Femtosecond laser assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) offers a level of precision, accuracy and customization that is not possible with manual phacoemulsification (MP). With the increase of patient expectations and premium intraocular lens utilization in the era of refractive cataract surgery, predictability and accuracy has become of utmost importance. FLACS has four main functions: creation of a consistently sized round capsulotomy, treatment of keratometric astigmatism with arcuate incisions, construction of clear corneal incisions, and fragmentation and/or softening of the lens. However, FLACS may have limitations due to suction loss, incomplete capsulotomy or poor pupillary dilation. Patient selection and surgeon experience is critical. This review article will focus on the various platforms available for FLACS, the steps in cataract surgery it can perform, and overall advantages and limitations of the technology.
Importance: Telemedicine has been shown to have had reduced uptake among historically marginalized populations within multiple medical specialties during the COVID-19 pandemic. An evaluation of health disparities among patients receiving ophthalmic telemedical care during the pandemic is needed. Objective: To evaluate disparities in the delivery of ophthalmic telemedicine at Massachusetts Eye and Ear (MEE) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, cross-sectional study analyzed clinical visits at a single tertiary eye care center (MEE) from January 1 to December 31, 2020. Patients who had ophthalmology and optometry clinical visits at the MEE during the study period were included. Exposures: Telemedicine vs in-person clinical encounters. Main Outcomes and Measures: Variables associated with use of ophthalmic telemedicine during the study period. Results: A total of 2262 telemedicine ophthalmic encounters for 1911 patients were included in the analysis. The median age of the patients was 61 (interquartile range, 43-72) years, and 1179 (61.70%) were women. With regard to race and ethnicity, 87 patients (4.55%) identified as Asian; 128 (6.70%), as Black or African American; 23 (1.20%), as Hispanic or Latino; and 1455 (76.14%), as White. On multivariate analysis, factors associated with decreased receipt of telemedical care included male sex (odds ratio [OR], 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77-0.96), Black race (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.56-0.86), not speaking English (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.48-0.81), educational level of high school or less (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71-0.97), and age (OR per year of age, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.989-0.998). When comparing telephone- and video-based telemedicine visits, decreased participation in video-based visits was associated with age (OR per year of age, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.98), educational level of high school or less (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.29-0.99), being unemployed (OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.12-0.68), being retired (OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.10-0.42), or having a disability (OR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.04-0.23). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cross-sectional study, though limited to retrospective data from a single university-based practice, suggest that historically marginalized populations were less likely to receive ophthalmic telemedical care compared with in-person care during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in the US. Understanding the causes of these disparities might help those who need access to virtual care.
Ocular involvement is a rare manifestation of tuberculosis. Four key issues historically faced by clinicians when diagnosing and treating ocular tuberculosis - diagnostic uncertainty, naturally heterogeneous presentations, limitations of existing laboratory diagnostic tools, and non-uniform treatment guidelines - continue to test today's physicians. Unparalleled scientific and clinical developments over the past century have greatly expanded the knowledge surrounding this challenging ophthalmic condition. Experience with large volumes of cases at tuberculosis-endemic centres has led to recent growth in knowledge and physician experience, perhaps more so in developing countries. Looking forward, the role of diverse new technologies, including artificial intelligence and proteomics, will advance ocular tuberculosis research. Efforts have been made to address the lack of standardized nomenclature, diagnostic uncertainty, and unvalidated, geographically variable treatment guidelines.
PURPOSE: Interest in micro-invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) has exploded over the last 8 years with an increase in MIGS procedures of at least 400% in the United States, according to Medicare data. MIGS is an umbrella term that can cover many different types of surgeries. This review focuses on peer-reviewed evidence for Trabectome®, iStent inject®, Kahook Dual Blade®, XEN® Gel Stent, and Hydrus®. METHODS: We present key recent studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of MIGS in various types of glaucoma patients with different stages of disease. CONCLUSION: We conclude that MIGS is generally safe and efficacious, although only some MIGS have been studied through randomized clinical trials. When comparing and contrasting the different MIGS procedures, large prospective studies are not yet the norm. High-quality large prospective studies involving MIGS will be an important next step as ophthalmologists decide how to incorporate MIGS into their surgical armamentarium.
