: To report two cases of microbial keratitis and/or endophthalmitis involving : Case series. : 24-year-old female with a history of Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and keratitis presented with a geographic epithelial defect and infiltrate in the left eye. Cultures were positive for HSV-1 and . Keratitis resolved with topical vancomycin and oral valacyclovir. A 65-year-old female with a history of type II diabetes and failed therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty presented with inferior corneal graft haze and vitreous inflammation of the right eye. Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty and pars plana vitrectomy were performed, and the corneal button returned positive for . The patient was treated with topical and intravitreal vancomycin as well as topical and systemic steroids. : These cases expand the literature on keratitis and endophthalmitis and corroborate the role of steroid use and prior surgery as paramount risk factors.
PURPOSE: To determine the utility of ophthalmology evaluation, dark-adapted threshold, and full-field electroretinogram for early detection of Usher syndrome in young patients with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. METHODS: We identified 39 patients with secure genetic diagnoses of Usher Syndrome. Visual acuity, spherical equivalent, fundus appearance, dark-adapted threshold, and full-field electroretinogram results were summarized and compared to those in a group of healthy controls with normal hearing. In those Usher patients with repeated measures, regression analysis was done to evaluate for change in visual acuity and dark-adapted threshold with age. Spherical equivalent and full-field electroretinogram responses from dark- and light-adapted eyes were evaluated as a function of age. RESULTS: The majority of initial visual acuity and spherical equivalent results were within normal limits for age. Visual acuity and dark-adapted threshold worsened significantly with age in Usher type 1 but not in Usher type 2. At initial test, full-field electroretinogram responses from dark- and light-adapted eyes were abnormal in 53% of patients. Remarkably, nearly half of our patients (17% of Usher type 1 and 30% of Usher type 2) would have been missed by tests of retinal function alone if evaluated before age 10. CONCLUSIONS: Although there is an association of abnormal dark-adapted threshold and full-field electroretinogram at young ages in Usher patients, it appears that a small but important proportion of patients would not be detected by tests of retinal function alone. Thus, genetic testing is needed to secure a diagnosis of Usher syndrome.
The retinoschisin protein is encoded on the short arm of the X-chromosome by RS1, is expressed abundantly in photoreceptor inner segments and in bipolar cells, and is secreted as an octamer that maintains the structural integrity of the retina. Mutations in RS1 lead to X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS), a disease characterized by the formation of cystic spaces between boys' retinal layers that frequently present in ophthalmoscopy as a "spoke-wheel" pattern on their maculae and by progressively worsening visual acuity (VA). There is no proven therapy for XLRS, but there is mixed evidence that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) produce multiple beneficial effects, including improved VA and decreased volume of cystic spaces. Consequently, linear mixed-effects (LME) models were used to evaluate the effects of CAI therapy on VA and central retinal thickness (CRT, a proxy for cystic cavity volume) in a review of 19 patients' records. The mechanism of action of action of CAIs is unclear but, given that misplaced retinoschisin might accumulate in the photoreceptors, it is possible-perhaps even likely-that CAIs act to benefit the function of photoreceptors and the neighboring retinal pigment epithelium by acidification of the extracellular milieu; patients on CAIs have among the most robust photoreceptor responses. Therefore, a small subset of five subjects were recruited for imaging on a custom multimodal adaptive optics retinal imager for inspection of their parafoveal cone photoreceptors. Those cones that were visible, which numbered far fewer than in controls, were enlarged, consistent with the retinoschisin accumulation hypothesis. Results of the LME modeling found that there is an initial benefit to both VA and CRT in CAI therapy, but these wane, in both cases, after roughly two years. That said, even a short beneficial effect of CAIs on the volume of the cystic spaces may give CAI therapy an important role as pretreatment before (or immediately following) administration of gene therapy.
