Inflammatory choroidal neovascular membranes are challenging to diagnose and manage. A number of uveitic entities may be complicated by the development of choroidal neovascularization leading to a decrease in central visual acuity. In conditions such as punctate inner choroidopathy, development of choroidal neovascularization is extremely common and must be suspected in all cases. On the other hand, in patients with conditions such as serpiginous choroiditis, and multifocal choroiditis, it may be difficult to differentiate between inflammatory choroiditis lesions and choroidal neovascularization. Multimodal imaging analysis, including the recently introduced technology of optical coherence tomography angiography, greatly aid in the diagnosis and management of inflammatory choroidal neovascularization. Management of these neovascular membranes consists of anti-vascular growth factor agents, with or without concomitant anti-inflammatory and/or corticosteroid therapy.
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision loss worldwide. Microaneurysms (MAs), which are abnormal outpouchings of the retinal vessels, are early and hallmark lesions of DR. The presence and severity of MAs are utilized to determine overall DR severity. In addition, MAs can directly contribute to retinal neural pathology by leaking fluid into the surrounding retina, causing abnormal central retinal thickening and thereby frequently leading to vision loss. Vascular perfusion parameters such as shear rate (SR) or wall shear stress (WSS) have been linked to blood clotting and endothelial cell dysfunction, respectively in non-retinal vasculature. However, despite the importance of MAs as a key aspect of diabetic retinal pathology, much remains unknown as to how structural characteristics of individual MAs are associated with these perfusion attributes. MA structural information obtained on high resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) was utilized to estimate perfusion parameters through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of the AOSLO images. The HemeLB flow solver was used to simulate steady-state and time-dependent fluid flow using both commodity hospital-based and high performance computing resources, depending on the degree of detail required in the simulations. Our results indicate that WSS is lowest in MA regions furthest away from the feeding vessels. Furthermore, areas of low SR are associated with clot location in saccular MAs. These findings suggest that morphology and CFD estimation of perfusion parameters may be useful tools for determining the likelihood of clot presence in individual diabetic MAs.
PURPOSE: Inflammatory macular hole is a rare complication of uveitis, and data on surgical outcomes of closure are scarce. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anatomical and visual outcomes of conventional pars plana vitrectomy for patients with uveitis. METHODS: Noncomparative, interventional, and consecutive case series from 6 vitreoretinal surgical centers from 2007 to 2015. Twenty eyes of 19 patients were included with 4 patients separated as viral retinitis. The primary outcome was change in best-corrected visual acuity at Month 3. Secondary outcomes were closure of the macular hole and postoperative optical coherence tomography characteristics. RESULTS: All eyes underwent conventional three-port pars plana vitrectomy with indocyanine green-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling. Mean Snellen best-corrected visual acuity improved from 20/200 to 20/63 (P = 0.01 for a difference in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) at Month 3. Twelve (75%) of patients achieved 2 or more lines of visual acuity improvement by postoperative Month 3. Surgery resulted in decreased epiretinal membrane (P = 0.002), intraretinal fluid (P < 0.001), subretinal fluid (P = 0.029), central subfield thickness (P < 0.001), and central cube volume (P = 0.041). Surgical intervention achieved anatomical success, as measured by macular hole closure, in 13 (81%) of patients at postoperative Month 3. CONCLUSION: Patients with inflammatory macular hole respond well to conventional surgery, with good anatomical and visual acuity outcomes.
The originally published version of this Article contained an error in Figure 4. The bar chart in panel f was inadvertently replaced with a duplicate of the bar chart in panel e. This error has now corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
PURPOSE: To characterize the clinical features of patients with ocular inflammatory diseases (OID) who tested positive for atypical perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (P-ANCA). METHODS: Retrospective case series of patients with OID seen at the Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institute (MERSI) from April 2014 to April 2016. RESULTS: 813 patients were tested for ANCA with 34 patients (4%) being positive for atypical P-ANCA. Among those with positive atypical P-ANCA, the most frequent diagnoses were anterior uveitis in 62% (n = 21) followed by scleritis in 20% (n = 7). Only one patient had an episode of recurrent disease flare-up. All but one patient, who had concomitant C-ANCA seropositivity and granulomatosis with polyangiitis, had a favorable disease course with controlled inflammation using topical and/or systemic immunomodulatory therapy. CONCLUSION: In contrast to typical C-ANCA and P-ANCA, atypical P-ANCA seropositivity was not associated with severe vasculitis or poor prognosis in patients with the OID.
