BACKGROUND: Radium-223 is used for the treatment of osseous metastases in castrate-resistant prostate cancer, and has been shown to increase time to the first skeletal-related event, reduce the rate of hospitalization, and improve quality of life. It is well tolerated, with hematologic toxicity as the main adverse event. Thus far, no ocular complication has been reported in the literature after initial administration of radium-223 with a single case reported of ocular complications after a patient's second course of radium-223. CASE PRESENTATIONS: We present three cases of ocular complications after the use of radium-223 in patients with metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma. Ocular complications presented as blurry vision, and formal diagnosis included uveitis and hyphema. CONCLUSIONS: Documentation of adverse events is exceedingly important due to the high incidence of metastatic prostate cancer and increasing interest for the use of radium-223 in other osteoblastic disease. The authors postulate that these ocular complications may be a result of radiation's potential effect on neovascularization, polypharmacy, or the biomolecular effects of radium-223 on integral signaling proteins, potentially coupled with poor underlying ocular health.
CONTEXT.—: Conjunctival melanocytic lesions consist of a variety of neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions. These include benign processes such as primary intraepithelial hypermelanosis and melanocytic hyperplasia, secondary forms of intraepithelial hypermelanosis and melanocytic hyperplasia, melanocytic nevi, melanocytic proliferations with malignant potential, and melanoma. OBJECTIVE.—: To provide a concise yet comprehensive resource regarding the histopathologic diagnosis of conjunctival melanocytic lesions. We aim to detail and clarify the numerous classification schemes that exist for junctional melanocytic proliferations of the conjunctiva (known as primary acquired melanosis or PAM; also termed conjunctival melanocytic intraepithelial neoplasia or C-MIN). Although not uniformly adopted, C-MIN is classified by using a numeric system based on a defined set of criteria. A less complex scheme (conjunctival melanocytic intraepithelial lesion or CMIL) has recently been proposed by the World Health Organization. Additionally, we aim to update the reader regarding molecular features and prognostic indicators. DATA SOURCES.—: Peer-reviewed literature and archived cases for illustration. CONCLUSIONS.—: Accurate histologic classification is essential, as PAM/C-MIN/CMILs that have a significant potential to progress to invasive melanoma may be clinically indistinguishable from low-risk lesions. Conjunctival melanoma (CM) more closely resembles cutaneous melanoma in terms of its pathogenesis and molecular features, compared to melanoma arising at other mucosal sites or to uveal melanoma. Depth of invasion and ulceration status, among other factors, have emerged as important prognostic indicators in CM. Sentinel lymph node biopsy may provide further prognostic information. Lastly, integration of pathologic and clinical findings is essential at this anatomically sensitive location to determine appropriate clinical management.
Mutations in NMNAT1, a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of NAD+ in the nucleus, lead to an early onset severe inherited retinal degeneration (IRD). We aimed to understand the role of nuclear NAD+ in the retina and to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying NMNAT1-associated disease, using a mouse model that harbors the p.V9M mutation in Nmnat1 (Nmnat1V9M/V9M). We identified temporal transcriptional reprogramming in the retinas of Nmnat1V9M/V9M mice prior to retinal degeneration, which begins at 4 weeks of age, with no significant alterations in gene expression at 2 weeks of age and over 2600 differentially expressed genes by 3 weeks of age. Expression of the primary consumer of NAD+ in the nucleus, PARP1, an enzyme involved in DNA damage repair and transcriptional regulation, as well as 7 other PARP family enzymes, was elevated in the retinas of Nmnat1V9M/V9M. This was associated with elevated levels of DNA damage, PARP-mediated NAD+ consumption and migration of Iba1+/CD45+ microglia/macrophages to the subretinal space in the retinas of Nmnat1V9M/V9M mice. These findings suggest that photoreceptor cells are especially sensitive to perturbation of genome homeostasis, and that PARP-mediated cell death may play a role in other genetic forms of IRDs, and potentially other forms of neurodegeneration.