Importance: Individuals with autosomal dominant mutations for Alzheimer disease are valuable in determining biomarkers present prior to the onset of cognitive decline, improving the ability to diagnose Alzheimer disease as early as possible. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has surfaced as a potential noninvasive technique capable of analyzing central nervous system tissues for biomarkers of Alzheimer disease. Objective: To evaluate whether OCT can detect early retinal alterations in carriers of the presenilin 1 (PSEN1 [OMIM 104311]) E280A mutation who are cognitively unimpaired. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional imaging study conducted from July 13, 2015, to September 16, 2020, included 10 carriers of the PSEN1 E280A mutation who were cognitively unimpaired and 10 healthy noncarrier family members, all leveraged from a homogenous Colombian kindred. Statistical analysis was conducted from September 9, 2017, to September 16, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mixed-effects multiple linear regression was performed to compare the thickness values of the whole retina and individual retinal layers on OCT scans between mutation carriers and noncarriers. Simple linear-effects and mixed-effects multiple linear regression models were used to assess whether age was an effect modifier for PSEN1 mutation of amyloid β levels and retinal thickness, respectively. Fundus photographs were used to compare the number of arterial and venous branch points, arterial and venous tortuosity, and fractal dimension. Results: This study included 10 carriers of the PSEN1 E280A mutation who were cognitively unimpaired (7 women [70%]; mean [SD] age, 36.3 [8.1] years) and 10 healthy noncarrier family members (7 women [70%]; mean [SD] age, 36.4 [8.2] years). Compared with noncarrier controls, PSEN1 mutation carriers who were cognitively unimpaired had a generalized decrease in thickness of the whole retina as well as individual layers detected on OCT scans, with the inner nuclear layer (outer superior quadrant, β = -3.06; P = .007; outer inferior quadrant, β = -2.60; P = .02), outer plexiform layer (outer superior quadrant, β = -3.44; P = .03), and outer nuclear layer (central quadrant, β = -8.61; P = .03; inner nasal quadrant, β = -8.39; P = .04; inner temporal quadrant, β = -9.39; P = .02) showing the greatest amount of statistically significant thinning. Age was a significant effect modifier for the association between PSEN1 mutation and amyloid β levels in cortical regions (β = 0.03; P = .001) but not for the association between PSEN1 mutation and retinal thickness. No statistical difference was detected in any of the vascular parameters studied. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that OCT can detect functional and morphologic changes in the retina of carriers of familial Alzheimer disease who are cognitively unimpaired several years before clinical onset, suggesting that OCT findings and retinal vascular parameters may be biomarkers prior to the onset of cognitive decline.
We assessed the sustained delivery effect of poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)/vitamin E (VitE) microspheres (MSs) loaded with glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) alone (GDNF-MSs) or combined with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; GDNF/BDNF-MSs) on migration of the human adult retinal pigment epithelial cell-line-19 (ARPE-19) cells, primate choroidal endothelial (RF/6A) cells, and the survival of isolated mouse retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The morphology of the MSs, particle size, and encapsulation efficiencies of the active substances were evaluated. In vitro release, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell viability, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) deoxyuridine dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) apoptosis, functional wound healing migration (ARPE-19; migration), and (RF/6A; angiogenesis) assays were conducted. The safety of MS intravitreal injection was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin, neuronal nuclei (NeuN) immunolabeling, and TUNEL assays, and RGC in vitro survival was analyzed. MSs delivered GDNF and co-delivered GDNF/BDNF in a sustained manner over 77 days. The BDNF/GDNF combination increased RPE cell migration, whereas no effect was observed on RF/6A. MSs did not alter cell viability, apoptosis was absent in vitro, and RGCs survived in vitro for seven weeks. In mice, retinal toxicity and apoptosis was absent in histologic sections. This delivery strategy could be useful as a potential co-therapy in retinal degenerations and glaucoma, in line with future personalized long-term intravitreal treatment as different amounts (doses) of microparticles can be administered according to patients' needs.
Due to chromatic aberration, blue images are defocused when the eye is focused to the middle of the visible spectrum, yet we normally are not aware of chromatic blur. The eye suffers from monochromatic aberrations which degrade the optical quality of all images projected on the retina. The combination of monochromatic and chromatic aberrations is not additive and these aberrations may interact to improve image quality. Using Adaptive Optics, we investigated the optical and visual effects of correcting monochromatic aberrations when viewing polychromatic grayscale, green, and blue images. Correcting the eye's monochromatic aberrations improved optical quality of the focused green images and degraded the optical quality of defocused blue images, particularly in eyes with higher amounts of monochromatic aberrations. Perceptual judgments of image quality tracked the optical findings, but the perceptual impact of the monochromatic aberrations correction was smaller than the optical predictions. The visual system appears to be adapted to the blur produced by the native monochromatic aberrations, and possibly to defocus in blue.