SIGNIFICANCE: The first report on the use of peripheral prisms (p-prisms) for patients with left neglect and homonymous visual field defects (HVFDs). PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate if patients with left hemispatial neglect and HVFDs benefit from p-prisms to expand the visual field and improve obstacle detection. METHODS: Patients (24 with HVFDs, 10 of whom had left neglect) viewed an animated, virtual, shopping mall corridor and reported if they would have collided with a human obstacle that appeared at various offsets up to 13.5° from their simulated walking path. There were 40 obstacle presentations on each side, with and without p-prisms. No training with p-prisms was provided, and gaze was fixed at the center of expansion. RESULTS: Detection on the side of the HVFD improved significantly with p-prisms in both groups, from 26 to 92% in the left-neglect group and 43 to 98% in the non-neglect group (both P < .001). There was a tendency for greater improvement in the neglect patients with p-prisms. For collision judgments, both groups exhibited a large increase in perceived collisions on the side of the HVFD with the prisms (P < .001), with no difference between the groups (P = .93). Increased perceived collisions represent a wider perceived safety margin on the side of the HVFD. CONCLUSIONS: Within the controlled conditions of this simulated, collision judgment task, patients with left neglect responded well to initial application of p-prisms exhibiting improved detection and wider safety margins on the side of the HVFD that did not differ from non-neglect patients. Further study of p-prisms for neglect patients in free-gaze conditions after extended wear and in real-world mobility tasks is clearly warranted.
Adeno-associated viral vectors (AAVs) have demonstrated potential in applications for neurologic disorders, and the discovery that some AAVs can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after intravenous injection has further expanded these opportunities for non-invasive brain delivery. Anc80L65, a novel AAV capsid designed from reconstruction of the viral evolutionary lineage, has previously demonstrated robust transduction capabilities after local delivery in various tissues such as liver, retina, or cochlea, compared with conventional AAVs. Here, we compared the transduction efficacy of Anc80L65 with conventional AAV9 in the CNS after intravenous, intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.), or intraparenchymal injections. Anc80L65 was more potent at targeting the brain and spinal cord after intravenous injection than AAV9, and mostly transduced astrocytes and a wide range of neuronal subpopulations. Although the efficacy of Anc80L65 and AAV9 is similar after direct intraparenchymal injection in the striatum, Anc80L65's diffusion throughout the CNS was more extensive than AAV9 after i.c.v. infusion, leading to widespread expression in the cerebellum. These findings demonstrate that Anc80L65 is a highly efficient gene transfer vector for the murine CNS. Systemic injection of Anc80L65 leads to notable expression in the CNS that does not rely on a self-complementary genome. These data warrant further testing in larger animal models.
BACKGROUND: After injury, mesenchymal progenitors in the kidney interstitium differentiate into myofibroblasts, cells that have a critical role in kidney fibrogenesis. The ability to deliver genetic material to myofibroblast progenitors could allow new therapeutic approaches to treat kidney fibrosis. Preclinical and clinical studies show that adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) efficiently and safely transduce various tissue targets ; however, protocols for transduction of kidney mesenchymal cells have not been established. METHODS: We evaluated the transduction profiles of various pseudotyped AAV vectors expressing either GFP or Cre recombinase reporters in mouse kidney and human kidney organoids. RESULTS: Of the six AAVs tested, a synthetic AAV called Anc80 showed specific and high-efficiency transduction of kidney stroma and mesangial cells. We characterized the cell specificity, dose dependence, and expression kinetics and showed the efficacy of this approach by knocking out Gli2 from kidney mesenchymal cells by injection of Anc80-Cre virus into either homozygous or heterozygous Gli2-floxed mice. After unilateral ureteral obstruction, the homozygous Gli2-floxed mice had less fibrosis than the Gli2 heterozygotes had. We observed the same antifibrotic effect in -catenin-floxed mice injected with Anc80-Cre virus before obstructive injury, strongly supporting a central role for canonical Wnt signaling in kidney myofibroblast activation. Finally, we showed that the Anc80 synthetic virus can transduce the mesenchymal lineage in human kidney organoids. CONCLUSIONS: These studies establish a novel method for inducible knockout of floxed genes in mouse mesangium, pericytes, and perivascular fibroblasts and are the foundation for future gene therapy approaches to treat kidney fibrosis.
