June 2019

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AbdelAl O, Ashraf M, Sampani K, Sun JK. "For Mass Eye and Ear Special Issue" Adaptive Optics in the Evaluation of Diabetic Retinopathy. Semin Ophthalmol 2019;:1-9.Abstract
Retinal imaging is a fundamental tool for clinical and research efforts in the evaluation and management of diabetic retinopathy. Adaptive optics (AO) is an imaging technique that enables correction of over 90% of the optical aberrations of an individual eye induced primarily by the tear film, cornea and lens. The two major tasks of any AO system are to measure the optical imperfections of the eye and to then compensate for these aberrations to generate a corrected wavefront of reflected light from the eye. AO scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) provides a theoretical lateral resolution limit of 1.4 μm, allowing the study of microscopic features of the retinal vascular and neural tissue. AOSLO studies have revealed irregularities of the photoreceptor mosaic, vascular loss, and details of vascular lesions in diabetic eyes that may provide new insight into development, regression, and response to therapy of diabetic eye disease.
An D, Fujiki R, Iannitelli DE, Smerdon JW, Maity S, Rose MF, Gelber A, Wanaselja EK, Yagudayeva I, Lee JY, Vogel C, Wichterle H, Engle EC, Mazzoni EO. Stem cell-derived cranial and spinal motor neurons reveal proteostatic differences between ALS resistant and sensitive motor neurons. Elife 2019;8Abstract
In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) spinal motor neurons (SpMN) progressively degenerate while a subset of cranial motor neurons (CrMN) are spared until late stages of the disease. Using a rapid and efficient protocol to differentiate mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) to SpMNs and CrMNs, we now report that ESC-derived CrMNs accumulate less human (h)SOD1 and insoluble p62 than SpMNs over time. ESC-derived CrMNs have higher proteasome activity to degrade misfolded proteins and are intrinsically more resistant to chemically-induced proteostatic stress than SpMNs. Chemical and genetic activation of the proteasome rescues SpMN sensitivity to proteostatic stress. In agreement, the hSOD1 G93A mouse model reveals that ALS-resistant CrMNs accumulate less insoluble hSOD1 and p62-containing inclusions than SpMNs. Primary-derived ALS-resistant CrMNs are also more resistant than SpMNs to proteostatic stress. Thus, an ESC-based platform has identified a superior capacity to maintain a healthy proteome as a possible mechanism to resist ALS-induced neurodegeneration.
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Borkar DS, Sobrin L, Hubbard RA, Kempen JH, VanderBeek BL. Techniques for improving ophthalmic studies performed on administrative databases. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2019;26(3):147-149.
Bressler NM, Odia I, Maguire M, Glassman AR, Jampol LM, MacCumber MW, Shah C, Rosberger D, Sun JK, Sun JK. Association Between Change in Visual Acuity and Change in Central Subfield Thickness During Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema in Participants Randomized to Aflibercept, Bevacizumab, or Ranibizumab: A Post Hoc Analysis of the Protocol T Randomized Clinic. JAMA Ophthalmol 2019;Abstract
Importance: The determination of optical coherence tomography (OCT) central subfield thickness (CST) is an objective measure, and visual acuity (VA) is a subjective measure. Therefore, using OCT CST changes as a surrogate for VA changes in diabetic macular edema seems reasonable. However, studies suggest that change in OCT CST following anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment for diabetic macular edema is correlated with changes in VA but varies substantially among individuals, and so may not be a good surrogate for changes in VA. Objective: To determine associations between changes in VA and changes in OCT CST across 3 anti-VEGF agents (aflibercept, bevacizumab, or ranibizumab) used in a randomized clinical trial for diabetic macular edema. Design, Setting, and Participants: Post hoc analyses were conducted of DRCR Retina Network Protocol T among 652 of 660 participants (98.8%) meeting inclusion criteria for this investigation. The study was conducted between August 22, 2012, and September 23, 2015. The post hoc data collection and analysis were performed from May 29 to July 11, 2018. Interventions: Six monthly intravitreous anti-VEGF injections (unless success was achieved after 3-5 months) were administered; subsequent injections or focal/grid laser photocoagulation