Daily activities require the constant searching and tracking of visual targets in dynamic and complex scenes. Classic work assessing visual search performance has been dominated by the use of simple geometric shapes, patterns, and static backgrounds. Recently, there has been a shift toward investigating visual search in more naturalistic dynamic scenes using virtual reality (VR)-based paradigms. In this direction, we have developed a first-person perspective VR environment combined with eye tracking for the capture of a variety of objective measures. Participants were instructed to search for a preselected human target walking in a crowded hallway setting. Performance was quantified based on saccade and smooth pursuit ocular motor behavior. To assess the effect of task difficulty, we manipulated factors of the visual scene, including crowd density (i.e., number of surrounding distractors) and the presence of environmental clutter. In general, results showed a pattern of worsening performance with increasing crowd density. In contrast, the presence of visual clutter had no effect. These results demonstrate how visual search performance can be investigated using VR-based naturalistic dynamic scenes and with high behavioral relevance. This engaging platform may also have utility in assessing visual search in a variety of clinical populations of interest.
is a multidrug resistant, opportunistic human pathogen and a leading cause of hospital acquired infections. Recently, isolates have been recovered from the air and surfaces onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Pangenomic and functional analyses were carried out to assess their potential impact on astronaut health. Genomes of each ISS isolate, and both clinical and commensal reference strains, were evaluated for their core and unique gene content, acquired antibiotic resistance genes, phage, plasmid content, and virulence traits. In order to determine their potential survival when outside of the human host, isolates were also challenged with three weeks of desiccation at 30% relative humidity. Finally, pathogenicity of the ISS strains was evaluated in the model organism At the culmination of this study, there were no defining signatures that separated known pathogenic strains from the more commensal phenotypes using the currently available resources. As a result, the current reliance on database information alone must be shifted to experimentally evaluated genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of clinically relevant microorganisms.
Long-lived memory T-helper 17 (Th17) cells actively mediate the chronic inflammation in autoimmune disorders, including dry eye disease (DED). The mechanisms responsible for the maintenance and reactivation of these cells in autoimmunity have been subject of investigation. However, the process through which memory Th17 are generated from their effector precursors remains to be elucidated. Herein, using our murine model of DED, we detect a linear transition from effector-to-memory Th17 cells during the abatement phase of acute inflammation, which is accompanied by persistently high levels of IL-23 and diminished levels of IL-2. In addition, in vitro culture of effector Th17 cells derived from the DED animals with IL-23, but not IL-2, leads to significant generation of memory Th17 cells, along with upregulated expression levels of IL-7R and IL-15R by these cells. Furthermore, supplementation of IL-2 abolishes and blockade of IL-2 enhances IL-23-induced generation of memory Th17 cells in vitro. Finally, in vivo blockade of IL-23 signaling during the contraction phase of primary response inhibits the generation of memory Th17 cells from their effector precursors. Together, our data demonstrate a new dichotomy between IL-23 and IL-2 in driving effector Th17 cells into the memory pool in autoimmune-mediated ocular surface inflammation.
PURPOSE: To describe 3 cases of corneal clearance after the use of topical rho-kinase inhibitor, netarsudil, in the setting of endothelial cell dysfunction in comparison to one case without corneal clearance after the use of netarsudil. METHODS: Four patients presenting to a busy academic clinical corneal practice with visual complaints from corneal edema secondary to endothelial cell dysfunction were treated with topical netarsudil one drop daily in the affected eye. RESULTS: Corneal clearance was observed in 1) a case of peripheral corneal edema in the setting of iridocorneal endothelial syndrome after 4 weeks on netarsudil, 2) a case of corneal edema in the setting of early penetrating keratoplasty graft failure after 2-week use of netarsudil, and 3) a case of corneal edema in the setting of chronic penetrating keratoplasty graft failure after 4-week use of netarsudil. Corneal clearance was not observed in a case of corneal edema in the setting of pseudophakic bullous keratopathy from previous complicated intraocular lens exchange surgery with placement of an anterior chamber intraocular lens after the use of netarsudil for 12 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Addition of topical rho-kinase inhibitor in the form of netarsudil can result in corneal clearance in a variety of certain cases of endothelial cell dysfunction, not previously documented in the literature.