SIGNIFICANCE: Full-field prisms that fill the entire spectacle eye wire have been considered as field expansion devices for homonymous hemianopia (HH) and acquired monocular vision (AMV). Although the full-field prism is used for addressing binocular dysfunction and for prism adaptation training after brain injury as treatment for spatial hemineglect, we show that the full-field prism for field expansion does not effectively expand the visual field in either HH or AMV. PURPOSE: Full-field prisms may shift a portion of the blind side to the residual seeing side. However, foveal fixation on an object of interest through a full-field prism requires head and/or eye rotation away from the blind side, thus negating the shift of the field toward the blind side. METHODS: We fit meniscus and flat full-field 7Δ and 12Δ yoked prisms and conducted Goldmann perimetry in HH and AMV. We compared the perimetry results with ray tracing calculations. RESULTS: The rated prism power was in effect at the primary position of gaze for all prisms, and the meniscus prisms maintained almost constant power at all eccentricities. To fixate on the perimetry target, the subjects needed to turn their head and/or eyes away from the blind side, which negated the field shift into the blind side. In HH, there was no difference in the perimetry results on the blind side with any of the prisms. In AMV, the lower nasal field of view was slightly shifted into the blind side with the flat prisms, but not with the meniscus prisms. CONCLUSIONS: Full-field prisms are not an effective field expansion device owing to the inevitable fixation shift. There is potential for a small field shift with the flat full-field prism in AMV, but such lenses cannot incorporate refractive correction. Furthermore, in considering the apical scotoma, the shift provides a mere field substitution at best.
SIGNIFICANCE: Acquired monocular vision (AMV) is a common visual field loss. Patients report mobility difficulties in walking due to collisions with objects or other pedestrians on the blind side. PURPOSE: The visual field of people with AMV extends more than 90° temporally on the side of the seeing eye but is restricted to approximately 55° nasally. We developed a novel field expansion device using a multiplexing prism (MxP) that superimposes the see-through and shifted views for true field expansion without apical scotoma. We present various designs of the device that enable customized fitting and improved cosmetics. METHODS: A partial MxP segment is attached (base-in) near the nose bridge. To avoid total internal reflection due to the high angle of incidence at nasal field end (55°), we fit the MxP with serrations facing the eye and tilt the prism base toward the nose. We calculated the width of the MxP (the apex location) needed to prevent apical scotoma and monocular diplopia. We also consider the effect of spectacle prescriptions on these settings. The results are verified perimetrically. RESULTS: We documented the effectivity of various prototype glasses designs with perimetric measurements. With the prototypes, all patients with AMV had field-of-view expansions up to 90° nasally without any loss of seeing field. CONCLUSIONS: The novel and properly mounted MxP in glasses has the potential for meaningful field-of-view expansion up to the size of normal binocular vision in cosmetically acceptable form.
PURPOSE: To review the published literature to assess the visual outcomes and adverse events associated with the 2 most commonly used contact lenses for treating aphakia in children: silicone elastomer (SE) and rigid gas permeable (RGP). METHODS: Literature searches were last conducted in January 2018 in the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases with no date or language restrictions. These combined searches yielded 167 citations, 27 of which were reviewed in full text. Of these, 10 articles were deemed appropriate for inclusion in this assessment and subsequently assigned a level of evidence rating by the panel methodologist. RESULTS: The literature search identified 4 level II studies and 6 level III studies. There were insufficient data to compare visual outcomes for eyes treated using SE lenses versus RGP lenses. Silicone elastomer lenses have the advantage that they can be worn on an extended-wear basis, but they were associated with more adverse events than RGP lenses. These adverse events included microbial keratitis, corneal infiltrates, corneal edema, corneal scars, lenses adhering to the cornea, superficial punctate keratopathy, lid swelling, and conjunctival hyperemia. The lens replacement rate was approximately 50% higher for RGP lenses in the only study that directly compared SE and RGP lenses. CONCLUSIONS: Limited evidence was found in the literature on this topic. Silicone elastomer and RGP contact lenses were found to be effective for treating aphakia in children. Silicone elastomer lenses are easier to fit and may be worn on an extended-wear basis. Rigid gas permeable lenses must be removed every night and require a more customized fit, but they are associated with fewer adverse events. The choice of which lens a practitioner prescribes should be based on the particular needs of each patient.