treatments were given as needed per protocol to achieve stability. Main Outcomes and Measures: Association between changes in VA letter score with changes in CST at 12, 52, and 104 weeks after randomization to aflibercept, bevacizumab, or ranibizumab. Results: Of the 652 participants, 304 were women (46.6%); median age was 61 years (interquartile range, 54-67 years). The correlation between CST and VA at the follow-up visits was 0.24 (95% CI, 0.16-0.31) in 616 patients at 12 weeks, 0.31 (95% CI, 0.24-0.38) in 609 patients at 52 weeks, and 0.23 (95% CI, 0.15-0.31) in 566 patients at 104 weeks. The correlation coefficients of change in VA vs change in OCT CST for these time intervals were 0.36 (95% CI, 0.29-0.43) at 12 weeks, 0.36 (95% CI, 0.29-0.43) at 52 weeks, and 0.33 (95% CI, 0.26-0.41) at 104 weeks. Conclusions and Relevance: Changes in CST appear to account for only a small proportion of the total variation in changes in VA. These findings do not support using changes in OCT CST as a surrogate for changes in VA in phase 3 clinical trials evaluating anti-VEGF for diabetic macular edema or as a guide to inform the physician or patient about changes in VA after anti-VEGF treatment. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01627249.
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Chan W, Wiggs JL, Sobrin L. The Genetic Influence on Corticosteroid-Induced Ocular Hypertension: A Field Positioned for Discovery. Am J Ophthalmol 2019;202:1-5.Abstract
PURPOSE: To provide evidence that corticosteroid-induced ocular hypertension has a genetic component. DESIGN: Evidence-based perspective. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive literature search for studies exploring genetic influences on intraocular pressure responses to corticosteroid treatment. RESULTS: Studies demonstrating increased risk of corticosteroid-induced ocular hypertension among first-degree relatives of affected individuals support a genetic contribution to the disease. Family and personal history of primary open-angle glaucoma also increases the risk of corticosteroid-induced intraocular pressure elevation, suggesting common genetic etiologies. A number of studies have attempted to identify predisposing genetic factors; however, reproducible findings have not yet been reported. The recent availability of large data sets with clinical and genetic data for patients affected by corticosteroid-induced ocular hypertension and glaucoma provides new opportunities to study the genetic underpinnings of this important condition. CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial evidence suggesting a genetic component to corticosteroid-related ocular hypertension and glaucoma, but specific genetic risk factors have yet to be identified. The current confluence of large genetic data sets and affordable genetic sequencing technologies has great potential for discovering the genes that increase risk for this blinding complication of corticosteroid therapy.
Chantarasorn Y, Kim EL, Thabsuwan K. MACULAR ADD-ON INTRAOCULAR LENS SUCCESSFULLY RESTORES READING VISION IN EYES WITH END-STAGE DIABETIC MACULAR DISEASE. Retin Cases Brief Rep 2019;Abstract
PURPOSE: To report the outcomes of macular add-on intraocular lens implantation in improving reading vision in patients with bilateral advanced diabetic maculopathy. METHODS: In this retrospective study, a supplementary bifocal sulcus intraocular lens (Scharioth Macular Lens) was implanted in the better-seeing eye of five patients. Baseline-corrected distance vision, corrected near visual acuity, a preoperative simulation test, and multimodal imaging were collected. The primary outcome was the uncorrected near visual acuity at a working distance of 15 cm, at a 12-month follow-up. RESULTS: Study patients included 3 cases of refractory subfoveal exudation and 2 cases of diabetic macular ischemia. A preoperative test to assess the potential gain in near vision showed an improvement of ≥2 paragraphs on the RADNER reading chart in all patients. At 12 months, median reading vision (corrected near visual acuity at 15 cm) significantly improved from 20/125 (range 20/50-20/200) preoperatively to uncorrected near visual acuity (at 15 cm) of 20/50 (range 20/40-20/80) (P = 0.042; Wilcoxon signed-ranks test). Distance vision remained unchanged in four patients. All patients were able to achieve the size of newsprint (20/50 Snellen equivalent), within the first 3 months. CONCLUSION: The macular add-on intraocular lens improves reading vision in visually impaired patients due to end-stage diabetic macular disease.