Mutations in NMNAT1, a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of NAD+ in the nucleus, lead to an early onset severe inherited retinal degeneration (IRD). We aimed to understand the role of nuclear NAD+ in the retina and to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying NMNAT1-associated disease, using a mouse model that harbors the p.V9M mutation in Nmnat1 (Nmnat1V9M/V9M). We identified temporal transcriptional reprogramming in the retinas of Nmnat1V9M/V9M mice prior to retinal degeneration, which begins at 4 weeks of age, with no significant alterations in gene expression at 2 weeks of age and over 2600 differentially expressed genes by 3 weeks of age. Expression of the primary consumer of NAD+ in the nucleus, PARP1, an enzyme involved in DNA damage repair and transcriptional regulation, as well as 7 other PARP family enzymes, was elevated in the retinas of Nmnat1V9M/V9M. This was associated with elevated levels of DNA damage, PARP-mediated NAD+ consumption, and migration of Iba1+/CD45+ microglia/macrophages to the subretinal space in the retinas of Nmnat1V9M/V9M mice. These findings suggest that photoreceptor cells are especially sensitive to perturbation of genome homeostasis, and that PARP-mediated cell death may play a role in other genetic forms of IRDs, and potentially other forms of neurodegeneration.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To compare risk factors for poor visual outcomes in patients undergoing primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) repair and to develop a scoring system. METHODS: Analysis of the Primary Retinal detachment Outcomes (PRO) study, a multicentre interventional cohort of consecutive primary RRD surgeries performed in 2015. The main outcome measure was a poor visual outcome (Snellen VA ≤20/200). RESULTS: A total of 1178 cases were included. The mean preoperative and postoperative logMARs were 1.1±1.1 (20/250) and 0.5±0.7 (20/63), respectively. Multivariable logistic regression identified preoperative risk factors predictive of poor visual outcomes (≤20/200), including proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.40), history of antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections (1.38; 1.11 to 1.71), >1-week vision loss (1.17; 1.08 to 1.27), ocular comorbidities (1.18; 1.00 to 1.38), poor presenting VA (1.06 per initial logMAR unit; 1.02 to 1.10) and age >70 (1.13; 1.04 to 1.23). The data were split into training (75%) and validation (25%) and a scoring system was developed and validated. The risk for poor visual outcomes was 8% with a total score of 0, 17% with 1, 29% with 2, 47% with 3, and 71% with 4 or higher. CONCLUSIONS: Independent risk factors were compared for poor visual outcomes after RRD surgery, which included PVR, anti-VEGF injections, vision loss >1 week, ocular comorbidities, presenting VA and older age. The PRO score was developed to provide a scoring system that may be useful in clinical practice.
Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis (SCST) is a rare, yet severe, process typically arising from infections of the paranasal sinuses (predominately ethmoid and/or sphenoid sinusitis) and less commonly, otogenic, odontogenic, and pharyngeal sources. Clinical symptoms of SCST arise from obstruction of venous drainage from the orbit and compression of the cranial nerves within the cavernous sinus. In the preantibiotic era SCST was considered universally fatal (80-100%); however, with the introduction of antibiotics the overall incidence, morbidity, and mortality of SCST have greatly declined. In spite of dramatic improvements, morbidity and mortality remain high, with the majority of patients experiencing neurological sequalae, highlighting the severity of the disease and the need for prompt recognition, diagnosis, and treatment. Here we review of the literature on SCST with a focus on the current recommendations and recent evidence for diagnostic and medical management of this condition.
