May 2015

Stagner AM, Jakobiec FA, Chi A, Bradshaw SH, Mendoza SD. Conjunctival inverted squamous papilloma: A case report with immunohistochemical analysis and review of the literature. Surv Ophthalmol 2015;60(3):263-268.Abstract

A 63-year-old man presented with an asymptomatic papillary, sessile lesion of the juxtalimbal bulbar conjunctiva that was surgically excised with cryotherapy. Histopathologically, the lesion created some diagnostic confusion as it displayed an endophytic, or inverted, growth pattern-with squamous cells pushing into the substantia propria around fibrovascular cores, but without significant cytologic atypia, consistent with a conjunctival inverted papilloma (IP). Unlike previously reported cases of conjunctival IP, there were no goblet cells or cysts within the tumor. Immunostaining was diffusely positive for cytokeratin (CK) 7, and CK14 stained the basilar and suprabasilar cells, as in normal conjunctiva. CK17 weakly and non-uniformly stained the tumor, ruling out a dysplasia, which is usually strongly positive. The lesion's cytokeratin profile therefore paralleled that of normal conjunctiva. The proliferation index with Ki67 nuclear staining was extremely low (<1%), as was p53 nuclear staining (10-20%), both in contrast to squamous cell dysplasias or carcinomas that have a much higher percentage of positive cells. The lesion was negative for human papillomavirus subtypes associated with squamous neoplasias including carcinomas. We review the previous literature devoted to this comparatively rare condition and contrast its benign clinical course with that of inverted papillomas of the sinonasal, lacrimal drainage, and genitourinary systems and provide a set of criteria for establishing the diagnosis.

Wagley S, Marra KV, Salhi RA, Gautam S, Campo R, Veale P, Veale J, Arroyo JG. PERIODONTAL DISEASE AND AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION: Results From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Retina 2015;35(5):982-8.Abstract

PURPOSE: To study the association between periodontal disease (PD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: For this cross-sectional analysis, 8,208 adults aged 40 years or older with retinal photographs graded for AMD were used from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III standardized dental measurements of PD status (defined as loss of >3 mm of attachment between the gum and tooth in at least 10% of sites measured). Participants were stratified into 60 years or younger and older than 60 years of age groups. Association between PD and AMD was assessed while controlling for sex, race, education, poverty income ratio, smoking, hypertension, body mass index, cardiovascular disease, and C-reactive protein. RESULTS: In this population, a total of 52.30% had PD, and the prevalence of AMD was 11.45%. Logistic regression model controlled for confounders and stratified by age 60 years or younger versus older than 60 years showed PD to be independently associated with an increased risk for AMD (odds ratio = 1.96, 95% confidence interval = 1.22-3.14, P = 0.006) for those aged 60 years or younger but not for subjects older than 60 years (odds ratio = 1.32, confidence interval = 0.93-1.90, P = 0.120). CONCLUSION: In this population-based study, PD is independently associated with AMD in those aged 60 years or younger.

Wan MJ, VanderVeen DK. Eye disorders in newborn infants (excluding retinopathy of prematurity). Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2015;100(3):F264-9.Abstract

A screening eye examination is an essential part of the newborn assessment. The detection of many ocular disorders in newborn infants can be achieved through careful observation of the infant's visual behaviour and the use of a direct ophthalmoscope to assess the ocular structures and check the red reflex. Early diagnosis and subspecialty referral can have a critical impact on the prognosis for many ocular conditions, including potentially blinding but treatable conditions such as congenital cataracts, life-threatening malignancies such as retinoblastoma and harbingers of disease elsewhere such as sporadic aniridia and its association with the development of Wilms tumour.

Weinberger AD, Gilmore MS. A CRISPR View of Cleavage. Cell 2015;161(5):964-6.Abstract

Seminal studies showed that CRISPR-Cas systems provide adaptive immunity in prokaryotes and promising gene-editing tools from bacteria to humans. Yet, reports diverged on whether some CRISPR systems naturally target DNA or RNA. Here, Samai and colleagues unify the studies, showing that a single type III CRISPR-Cas system cleaves both DNA and RNA targets, independently.