Cohen LM, Shaye DA, Yoon MK. Isolated Orbital Floor Fracture Management: A Survey and Comparison of American Oculofacial and Facial Plastic Surgeon Preferences. Craniomaxillofac Trauma Reconstr 2019;12(2):112-121.Abstract
This article aimed to characterize, compare, and contrast the management of isolated orbital floor fractures among oculofacial and facial plastic surgeons in the United States. An anonymous 17-question multiple-choice web-based survey was distributed to all 590 members of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (ASOPRS) and all 1,300 members of the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (AAFPRS) using each society's email database from November 2016 to January 2017. Two-hundred twenty-five oculofacial and 135 facial plastic surgeons completed the survey. The most important indications for surgery among both oculofacial and facial plastic surgeons were motility restriction, enophthalmos, and diplopia at 2 weeks. The most common preferred time to surgical intervention was 8 to 14 days; however, facial plastic surgeons were more likely to operate after 4 to 7 days (  < 0.001). The most common choices of orbital implant material were porous polyethylene and porous polyethylene plus titanium for both oculofacial and facial plastic surgeons, nylon for oculofacial surgeons, and titanium for facial plastic surgeons. The majority rarely/never used intraoperative computed tomography imaging or navigation. Facial plastic surgeons were more likely to perform postoperative imaging (  < 0.001). We report results of the first survey of isolated orbital floor fracture management among oculofacial and facial plastic surgeons in the United States. This survey characterizes practice patterns and areas of similarities/differences among oculofacial and facial plastic surgeons in the management of isolated orbital floor fractures, which may help define the current standard of care.
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Dana R, Bradley JL, Guerin A, Pivneva I, Stillman IÖ, Evans AM, Schaumberg DA. Estimated Prevalence and Incidence of Dry Eye Disease Based on Coding Analysis of a Large, All-age United States Health Care System. Am J Ophthalmol 2019;202:47-54.Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess overall prevalence, annual prevalence, and incidence of dry eye disease (DED) in a large, representative population in the United States. DESIGN: Prevalence and incidence study. METHODS: Retrospective analysis using the Department of Defense (DOD) Military Health System (MHS) data on beneficiary medical claims from United States DOD military and civilian facilities, January 1, 2003 through March 31, 2015. PATIENT POPULATION: Using an algorithm, medical diagnostic codes indicative of DED and prescriptions for cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion identified a DED population from 9.7 million MHS beneficiaries (DOD service members, retirees, and dependents, aged 2-80+ years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: DED overall prevalence (2003-2015), annual prevalence (2005-2012), and annual incidence (2008-2012) stratified by sex, age group, and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Ninth Revision diagnosis code grouping. RESULTS: DED prevalence was 5.28% overall, 7.78% among female beneficiaries, 2.96% among male beneficiaries and increased with age from 0.20% for ages 2-17 years, to 11.66% for individuals aged 50+ years. Annual prevalence increased from 0.8% to 3.0% overall, from 1.4% to 4.5% in female beneficiaries, and from 0.3% to 1.6% in male beneficiaries. Annual prevalence increased across age groups starting at age 18-39, 0.1%-0.6%, to age 50+, 1.8%-6.0%. Annual incidence increased from 0.6% to 0.9% overall, from 0.8% to 1.2% in female beneficiaries, and from 0.3% to 0.6% in male beneficiaries. Across age groups, annual incidence increased starting at age 18-39 (0.2%-0.3%), to age 50+ (1.0%-1.6%). CONCLUSIONS: DED overall prevalence, annual prevalence, and incidence were found to increase over time for all demographics. These findings highlight the continued importance of research and therapeutic development for this common condition.