PURPOSE: To evaluate pneumatic vitreolysis (PVL) in eyes with vitreomacular traction (VMT) with and without full-thickness macular hole (FTMH). DESIGN: Two multicenter (28 sites) studies: a randomized clinical trial comparing PVL with observation (sham injection) for VMT without FTMH (Protocol AG) and a single-arm study assessing PVL for FTMH (Protocol AH). PARTICIPANTS: Participants were adults with central VMT (vitreomacular adhesion was ≤3000 μm). In Protocol AG, visual acuity (VA) was 20/32 to 20/400. In Protocol AH, eyes had a FTMH (≤250 μm at the narrowest point) and VA of 20/25 to 20/400. METHODS: Pneumatic vitreolysis using perfluoropropane (C3F8) gas. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Central VMT release at 24 weeks (Protocol AG) and FTMH closure at 8 weeks (Protocol AH). RESULTS: From October 2018 through February 2020, 46 participants were enrolled in Protocol AG, and 35 were enrolled in Protocol AH. Higher than expected rates of retinal detachment and tear resulted in early termination of both protocols. Combining studies, 7 of 59 eyes (12% [95% CI, 6%-23%]; 2 eyes in Protocol AG, 5 eyes in Protocol AH) that received PVL developed rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (n = 6) or retinal tear (n = 1). At 24 weeks in Protocol AG, 18 of 23 eyes in the PVL group (78%) versus 2 of 22 eyes in the sham group (9%) achieved central VMT release without rescue vitrectomy (adjusted risk difference, 66% [95% CI, 44%-88%]; P< 0.001). The mean change in VA from baseline at 24 weeks was 6.7 letters in the PVL group and 6.1 letters in the sham group (adjusted difference, -0.8 [95% CI, -6.1 to 4.5]; P = 0.77). In Protocol AH, 10 of 35 eyes (29% [95% CI, 16%-45%]) achieved FTMH closure without rescue vitrectomy at 8 weeks. The mean change in VA from baseline at 8 weeks was -1.5 letters (95% CI, -10.3 to 7.3 letters). CONCLUSIONS: In most eyes with VMT, PVL induced hyaloid release. In eyes with FTMH, PVL resulted in hole closure in approximately one third of eyes. These studies were terminated early because of safety concerns related to retinal detachments and retinal tears.
Chang W-C, Abe R, Anderson P, Anderson W, Ardern-Jones MR, Beachkofsky TM, Bellón T, Biala AK, Bouchard C, Cavalleri GL, Chapman N, Chodosh J, Choi HK, Cibotti RR, Divito SJ, Dewar K, Dehaeck U, Etminan M, Forbes D, Fuchs E, Goldman JL, Holmes JH, Hope EA, Hung S-I, Hsieh C-L, Iovieno A, Jagdeo J, Kim MK, Koelle DM, Lacouture ME, Le Pallec S, Lehloenya RJ, Lim R, Lowe A, McCawley J, McCawley J, Micheletti RG, Mockenhaupt M, Niemeyer K, Norcross MA, Oboh D, Olteanu C, Pasieka HB, Peter J, Pirmohamed M, Rieder M, Saeed HN, Shear NH, Shieh C, Straus S, Sukasem C, Sung C, Trubiano JA, Tsou S-Y, Ueta M, Volpi S, Wan C, Wang H, Wang Z-Q, Weintraub J, Whale C, Wheatley LM, Whyte-Croasdaile S, Williams KB, Wright G, Yeung SN, Zhou L, Chung W-H, Phillips EJ, Carleton BC. Corrigendum to 'SJS/TEN 2019: From science to translation' [J. Dermatol. Sci. 98/1 (2020) 2-12]. J Dermatol Sci 2021;104(2):146-147.
PURPOSE: To report the outcomes of macular add-on intraocular lens implantation in improving reading vision in patients with bilateral advanced diabetic maculopathy. METHODS: In this retrospective study, a supplementary bifocal sulcus intraocular lens (Scharioth Macular Lens) was implanted in the better-seeing eye of five patients. Baseline-corrected distance vision, corrected near visual acuity, a preoperative simulation test, and multimodal imaging were collected. The primary outcome was the uncorrected near visual acuity at a working distance of 15 cm, at a 12-month follow-up. RESULTS: Study patients included 3 cases of refractory subfoveal exudation and 2 cases of diabetic macular ischemia. A preoperative test to assess the potential gain in near vision showed an improvement of ≥2 paragraphs on the RADNER reading chart in all patients. At 12 months, median reading vision (corrected near visual acuity at 15 cm) significantly improved from 20/125 (range 20/50-20/200) preoperatively to uncorrected near visual acuity (at 15 cm) of 20/50 (range 20/40-20/80) (P = 0.042; Wilcoxon signed-ranks test). Distance vision remained unchanged in four patients. All patients were able to achieve the size of newsprint (20/50 Snellen equivalent), within the first 3 months. CONCLUSION: The macular add-on intraocular lens improves reading vision in visually impaired patients due to end-stage diabetic macular disease.
The classic Th1/Th2 dogma has been significantly reshaped since the subsequent introduction of several new T helper cell subsets, among which the most intensively investigated during the last decade is the Th17 lineage that demonstrates critical pathogenic roles in autoimmunity and chronic inflammation - including the highly prevalent dry eye disease. In this review, we summarize current concepts of Th17-mediated disruption of ocular surface immune homeostasis that leads to autoimmune inflammatory dry eye disease, by discussing the induction, activation, differentiation, migration, and function of effector Th17 cells in disease development, highlighting the phenotypic and functional plasticity of Th17 lineage throughout the disease initiation, perpetuation and sustention. Furthermore, we emphasize the most recent advance in Th17 memory formation and function in the chronic course of dry eye disease, a major area to be better understood for facilitating the development of effective treatments in a broader field of autoimmune diseases that usually present a chronic course with recurrent episodes of flare in the target tissues or organs.