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Prophylactic laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) is performed in primary angle-closure suspect (PACS) eyes to prevent acute angle-closure attacks. However, accelerated cataractogenesis is a potential risk of the procedure that may result in decreased visual acuity. We aimed to assess the long-term impact of LPI on cataract formation in Chinese PACS. METHODS: In the Zhongshan Angle Closure Prevention Trial, eligible bilateral PACS participants received LPI in one randomly selected eye, while the fellow eye remained untreated. Cataract was graded using the Lens Opacity Classification System III, and progression was defined as an increase in grade by at least two units in any category or cataract surgery. RESULTS: In total, 889 participants were randomly assigned to LPI in one eye only (mean age 59±5 years, 83% female). At 72 months, treated eyes had slightly higher average nuclear grades (p<0.001). However, there were no differences between eyes for predefined cataract progression (cumulative probability at 72 months: 21.2% in LPI vs 19.4% in control, p=0.401) or cataract surgery (1% for both). While LPI-treated eyes had a 10% higher risk of progression over 6 years (HR=1.10 (95% CI 0.88 to 1.36)), this was not statistically significant. Visual acuity at 72 months was similar in treated and untreated eyes (p=0.43). CONCLUSION: Although lenses were graded on average as slightly more opaque in laser-treated eyes, prophylactic neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet LPI did not cause significant cataract progression. Our results suggest that LPI treatment of asymptomatic narrow angles does not increase the risk of developing clinically meaningful cataract worsening over time. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN45213099.
Despite constant exposure to various environmental stimuli, the ocular surface remains intact and uninflamed while maintaining the transparency of the cornea and its visual function. This 'immune privilege' of the ocular surface is not simply a result of the physical barrier function of the mucosal lining but, more importantly, is actively maintained through a variety of immunoregulatory mechanisms that prevent the disruption of immune homeostasis. In this review, we focus on essential molecular and cellular players that promote immune quiescence in steady-state conditions and suppress inflammation in disease-states. Specifically, we examine the interactions between the ocular surface and its local draining lymphoid compartment, by encompassing the corneal epithelium, corneal nerves and cornea-resident myeloid cells, conjunctival goblet cells, and regulatory T cells (Treg) in the context of ocular surface autoimmune inflammation (dry eye disease) and alloimmunity (corneal transplantation). A better understanding of the immunoregulatory mechanisms will facilitate the development of novel, targeted immunomodulatory strategies for a broad range of ocular surface inflammatory disorders.
Cardiac repair following ischemic injury is indispensable for survival and requires a coordinated cellular response involving the mobilization of immune cells from the secondary lymphoid organs to the site of damage. Efferocytosis, the engulfment of cell debris and dying cells by innate immune cells, along with lymphangiogenesis, the formation of new lymphatic vessels, are emerging as central to the cardiac healing response. In this issue of the JCI, Glinton et al. used state-of-the-art approaches to demonstrate that efferocytosis induced vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) in myeloid cells and stimulated lymphangiogenesis and cardiac repair. These findings provide impactful mechanistic information that can be leveraged to therapeutically target pathways in cardiac repair and ischemic heart failure.
Understanding gene function and regulation in homeostasis and disease requires knowledge of the cellular and tissue contexts in which genes are expressed. Here, we applied four single-nucleus RNA sequencing methods to eight diverse, archived, frozen tissue types from 16 donors and 25 samples, generating a cross-tissue atlas of 209,126 nuclei profiles, which we integrated across tissues, donors, and laboratory methods with a conditional variational autoencoder. Using the resulting cross-tissue atlas, we highlight shared and tissue-specific features of tissue-resident cell populations; identify cell types that might contribute to neuromuscular, metabolic, and immune components of monogenic diseases and the biological processes involved in their pathology; and determine cell types and gene modules that might underlie disease mechanisms for complex traits analyzed by genome-wide association studies.