Drack AV, Utz VM, Wang K, Alcorn DM, Brooks BP, Costakos DM, Couser NL, Heon E, Levin AV, Lloyd CI, Morse CL, Schmitt MA, Whitman MC, Traboulsi EI. Survey of practice patterns for the management of ophthalmic genetic disorders among AAPOS members: report by the AAPOS Genetic Eye Disease Task Force. J AAPOS 2019;Abstract
To better understand AAPOS member pediatric ophthalmologists' knowledge and needs regarding genetic eye disorders, the AAPOS Genetic Eye Disease Task Force developed a 16-question survey that was circulated to national and international AAPOS members. Responses to questions on practice patterns, baseline knowledge, and educational interests regarding patients with suspected ophthalmic genetic disorders were collected. A majority of respondents (93%) evaluate patients with suspected genetic disorders. Knowledge gaps were present in heritability of certain conditions, genetic testing strategies, and referral to clinical trials. Most respondents expressed interest in further education in these areas. A model for care is proposed as a first step in the education process.
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Escuder AG, Hunter DG. The Role of Botulinum Toxin in the Treatment of Strabismus. Semin Ophthalmol 2019;:1-7.Abstract
: To perform a systematic review of the application of botulinum toxin A (BTA) in the management of strabismus in the adult and pediatric populations. : A systematic literature search was performed using the Medline database. : In 1989, with the FDA approval of botulinum toxin (onabotulinum toxin A, or BTA) for the treatment of strabismus, patients were provided with an alternative to surgical recession. In this review, we discuss the uses of BTA in the treatment of acute onset comitant esotropia or smaller angle esotropia and as an adjunct to surgery for larger angle esotropia or sixth nerve palsy. Its uses are also explored in intermittent exotropia and vertical strabismus, including thyroid-associated orbitopathy, fourth nerve palsies, and other orbital pathology. : Despite its transient kinetics, BTA can have permanent effects on ocular alignment, promoting binocularity and reduction of diplopia, and can serve as a primary treatment or a muscle sparing option in patients at risk of anterior segment ischemia or need for future surgeries.
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Foulsham W, Dohlman TH, Mittal SK, Taketani Y, Singh RB, Masli S, Dana R. Thrombospondin-1 in ocular surface health and disease. Ocul Surf 2019;Abstract
Thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) is an extracellular matrix protein that interacts with a wide array of ligands including cell receptors, growth factors, cytokines and proteases to regulate various physiological and pathological processes. Constitutively expressed by certain ocular surface tissues (e.g. corneal and conjunctival epithelium), TSP-1 expression is modulated during ocular surface inflammation. TSP-1 is an important activator of latent TGF-β, serving to promote the immunomodulatory and wound healing functions of TGF-β. Mounting research has deepened our understanding of how TSP-1 expression (and lack thereof) contributes to ocular surface homeostasis and disease. Here, we review current knowledge of the function of TSP-1 in dry eye disease, ocular allergy, angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis, corneal transplantation, corneal wound healing and infectious keratitis.
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Gaier ED, Gise R, Heidary G. Imaging Amblyopia: Insights from Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Semin Ophthalmol 2019;:1-9.Abstract
Amblyopia refers to visual impairment resulting from perturbations in visual experience during visual development, typically secondary to strabismus, uncorrected refractive error, and/or deprivation. Amblyopia has traditionally been considered a cortical disease, but the depth of our understanding of this complex neurodevelopmental condition is limited by our ability to appreciate structural pathophysiology in the visual pathway. Recent advances in Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) have facilitated numerous studies of the structural changes in the retina and optic nerve, thereby expanding our appreciation for the pathogenesis of this condition. In this review, we summarize findings from studies evaluating retinal, retinal nerve fiber layer, and choroidal thickness changes in patients with amblyopia. Focusing on the largest and most recent studies, we discuss common limitations and confounding variables in these studies. We summarize recent advances in ocular imaging technology and reconcile the findings of early histological reports with those of structural OCT in amblyopia.