PURPOSE: To compare neonatal eye screening using the red reflex test (RRT) versus the wide-field digital imaging (WFDI) system. METHODS: Prospective cohort study. Newborns (n = 380, 760 eyes) in the Maternity Ward of Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo hospital from May to July 2014 underwent RRT by a paediatrician and WFDI performed by the authors. Wide-field digital imaging (WFDI) images were analysed by the authors. Validity of the paediatrician's RRT was assessed by unweighted kappa [κ] statistic, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). RESULTS: While WFDI showed abnormalities in 130 eyes (17.1%), RRT was only abnormal in 13 eyes (1.7%). Wide-field digital imaging (WFDI) detected treatable retina pathology that RRT missed including hyphema, CMV retinitis, FEVR and a vitreous haemorrhage. The sensitivity of the paediatrician's RRT to detect abnormalities was poor at 0.77% (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.02%-4.21%) with a PPV of only 7.69% (95% CI, 1.08%-38.85%). Overall, there was no agreement between screening modalities (κ = -0.02, 95% CI, -0.05 to 0.01). The number needed to screen to detect ocular abnormalities using WFDI was 5.9 newborns and to detect treatable abnormalities was 76 newborns. CONCLUSION: While RRT detects gross abnormalities that preclude visualization of the retina (i.e. media opacities and very large tumours), only WFDI consistently detects subtle treatable retina and optic nerve pathology. With a higher sensitivity than the current gold standard, universal WFDI allows for early detection and management of potentially blinding ophthalmic disease missed by RRT.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dementia is a term for loss of memory, language, problem-solving, and other thinking abilities, which significantly interferes with daily life. Certain dementing conditions may also affect visual function. The eye is an accessible window to the brain that can provide valuable information for the early diagnosis of people who suffer from Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies as well as from more rare causes of dementias, such as Creutzfeldt-Jacob and Huntington's diseases. Herein, we present the ocular manifestations of neurocognitive disorders focusing on the neuro-ophthalmic ones and further discuss potential ocular biomarkers that could help in early detection of these disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Ophthalmic examination along with the recent developments in in-vivo testing have provided a strong foundation of useful knowledge about brain disorder in neurodegenerative diseases without the need for invasive studies. Currently, a number of visual measures, such as visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, pupil response, and saccades in addition to various ophthalmic tests, such as electroretinogram, visual evoked potential, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and OCT-angiography have been widely used and evaluated as potential biomarkers for different stages of dementia. SUMMARY: Ophthalmologic and neuro-ophthalmic evaluation is evolving as an important part of the early diagnosis and management of people with dementia. A particular focus on ocular biomarkers in dementing illnesses has arisen over the past few years and there are several promising measures and imaging tools that have been proposed as potential biomarkers for these diseases.
Oculomotor nerve schwannomas (ONS) are rare benign cranial nerve tumors. There are only a limited number of reports on this pathology in the literature, and there is currently no established management guidelines that aid providers in deciding on surgical versus non-surgical management. We assess the published literature on the topic to identify indications for treatment as well as outcome measures (e.g., local control rates, survival rates, and complication rates) that have been reported as associated with the various treatment modalities. We attempt to develop an algorithm for evaluation and treatment of ONS in order to establish consensus on how these tumors should be treated.
PURPOSE: Estimates of diabetic eye disease in American Indian and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) vary over time, region, and methods. This article reports recent prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) in AI/AN served by the Indian Health Services' (IHS) teleophthalmology program, as identified using ultrawide field imaging (UWFI). METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of 2016-2019 clinical data (n = 53,900). UWF images were acquired by certified imagers using a validated protocol, and graded by licensed, certified optometrists supervised by an ophthalmologist. Graders evaluated the extent/severity of retinal lesions in comparison to standard photographs. DR lesions predominantly in any peripheral field were considered "predominantly peripheral lesions" (PPL). The analyses calculated prevalence of any DR, any DME, DR and DME severity, sight-threatening disease, and PPL. RESULTS: Patients averaged 56 years of age with a 68 mmol/mol A1c and 55% had had diabetes for 5+ years. Prevalence of any DR, any DME, and sight-threatening disease was 28.6%, 3.0%, and 3.0%. In patients with mild nonproliferative DR, PPL was seen in 25.3%. PPL suggested a more severe level of DR in 8.7% of patients. DR increased with age. DME decreased with age. Males and patients in the Nashville IHS area had more diabetic eye disease. CONCLUSION: AI/AN have a high burden of diabetes and its complications. The IHS is resource-constrained, making accurate disease estimates necessary for resource allocation and budget justifications to Congress. These data update the estimates of diabetic eye disease in Indian Country and suggest that UWFI identifies early DR.