PURPOSE: To define and quantify patterns of objectively measured daily physical activity by level of visual field (VF) damage in glaucoma patients including: (1) activity fragmentation, a metric of health and physiologic decline, and (2) diurnal patterns of activity, a measure of rest and activity rhythms. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Older adults diagnosed with glaucoma or suspected glaucoma. METHODS: Degree of VF damage was defined by the average VF sensitivity within the integrated VF (IVF). Each participant wore a hip accelerometer for 1 week to measure daily minute-by-minute activity for 7 consecutive days. Activity fragmentation was calculated as the reciprocal of the average activity bout duration in minutes, with higher fragmentation indicating more transient, rather than sustained, activity. Multivariate linear regression was used to test for cross-sectional associations between VF damage and activity fragmentation. Multivariate linear mixed-effects models were used to assess the associations between VF damage and accumulation of activity across 6 3-hour intervals from 5 am to 11 pm. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Activity fragmentation and amount of activity (steps) over the course of the day. RESULTS: Each 5-dB decrement in IVF sensitivity was associated with 16.3 fewer active minutes/day (P < 0.05) and 2% higher activity fragmentation (P < 0.05), but not with the number of active bouts per day (P = 0.30). In time-of-day analyses, lower IVF sensitivity was associated with fewer steps over the 11 am to 2 pm, 2 pm to 5 pm, and 5 pm to 8 pm periods (106.6, 93.1, and 89.2 fewer steps, respectively; P < 0.05 for all), but not over other periods. The activity midpoint (the time at which half of the daily activity is completed) did not vary across level of VF damage. CONCLUSIONS: At worse levels of VF damage, glaucoma patients demonstrate shorter, more fragmented bouts of physical activity throughout the day and lower activity levels during typical waking hours, reflecting low physiologic functioning. Further work is needed to establish the temporality of this association and whether glaucoma patients with such activity patterns are at a greater risk of adverse health outcomes associated with activity fragmentation.
Inflammation can involve several ocular structures, including the sclera, retina, uvea, and cause vascular changes in these tissues. Although retinal vasculitis is the most common finding associated with uveitis involving the posterior segment, other vascular abnormalities may be seen in the retina. These include capillary non perfusion and ischemia, vascular occlusions, pre-retinal neovascularization, micro- and macro-aneurysms, and telangiectasia. Moreover, vasoproliferative tumors and subsequent Coat-like response can develop secondary to uveitis. Fluorescein angiography is ideal for the investigation of retinal vascular leakage and neovascularization, while optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) can provide depth resolved images from the superficial and deep capillary plexus and can demonstrate vascular remodeling. Choroidal vascular abnormalities primarily develop in the choriocapillaris or in the choroidal stroma, and can appear as flow void in OCTA and filling defect and vascular leakage in indocyanine green angiography. Extensive choriocapillaris non-perfusion in the presence of choroidal inflammation can increase the risk of choroidal neovascular membrane development. Iris vascular changes may manifest as dilation of vessels in stroma due to inflammation or rubeosis that is usually from ischemia in retinal periphery secondary to chronic inflammation. More severe forms of scleral inflammation, such as necrotizing scleritis, are associated with vascular occlusion in the deep episcleral plexus, which can lead to necrosis of sclera layer and uveal exposure.
Abnormal angiogenesis is associated with intraocular diseases such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy and neovascular age-related macular degeneration, and current therapies for these eye diseases are not satisfactory. The purpose of this study was to determine whether capilliposide B (CPS-B), a novel oleanane triterpenoid saponin derived from Lysimachia capillipes Hemsl, can inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis signaling events and cellular responses in primary human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs). Our study revealed that the capilliposide B IC for HRECs was 8.5 μM at 72 h and that 1 μM capilliposide B specifically inhibited VEGF-induced activation of VEGFR2 and its downstream signaling enzymes Akt and Erk. In addition, we discovered that this chemical effectively blocked VEGF-stimulated proliferation, migration and tube formation of the HRECs, suggesting that capilliposide B is a promising prophylactic for angiogenesis-associated diseases such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
In T cell-based cancer immunotherapy, tumor antigen (Ag)-specific CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) can specifically target tumor Ags on malignant cells. This promising approach drove us to adopt this strategy of T cell transfer (ACT)-based immunotherapy for chronic viral infections. Here, we describe the generation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) Ag-specific CTLs from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), i.e., iPSC-CTLs. Ag-specific iPSC-CTLs can target HBV Ag cells and infiltrate into the liver to suppress HBV replication in a murine model. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Haque et al. (2020).
The aim of this study is to investigate the nationwide incidence and treatment pattern of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in South Korea. Using the population-based National Health Insurance database (2007-2018), the nationwide incidence of ROP among premature infants with a gestational age (GA) < 37 weeks (GA < 28 weeks, GA28; 28 weeks ≤ GA < 37 weeks; GA28-37) and the percentage of ROP infants who underwent treatment [surgery (vitrectomy, encircling/buckling); retinal ablation (laser photocoagulation, cryotherapy)] were evaluated. We identified 141,964 premature infants, 42,300 of whom had ROP, with a nationwide incidence of 29.8%. The incidence of ROP in GA28 group was 4.3 times higher than in GA28-37 group (63.6% [2240/3522] vs 28.9% [40,060/138,442], p < 0.001). As for the 12-year trends, the incidence of ROP decreased from 39.5% (3308/8366) in 2007 to 23.5% (2943/12,539) in 2018. 3.0% of ROP infants underwent treatment (25.0% in GA28; 1.7% in GA28-37); 0.2% (84/42,300) and 2.9% (1214/42,300) underwent surgery and retinal ablation, respectively. The overall percentage of ROP infants who underwent treatment has decreased from 4.7% in 2007 to 1.8% in 2018. This first Korean nationwide epidemiological study of ROP revealed a decreased incidence of ROP and a decreased percentage of ROP infants undergoing conventional treatment during a 12-year period.