Gise R, Gaier ED, Heidary G. Diagnosis and Imaging of Optic Nerve Head Drusen. Semin Ophthalmol 2019;:1-8.Abstract
The presence of optic nerve swelling in pediatric patients is a frequent cause for referral to pediatric ophthalmologists and neuro-ophthalmologists because this finding can be the harbinger of serious neurologic disease including brain tumor, demyelinating disease, infiltrative disease of the optic nerve, or idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) are common and can be particularly difficult to distinguish from true optic nerve swelling in pediatric patients because the ONHD are typically buried beneath the substance of the optic nerve. Correct identification of ONHD is relevant because of the visual morbidity associated with this condition and because of the need to distinguish pseudopapilledema secondary to ONHD from true optic nerve swelling. A variety of imaging modalities may be employed to evaluate for the presence of ONHD, including ultrasound, optical coherence tomography (OCT), enhanced depth imaging-OCT, fluorescein angiography, fundus autofluorescence, and optical coherence tomography angiography. To date, there is no consensus as to which of these techniques is most accurate and which should be part of a standardized evaluation for children suspected of ONHD. This review examines the recent literature analyzing these diagnostic tools and summarizes data regarding best practices for identifying ONHD.
Grob SR, Wolkow N, Jakobiec FA, Lefebvre DR. Osseous cavernous hemangioma of the superior orbital rim. Orbit 2019;38(3):259.Abstract
A 53-year-old male presented with a bony lesion over the superior orbital rim increasing in size over several months. CT imaging showed a circumscribed, osseous lesion involving the outer table of the right frontal bone and superior orbital rim with a honeycomb appearance. Anterior orbitotomy revealed an osseous lesion along the superior orbital rim with purple cavernous spaces. Histopathological examination demonstrated cavernous vascular channels with variably-sized lumens and variably-thickened vascular walls interspersed among bony trabeculae consistent with an osseous cavernous hemangioma.
Gupta MP, Dow E, Jeng-Miller KW, Mukai S, Orlin A, Xu K, Yonekawa Y, Chan PRV. SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN COATS DISEASE. Retina 2019;39(6):1177-1185.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate microstructural retinal abnormalities on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging of eyes with Coats disease. METHODS: This is a multicenter, retrospective study in which SD-OCT images of patients with treatment-naive Coats disease were correlated with clinical examination and visual acuity and, when available, followed longitudinally over time. RESULTS: Macular SD-OCT of 27 eyes with Coats disease revealed intraretinal edema (59%), intraretinal exudates (67%), subretinal fluid (37%), subretinal exudate (48%), ellipsoid zone disruption (52%), external limiting membrane disruption (41%), and subfoveal nodule (26%). All these microstructural abnormalities correlated with worse baseline and final visual acuities (P < 0.05) on univariate analysis, except for intraretinal edema which exhibited a nonstatistically significant trend toward worse baseline visual acuity (P = 0.16). Within stage 2b eyes, external limiting membrane disruption and subretinal nodule on SD-OCT were associated with worse baseline visual acuity (P = 0.02 for both), and there was a trend toward worse final visual acuity with external limiting membrane disruption and subretinal nodule (P = 0.17 for both) and worse baseline (P = 0.08) and final (P = 0.13) visual acuities with ellipsoid zone disruption. No microstructural abnormalities were noted on OCT of fellow eyes. CONCLUSION: Spectral domain OCT can identify microstructural abnormalities in Coats disease that are associated on univariate analysis with worse baseline visual acuity and visual prognosis. Further larger studies are necessary.
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Habib LA, Wolkow N, Freitag SK, Yoon MK. Advances in Immunotherapy and Periocular Malignancy. Semin Ophthalmol 2019;:1-7.Abstract
Immunotherapy has significantly advanced the field of oncology in recent decades. Understanding normal immunosurveillance, as well as the ways in which tumor cells have evolved to evade it, has provided the knowledge for development of drugs that allow one's own immune system to target and destroy malignant cells (immunotherapy). Cutaneous malignancies are particularly sensitive to this class of drugs. In a very sensitive anatomic region such as the periocular tissue, where surgical excision may come with significant morbidity, this technology has had a strong impact in the successful treatment of historically challenging tumors.