Purpose: We reported that oxytocin (OXT), added to freshly prepared lacrimal gland lobules, induced myoepithelial cell (MEC) contraction. In other systems, OXT activates phospholipase C (PLC) generating Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) which increases intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) causing contraction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of this pathway in OXT-induced contraction of MEC. Methods: Tear volume was measured using the cotton thread method. Lacrimal gland MEC were isolated and propagated from α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice, in which MEC express GFP making them easily identifiable. RNA and protein samples were prepared for RT-PCR and Western blotting for G protein expression. Changes in [Ca2+]i were measured in Fura-2 loaded MEC using a ratio imaging system. MEC contraction was monitored in real time and changes in cell size were quantified using ImageJ software. Results: OXT applied either topically to surgically exposed lacrimal glands or delivered subcutaneously resulted in increased tear volume. OXT stimulated lacrimal gland MEC contraction in a dose-dependent manner, with a maximum response at 10-7 M. MEC express the PLC coupling G proteins, Gαq and Gα11, and their activation by OXT resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i with a maximum response at 10-6 M. Furthermore, the activation of the IP3 receptor to increase [Ca2+]i is crucial for OXT-induced MEC contraction since blocking the IP3 receptor with 2-APB completely abrogated this response. Conclusions: We conclude that OXT uses the PLC/Ca2+ pathway to stimulate MEC contraction and increase lacrimal gland secretion.
Crystalline lens and striated muscle exist at opposite ends of the metabolic spectrum. Lens is a metabolically quiescent tissue, whereas striated muscle is a mechanically dynamic tissue with high-energy requirements, yet both tissues contain millimolar levels of ATP (>2.3 mM), far exceeding their underlying metabolic needs. We explored intracellular concentrations of ATP across multiple cells, tissues, species, and domains to provide context for interpreting lens/striated muscle data. Our database revealed that high intracellular ATP concentrations are ubiquitous across diverse life forms including species existing from the Precambrian Era, suggesting an ancient highly conserved role for ATP, independent of its widely accepted view as primarily "metabolic currency". Our findings reinforce suggestions that the primordial function of ATP was non-metabolic in nature, serving instead to prevent protein aggregation.
PURPOSE: We report visual acuity improvement and refractive profiles in children prescribed glasses by a school-based vision program (SBVP) in Baltimore, Maryland. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, pre-kindergarten through 8th grade students who failed vision screening underwent an eye examination. Students prescribed glasses are included. Visual acuity improvement was the difference between presenting and best-corrected visual acuity based on noncycloplegic manifest refraction. Clinically significant refractive error (CSRE) was defined as ≥0.75 D myopia, ≥2.00 D hyperopia without strabismus, ≥1.00 D hyperopia with esodeviation, or ≥1.50 D astigmatism AND presenting visual acuity ≤20/40 or ≥2-line difference with the better-seeing eye ≤20/30. Characteristics associated with greater visual acuity improvement were explored. RESULTS: Of the 4,972 students, mean age was 9.4 ± 2.7 years; 77% were black, and 18% were Hispanic. Myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and CSRE were found in 65%, 24%, 60%, and 46% students, respectively. In the better-seeing eyes, 70% gained ≥2 lines. Of students with CSRE, improvement of at least 5 lines in the worse-seeing eye increased from 30.9% in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten to 77.3% in 7th and 8th grade (Ptrend < 0.001). Students with CSRE had a higher rate of gaining at least 2 lines' improvement in their worse-seeing eyes compared with those without (98.7% vs 80.6%). Older students as well as blacks and Hispanics were more likely to have improvement of at least 2 lines. CONCLUSIONS: Most students prescribed glasses from our SBVP had clinically significant visual deficits corrected.