PURPOSE: To determine host and pathogen factors predictive of outcomes in a large clinical cohort with keratoconjunctivitis. DESIGN: Retrospective analyses of the clinical and molecular data from a randomized, controlled, masked trial for auricloscene for keratoconjunctivitis (NVC-422 phase IIB, NovaBay; clinicaltrials.gov identifier, NCT01877694). PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred participants from United States, India, Brazil, and Sri Lanka with clinical diagnosis of keratoconjunctivitis and positive rapid test results for adenovirus. METHODS: Clinical signs and symptoms and bilateral conjunctival swabs were obtained on days 1, 3, 6, 11, and 18. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was performed to detect and quantify adenovirus in all samples. Regression models were used to evaluate the association of various variables with keratoconjunctivitis outcomes. Time to resolution of each symptom or sign was assessed by adenoviral species with Cox regression. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The difference in composite scores of clinical signs between days 1 and 18, mean visual acuity change between days 1 and 18, and time to resolution of each symptom or sign. RESULTS: Of 500 participants, 390 (78%) showed evidence of adenovirus by PCR. Among adenovirus-positive participants, adenovirus D species was most common (63% of total cases), but a total of 4 species and 21 different types of adenovirus were detected. Adenovirus D was associated with more severe signs and symptoms, a higher rate of subepithelial infiltrate development, and a slower decline in viral load compared with all other adenovirus species. The clinical courses of all patients with non-adenovirus D species infection and adenovirus-negative keratoconjunctivitis were similar. Mean change in visual acuity between days 1 and 18 was a gain of 1.9 letters; worse visual outcome was associated with older age. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of keratoconjunctivitis is not associated with a detectable adenovirus. The clinical course of those with adenovirus D keratoconjunctivitis is significantly more severe than those with non-adenovirus D species infections or adenovirus-negative keratoconjunctivitis; high viral load at presentation and non-United States origin of participants is associated with poorer clinical outcome.
is a common opportunistic pathogen that colonizes cephalic recording chambers (CRCs) of macaques used in cognitive neuroscience research. We previously characterized 15 strains isolated from macaques at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 2011. The goal of this study was to examine how a 2014 protocol change prohibiting the use of antimicrobials within CRCs affected colonizing strains. We collected 20 isolates from 10 macaques between 2013 and 2017 for comparison to 4 isolates previously characterized in 2011 with respect to the sequence type (ST) distribution, antimicrobial resistance, biofilm formation, and changes in genes that might confer a survival advantage. ST4 and ST55 were predominant among the isolates characterized in 2011, whereas the less antimicrobial-resistant lineage ST48 emerged to dominance after 2013. Two macaques remained colonized by ST4 and ST55 strains for 5 and 4 years, respectively. While the antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors identified in these ST4 and ST55 strains remained relatively stable, we detected an increase in biofilm formation ability over time in both isolates. We also found that ST48 strains were typically robust biofilm formers, which could explain why this ST increased in prevalence. Finally, we identified mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes and in separate ST55 and ST4 strains and confirmed that strains bearing these mutations displayed a hypermutator phenotype. The presence of a hypermutator phenotype may complicate future antimicrobial treatment for clinically relevant infections in macaques. is a common cause of health care-associated infections in humans, largely due to its ability to persist in the hospital environment, colonize patients, acquire antimicrobial resistance, and form biofilms. Understanding how enterococci evolve in health care settings provides insight into factors affecting enterococcal survival and persistence. Macaques used in neuroscience research have long-term cranial implants that, despite best practices, often become colonized by This provides a unique opportunity to noninvasively examine the evolution of enterococci on a long-term indwelling device. We collected strains from cephalic implants over a 7-year period and characterized the sequence type, antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, biofilm production, and hypermutator phenotypes. Improved antimicrobial stewardship allowed a less-antimicrobial-resistant strain to predominate at the implant interface, potentially improving antimicrobial treatment outcomes if future clinical infections occur. Biofilm formation appears to play an important role in the persistence of the strains associated with these implants.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to establish the short tandem repeat (STR) profiles of several human cell lines commonly used in ocular surface research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Independently DNA was extracted from multiple passages of three human corneal epithelial cell lines, two human conjunctival epithelial cell lines and one meibomian gland cell line, from different laboratories actively involved in ocular surface research. The samples were then subjected to STR analysis on a fee-for-service basis in an academic setting and the data compared against that in available databases. RESULTS: The STR profiles for the human corneal epithelial cells were different among the three cell lines studied and for each line the profiles were identical across the samples provided by three laboratories. Profiles for the human conjunctival epithelial cells were different among the two cell lines studied. Profiles for the meibomian gland cell line were identical across the samples provided by three laboratories. No samples were contaminated by elements of other cell lines such as HeLa. CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive study provides verification of STR profiles for commonly used human ocular surface cell lines that can now be used as a reference by others in the field to authenticate the cell lines in use in their own laboratories.