Hård A-L, Nilsson AK, Lund A-M, Hansen-Pupp I, Smith LEH, Hellström A. Review shows that donor milk does not promote the growth and development of preterm infants as well as maternal milk. Acta Paediatr 2019;108(6):998-1007.Abstract
AIM: This nonsystematic review examined differences in the composition of raw maternal breastmilk and pasteurised donor milk and possible health effects on preterm infants. METHODS: We searched PubMed up to July 2018 for studies published in English that focused on four comparisons as follows: raw maternal milk versus donor milk, human milk before and after Holder pasteurisation, milk from mothers who delivered preterm and at term and milk collected during early and late lactation. We also searched for possible effects of the milk components, as well as the effects of maternal and donor milk on preterm infants' health. RESULTS: Raw maternal milk contained factors involved in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory defence, gut microbiome establishment and the maturation of immune defences, food tolerability and metabolism. Many of these factors were reduced or abolished in processed donor milk. Both maternal milk and donor milk have been associated with a reduced incidence of necrotising enterocolitis. High-dose feeding with maternal milk during the neonatal period reportedly reduced the risk of other morbidities and promoted growth and neurodevelopment. CONCLUSION: Many of the components in raw maternal breastmilk were lacking in pasteurised donor milk, which was inferior in promoting the growth and development of very preterm infants.
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Kruger SJ, VanderVeen DK, Freedman SF, Bothun E, Drews-Botsch CD, Lambert SR, Lambert SR. Third-Party Coverage for Aphakic Contact Lenses for Children. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2019;8(3):41.
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Liu C-H, Wang Z, Huang S, Sun Y, Chen J. MicroRNA-145 Regulates Pathological Retinal Angiogenesis by Suppression of TMOD3. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2019;16:335-347.Abstract
Pathological angiogenesis is a hallmark of various vascular diseases, including vascular eye disorders. Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs), a group of small regulatory RNAs, has been implicated in the regulation of ocular neovascularization. This study investigated the specific role of microRNA-145 (miR-145) in regulating vascular endothelial cell (EC) function and pathological ocular angiogenesis in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Expression of miR-145 was significantly upregulated in OIR mouse retinas compared with room air controls. Treatment with synthetic miR-145 inhibitors drastically decreased levels of pathological neovascularization in OIR, without substantially affecting normal developmental angiogenesis. In cultured human retinal ECs, treatment with miR-145 mimics significantly increased the EC angiogenic function, including proliferation, migration, and tubular formation, whereas miR-145 inhibitors attenuated in vitro angiogenesis. Tropomodulin3 (TMOD3), an actin-capping protein, is a direct miR-145 target and is downregulated in OIR retinas. Treatment with miR-145 mimic led to TMOD3 inhibition, altered actin cytoskeletal architecture, and elongation of ECs. Moreover, inhibition of TMOD3 promoted EC angiogenic function and pathological neovascularization in OIR and abolished the vascular effects of miR-145 inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. Overall, our findings indicate that miR-145 is a novel regulator of TMOD3-dependent cytoskeletal architecture and pathological angiogenesis and a potential target for development of treatments for neovascular eye disorders.
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Mathys H, Davila-Velderrain J, Peng Z, Gao F, Mohammadi S, Young JZ, Menon M, He L, Abdurrob F, Jiang X, Martorell AJ, Ransohoff RM, Hafler BP, Bennett DA, Kellis M, Tsai L-H. Single-cell transcriptomic analysis of Alzheimer's disease. Nature 2019;570(7761):332-337.Abstract
Alzheimer's disease is a pervasive neurodegenerative disorder, the molecular complexity of which remains poorly understood. Here, we analysed 80,660 single-nucleus transcriptomes from the prefrontal cortex of 48 individuals with varying degrees of Alzheimer's disease pathology. Across six major brain cell types, we identified transcriptionally distinct subpopulations, including those associated with pathology and characterized by regulators of myelination, inflammation, and neuron survival. The strongest disease-associated changes appeared early in pathological progression and were highly cell-type specific, whereas genes upregulated at late stages were common across cell types and primarily involved in the global stress response. Notably, we found that female cells were overrepresented in disease-associated subpopulations, and that transcriptional responses were substantially different between sexes in several cell types, including oligodendrocytes. Overall, myelination-related processes were recurrently perturbed in multiple cell types, suggesting that myelination has a key role in Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. Our single-cell transcriptomic resource provides a blueprint for interrogating the molecular and cellular basis of Alzheimer's disease.

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