BACKGROUND: Sturge-Weber syndrome is a disorder marked by a distinctive facial capillary malformation, neurological abnormalities, and ocular abnormalities such as glaucoma and choroidal hemangioma. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of progressively formed retinal vessel malformation in a premature male infant with Sturge-Weber syndrome and retinopathy of prematurity, after treatment with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The baby was born at 30 weeks gestation with a nevus flammeus involving his left eyelids and maxillary area. On postmenstrual age week 39, he received intravitreal anti-VEGF. Diffuse choroidal hemangioma became evident at 40 weeks, with the classic "tomato catsup fundus" appearance. These clinical findings characterized Sturge-weber syndrome. He presented with posterior retinal vessel tortuosity and vein-to-vein anastomoses at 44 weeks. CONCLUSION: This is a rare case of documented progression of retinal vessel malformations in a patient with Sturge-Weber syndrome and retinopathy of prematurity.
-associated recessive disease in humans is historically defined by congenital night blinding retinopathy, characterized by an initial increase in short-wavelength (S)-cone sensitivity and progressive loss of rod and cone function. The retinal degeneration 7 () murine model, harboring a recessive mutation in the mouse ortholog of , has been a well-studied disease model and recently evaluated as a therapeutic model for -associated retinal degenerations. This study aims to draw parallels between human and mouse -related disease through examination of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging between different stage of human disease and its murine counterpart. We propose that SD-OCT is a useful non-invasive diagnostic tool to compare human clinical dystrophy presentation with that of the mouse and make inference that may be of therapeutically relevance. Additionally, a longitudinal assessment of disease progression, utilizing available clinical data from our patients as well as extensive retrospective analysis of visual acuity data from published cases of human -related disease, was curated to identify further valuable correlates between human and mouse disease. Results of this study validate the slow progression of -associated disease in humans and the mice and identify SD-OCT characteristics in patients at or near the vascular arcades that correlate well with the whorls and rosettes that are seen also in the mouse and point to imaging features that appear to be associated with better preserved S-cone mediated retinal function. The correlation of histological findings between mice and human imaging provides a solid foundation for diagnostic use of pathophysiological and prognostic information to further define characteristics and a relevant timeline for therapeutic intervention in the field of -associated retinopathies.
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical and pathologic features of a case of epibulbar proliferative fasciitis and to compare it with other focal or diffuse myxoid lesions. METHODS: A clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical analysis was performed. The clinical history, photographic documentation, history, and referred slides were reanalyzed. Additional immunohistochemical stains were performed at our institution. RESULTS: A 68-year-old woman developed over a week a brightly vascularized and focally hemorrhagic placoid lesion on the temporal side of the OS. She had had earlier augmentation breast surgery that had been mistakenly initially reported to us to be for breast carcinoma. Hematoxylin- and eosin-stained reactions revealed microscopically a spindle cell lesion with an intact nonkeratinizing epithelium and a background myxoid stroma with prominent capillaries and a light dispersion of small T-cell lymphocytes. Most striking among the spindle cells were some widely separated large atypical cells. The atypical cells were cytokeratin positive, but an expansive panel of immunohistochemical stains for breast carcinoma was negative. The lesion was diagnosed as proliferative fasciitis and has not recurred after 1-year follow up. CONCLUSION: A rapidly evolving conjunctival lesion is unlikely to be a primary or metastatic carcinoma. In the current case, the large ganglioform or rhabdomyoblast-like cells displayed diffuse cytokeratin positivity, still consistent with a mesenchymal or connective tissue cell lineage. Cytokeratin expression has been a finding previously reported in connective tissue tumors and in lymphoma cells. While the current lesion clinically resembles a conventional nodular fasciitis, the presence of the large atypical cells can lead to the misdiagnosis of a sarcoma, which typically displays a much higher Ki-67 proliferation index in comparison with nodular/proliferative fasciitis.