common cause of blindness in developed countries. Considering the systemic and local complications of long-term corticosteroid therapy and the intolerance due to side effects and ineffectiveness of conventional chemotherapy, use of biologic response modifiers is a reasonable alternative in the treatment of non-infectious uveitis and persistent uveitic macular edema. The majority of the evidence presented here comes from open uncontrolled analyses. Based on these studies, tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors, especially infliximab and adalimumab, have been shown to be effective in the treatment of non-infectious uveitis in numerous studies. More research is necessary, particularly multi-center randomized clinical trials, to address the choice of biologic response modifier agent and the length of treatment as we employ biologic response modifiers in different types of uveitis and persistent uveitic macular edema.

Modest JR, Johnston SC, Majzoub KM, Moore B, Trudell EK, Ramsey JE, Vernacchio L. Results of a primary care-based quality improvement project to optimize chart-based vision screening for preschool age children. J AAPOS 2016;Abstract

PURPOSE: To design chart-based vision screening for preschool-aged children. METHODS: Our program consisted of educational sessions for providers as well as hands-on training for practice staff. We evaluated the intervention through pre- and post-intervention review of medical records. RESULTS: Completion of full vision screening (distance visual acuity in each eye plus stereovision beginning at 3 years of age, as recommended at the time of the project) at well-child visits improved for 5-year-olds (45.0% to 58.2%; risk difference +13.2% [95% CI, 1.7-24.7]) and 4-year-olds (39.3% to 51.4%; risk difference +12.0% [95% CI, 0.7-23.4]) but declined somewhat among 3-year-olds (23.1% to 14.3%; risk difference, -8.8% [95% CI, -17.7 to 0.0]). Risk factors for not being fully screened included being 3 years old (risk ratio of 4.1 compared to 5-year-olds) and being a patient of a small practice (risk ratio of 1.9 compared to large practices). CONCLUSIONS: This quality improvement project showed that screening for visual acuity and stereovision among preschool-aged children using chart-based techniques is difficult to accomplish and unlikely to be consistently successful, especially among 3-year-olds.

Noseda R, Bernstein CA, Nir R-R, Lee AJ, Fulton AB, Bertisch SM, Hovaguimian A, Cestari DM, Saavedra-Walker R, Borsook D, Doran BL, Buettner C, Burstein R. Migraine photophobia originating in cone-driven retinal pathways. Brain 2016;139(Pt 7):1971-86.Abstract

Migraine headache is uniquely exacerbated by light. Using psychophysical assessments in patients with normal eyesight we found that green light exacerbates migraine headache significantly less than white, blue, amber or red lights. To delineate mechanisms, we used electroretinography and visual evoked potential recording in patients, and multi-unit recording of dura- and light-sensitive thalamic neurons in rats to show that green activates cone-driven retinal pathways to a lesser extent than white, blue and red; that thalamic neurons are most responsive to blue and least responsive to green; and that cortical responses to green are significantly smaller than those generated by blue, amber and red lights. These findings suggest that patients' experience with colour and migraine photophobia could originate in cone-driven retinal pathways, fine-tuned in relay thalamic neurons outside the main visual pathway, and preserved by the cortex. Additionally, the findings provide substrate for the soothing effects of green light.