Effector Th17 cells, including IFN-γ-IL-17+ (eTh17) and IFN-γ+IL-17+ (eTh17/1) subsets, play critical pathogenic functions in the induction of autoimmunity. As acute inflammation subsides, a small proportion of the effectors survive and convert to memory Th17 cells (mTh17), which sustain chronic inflammation in autoimmune diseases. Herein, we investigated the differential contributions of eTh17 versus eTh17/1 to the memory pool using an experimental model of ocular autoimmune disease. Our results show that adoptive transfer of Tbx21-/- CD4+ T cells or conditional deletion of Tbx21 in Th17 cells leads to diminished eTh17/1 in acute phase and functionally compromised mTh17 in chronic phase. Further, adoptive transfer of disease-specific eTh17/1, but not eTh17, leads to generation of mTh17 and sustained ocular inflammation. Collectively, our data demonstrate that T-bet-dependent eTh17/1 cells generated during the acute inflammation are the principal effector precursors of pathogenic mTh17 cells that sustain the chronicity of autoimmune inflammation.
PURPOSE: Angle-closure glaucoma is a major cause of blindness worldwide that carries an excess risk of severe, bilateral visual impairment. A common concern among clinicians is precipitating acute angle closure (AAC) attacks by mydriasis. We evaluated the risk of AAC after pharmacologic dilation in Chinese individuals classified as bilateral primary angle-closure suspects (PACS). DESIGN: Randomized interventional controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 889 bilateral PACS aged between 50 and 70 years were identified through community screening in Guangzhou, China and enrolled in the study. METHODS: In the Zhongshan Angle Closure Prevention (ZAP) Trial, bilateral PACS were treated by laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in one randomly selected eye, with the fellow eye serving as an untreated control. Over 72 months of follow-up, participants had their pupils pharmacologically dilated six times with 5% phenylephrine and 0.5% tropicamide. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and risk of post-mydriasis AAC in LPI-treated and untreated control PACS eyes. RESULTS: One bilateral AAC attack occurred after mydriasis at the two-week post-LPI visit. No other AAC events occurred in LPI-treated eyes. In untreated eyes, four additional attacks occurred: two after dilation (one at 54- and one at 72-months follow-up) and two spontaneously. The risk of post-mydriasis AAC in untreated eyes was one attack in 1,587 dilations. The risk of spontaneous AAC in untreated eyes was 0.44 per 1000 eye-years (95% CI: 0.11-1.77 per 1000 eye-years). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of an incident AAC attack in PACS eyes was extremely low, even in a higher-risk group with repeated pharmacologic pupillary dilation over six years of follow-up. Prophylactic LPI reduced this small but real risk.
Dry eye disease (DED), a multifactorial ocular surface disease, is estimated to affect up to 34% of individuals over 50 years old. Although numerous animal models, including rodents and rabbits, have been developed to mimic the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in dry eye, there is a lack of non-human primate (NHP) models, critical for translational drug studies. Here, we developed a novel desiccating stress-induced dry eye disease model using Rhesus macaque monkeys. The monkeys were housed in a controlled environment room for 21 to 36 days under humidity, temperature, and airflow regulation. Following desiccating stress, NHPs demonstrated clinical symptoms similar to those of humans, as shown by increased corneal fluorescein staining (CFS) and decreased tear-film breakup time (TFBUT). Moreover, corticosteroid treatment significantly reduced CFS scoring, restored TFBUT, and prevented upregulation of tear proinflammatory cytokines as observed in dry eye patients following steroid treatment. The close resemblance of clinical symptoms and treatment responses to those of human DED patients provides great translational value to the NHP model, which could serve as a clinically relevant animal model to study the efficacy of new potential treatments for DED.