In visual search tasks, observers can guide their attention towards items in the visual field that share features with the target item. In this series of studies, we examined the time course of guidance toward a subset of items that have the same color as the target item. Landolt Cs were placed on 16 colored disks. Fifteen distractor Cs had gaps facing up or down while one target C had a gap facing left or right. Observers searched for the target C and reported which side contained the gap as quickly as possible. In the absence of other information, observers must search at random through the Cs. However, during the trial, the disks changed colors. Twelve disks were now of one color and four disks were of another color. Observers knew that the target C would always be in the smaller color set. The experimental question was how quickly observers could guide their attention to the smaller color set. Results indicate that observers could not make instantaneous use of color information to guide the search, even when they knew which two colors would be appearing on every trial. In each study, it took participants 200-300 ms to fully utilize the color information once presented. Control studies replicated the finding with more saturated colors and with colored C stimuli (rather than Cs on colored disks). We conclude that segregation of a display by color for the purposes of guidance takes 200-300 ms to fully develop.
Purpose: Peripheral field loss (PFL) due to retinitis pigmentosa, choroideremia, or glaucoma often results in a highly constricted residual central field, which makes it difficult for patients to avoid collision with approaching pedestrians. We developed a virtual environment to evaluate the ability of patients to detect pedestrians and judge potential collisions. We validated the system with both PFL patients and normally sighted subjects with simulated PFL. We also tested whether properly placed high-power prisms may improve pedestrian detection. Methods: A virtual park-like open space was rendered using a driving simulator (configured for walking speeds), and pedestrians in testing scenarios appeared within and outside the residual central field. Nine normally sighted subjects and eight PFL patients performed the pedestrian detection and collision judgment tasks. The performance of the subjects with simulated PFL was further evaluated with field of view expanding prisms. Results: The virtual system for testing pedestrian detection and collision judgment was validated. The performance of PFL patients and normally sighted subjects with simulated PFL were similar. The prisms for simulated PFL improved detection rates, reduced detection response times, and supported reasonable collision judgments in the prism-expanded field; detections and collision judgments in the residual central field were not influenced negatively by the prisms. Conclusions: The scenarios in a virtual environment are suitable for evaluating PFL and the impact of field of view expanding devices. Translational Relevance: This study validated an objective means to evaluate field expansion devices in reproducible near-real-life settings.
Corneal transplantation is the most prevalent form of tissue transplantation. The success of corneal transplantation mainly relies on the integrity of corneal endothelial cells (CEnCs), which maintain graft transparency. CEnC density decreases significantly after corneal transplantation even in the absence of graft rejection. To date, different strategies have been used to enhance CEnC survival. The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) improves CEnC integrity during donor cornea tissue storage and protects CEnCs against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. However, little is known about the effect of exogenous administration of VIP on corneal transplant outcomes. We found that VIP significantly accelerates endothelial wound closure and suppresses interferon-γ- and tumor necrosis factor-α-induced CEnC apoptosis in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we found that intracameral administration of VIP to mice undergoing syngeneic corneal transplantation with endothelial injury increases CEnC density and decreases graft opacity scores. Finally, using a mouse model of allogeneic corneal transplantation, we found for the first time that treatment with VIP significantly suppresses posttransplantation CEnC loss and improves corneal allograft survival.
PURPOSE: To determine the incidence of and to identify characteristics predicting significant superior oblique palsy (SOP) after adjustable superior oblique suture spacer surgery for treatment of Brown syndrome. METHODS: The medical records of patients treated for unilateral Brown syndrome with adjustable suture spacers (2005-2016) were reviewed to identify possible association of age at surgery, spacer length, surgeon performing procedure, severity of Brown syndrome, preoperative hypotropia in primary position and affected side gaze, and reduction in Brown restriction on postoperative superior oblique function. "Good" postoperative superior oblique function was defined as absence of hypertropia and diplopia in primary position and no more than intermittent diplopia in downgaze comfortably fused with ≤4Δ base-down or head tilt of <10°. Presence of postoperative hypertropia in primary position with increase in downgaze met criteria for significant SOP. Postoperative Brown restriction of ≤ -2 indicated resolution of Brown syndrome. RESULTS: Median age at surgery was 59 months, interquartile range (IQR) was 32-82 months, and median spacer length was 6 mm (range, 2-7 mm) for 19 included patients. Preoperative median hypotropia was 9Δ (IQR, 0Δ-12Δ) in primary position and 18Δ (IQR, 5Δ-22Δ) in affected side gaze. Of 19 patients, 16 (84%) achieved sufficient resolution of Brown syndrome, but 6 (32%) developed significant SOP. Modest preoperative hypotropia in affected side gaze was the only predictor of significant SOP (likelihood ratio test = 7.11; P = 0.008). Logistic regression modeling enabled estimation of risk of significant SOP based on preoperative side gaze hypotropia. CONCLUSIONS: Suture spacer surgery can result in significant SOP. Risk may be predicted by magnitude of preoperative side gaze hypotropia.