Glycans function as valuable markers of stem cells but also regulate the ability of these cells to self-renew and differentiate. Approximately 2% of the human genome encodes for proteins that are involved in the biosynthesis and recognition of glycans. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of a small subset of glycogenes in human limbal epithelial cells with distinct clonogenic potential. Individual clones were classified as abortive or clonogenic, based on the fraction of the terminal colonies produced; clones leading exclusively to terminal colonies were referred to as abortive while those with half or fewer terminal colonies were referred to as clonogenic. An analysis of glycogene expression in clonogenic cultures revealed a high content of transcripts regulating the galactose and mannose metabolic pathways. Abortive clones were characterized by increased levels of GCNT4 and FUCA2, genes that are responsible for the branching of mucin-type O-glycans and the hydrolysis of fucose residues on N-glycans, respectively. The expansion of primary cultures of human limbal epithelial cells for 10 days resulted in stratification and a concomitant increase in MUC16, GCNT4 and FUCA2 expression. These data indicate that the clonogenic potential of human limbal epithelial cells is associated with specific glycosylation pathways. Mucin-type O-glycan branching and increased fucose metabolism are linked to limbal epithelial cell differentiation.
PURPOSE: To investigate medical conditions and systemic therapies associated with orbital implant exposure in patients with anophthalmic sockets. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients who underwent enucleation or evisceration at a single centre between January 1, 2008 and March 1, 2018. Medical comorbidities, including peripheral or coronary artery disease, rheumatologic conditions, diabetes, malignancy and history of smoking were recorded. Use of immunomodulatory and anticoagulation therapy at the time of eye removal was noted. Patients were divided into two groups-those with implant exposure and those without. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to compare groups. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-nine patients underwent eye removal surgery over a ten-year period. Implant exposure was seen in 20 (8.7%) patients. Univariate analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between groups in rates of smoking, malignancy, and immunomodulatory therapy at the time of surgery. A history of smoking (HR = 11.72; 95% CI: 2.95, 46.53; p = 0.0001) and immunomodulatory therapy (HR = 8.02; 95% CI: 1.96, 32.87; p = 0.004) were independent predictors of exposure. The probability of exposure was 81.2% when all three risk factors were present versus 4.4% when none were present (c-index = 0.737, 95% CI: 0.608, 0.865; p < 0.001). The model was a good fit to the data (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test p = 0.475). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking and immunomodulatory therapy were associated with orbital implant exposure in patients with anophthalmic sockets. This is the first report examining medical comorbidities in patients with orbital implant exposure. Understanding the pathophysiology of implant exposure is crucial to preoperative planning and postoperative care.
PURPOSE: Evaluate differences in Medicare reimbursements between men and women ophthalmologists between 2013 and 2019. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study SUBJECTS: Ophthalmologists between 2013 and 2019 receiving Medicare reimbursements METHODS: The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Physician and Other Supplier Public Use File was used to determine total reimbursements and number of services submitted by ophthalmologists between 2013 and 2019. Reimbursements were standardized to account for geographic differences in Medicare reimbursement per service. Data from the American Community Survey (ACS) were used to determine zip-code-level socioeconomic characteristics (unemployment, poverty, income, and education) for the location of each physician's practice. A multivariable linear regression model was used to evaluate differences in annual reimbursements by gender, accounting for calendar year, years of experience, total number of services, ACS zip-code data, and proportion of procedural services. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Annual Medicare reimbursement, utilization of billing codes (e.g., outpatient office visits and eye examinations, diagnostic testing, laser and surgery) RESULTS: Among 20,281 ophthalmologists who received Medicare reimbursements between 2013 and 2019, 15,451 (76%) were men. The most common billing codes submitted were for outpatient visits and eye examinations (13.8 million charges/year), diagnostic imaging of the retina (5.6 million charges/year), intravitreal injections (2.9 million charges/year) and removal of cataract with insertion of lens (2.4 million charges/year). Compared to men, women ophthalmologists received lower median annual reimbursements ($94,734.21, IQR 30,944.52-195,701.70 for women vs. $194,176.90, IQR 76,380.76-355,790.80 for men, p<0.001) and billed for a lower annual number of services (1,228, IQR 454-2,433 vs. 2,259, IQR 996-4,075, respectively p<0.001). After adjustment for covariates, women ophthalmologists billed for 1015 fewer services (95% confidence interval 1001-1029, p<0.001), and received $20,209.12 less in reimbursements than men (95% confidence interval -21,717.57 to -18,700.66, p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Women ophthalmologists billed for a lower number of services and received less in reimbursement from Medicare than men over time and across all categories of billing codes. Disparities persisted after controlling for physician and practice characteristics.
OBJECTIVES: Measure quality of life (QoL) outcomes using a novel computerised adaptive test in a clinical setting, and determine the social and demographic factors associated with specific QoL domains in patients with glaucoma. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study between July 2020 and April 2021. PARTICIPANTS: English-speaking adults presenting to glaucoma clinic. Patients with cognitive impairment on a six-item cognitive impairment screen or with intraocular surgery within 90 days prior to presentation were excluded. RESULTS: Of 206 patients surveyed, mean age was 64.8 years (SD 15.2), 122 (56.7%) were female and 159 (74.7%) were white. On multivariable regression, visual acuity was associated with greater activity limitation (β=-2.8 points, 95% CI -3.8 to -1.8, p<0.001) and worse mobility (β=-2.1 points, 95% CI -3.2 to -0.9, p<0.001), while poorer visual field (VF) mean deviation was associated with lower scores on the emotional well-being domain (β=-2.4 points, 95% CI -4.6 to -0.3, p=0.03). Glaucoma suspects and those with early VF defects had higher QoL scores than those with severe glaucoma in the following domains: activity limitation (88.5±14.6 vs 74.3±21.9, respectively, p<0.001), mobility (91.0±12.5 vs 80.0±25.3, respectively, p=0.005) and concerns domains (82.2±13.9 vs 72.5 5±18.9, respectively, p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In a busy glaucoma clinic where QoL was measured with online adaptive tests for glaucoma, we found that several demographic and clinical variables are associated with lower domain scores, suggesting that patients with predisposing demographic and clinical factors are at a higher risk of worse QoL.
PURPOSE: Metabolomic and preclinical studies suggest that branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) may be inversely associated with neurodegenerative diseases including glaucoma. We therefore assessed the long-term association between dietary intake of BCAA and incident primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and POAG subtypes. METHODS: We followed biennially participants of the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 65 531 women: 1984-2016), Health Professionals Follow-up Study (42 254 men: 1986-2016) and NHSII (66 904 women; 1991-2017). Eligible participants were 40+ years old and reported eye examinations. Repeated validated food frequency questionnaires were used to assess dietary intake of BCAA. Incident cases of POAG and POAG subtypes defined by visual field (VF) loss and untreated intraocular pressure (IOP) were confirmed by medical record review. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks (MVRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: We identified 1946 incident POAG cases. The pooled MVRRs of POAG for the highest quintile (Q5 = 17.1 g/day) versus lowest quintile (Q1 = 11.2 g/day) of total BCAA intake was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.73-1.19; ptrend = 0.45; pheterogeneity by sex = 0.24). For subtypes of POAG defined by IOP level or POAG with only peripheral VF loss, no associations were observed for men or women (ptrend ≥ 0.20); however, for the POAG subtype with early paracentral VF loss, there was a suggestion of an inverse association in women (MVRRQ5versusQ1 = 0.80 [95% CI, 0.57-1.12; ptrend = 0.12]) but not in men (MVRRQ5versusQ1 = 1.38 [95% CI, 0.81-2.34; ptrend = 0.28; pheterogeneity by sex = 0.06]). CONCLUSION: Higher dietary intake of BCAA was not associated with POAG risk.