Cataract

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Song C, Baharozian CJ, Hatch KM, Talamo JH. Assessment of surgeon experience with femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. Clin Ophthalmol 2018;12:1373-1377.Abstract
Purpose: To evaluate the collective user experience with an image-guided femtosecond laser (FSL) for cataract surgery in a high-volume, multi-surgeon, ambulatory surgical center. Subjects and methods: A detailed online survey was distributed to all surgeons in a single ambulatory surgical center who had performed cataract surgery using a FSL since its acquisition in December 2012. Information collected included the number of cases performed, typical surgical techniques and parameters, satisfaction with individual features of the laser (rated on a scale from 1=completely unsatisfied to 10=extremely satisfied) and commentary on ease of use and suggested improvements. Results: Seventeen of 30 surgeons (56.7%) completed the survey, representing a case volume of 1,967 eyes. Fourteen surgeons (82.4%) felt they required ≤10 cases with the FSL to operate with the same safety and control as in standard phacoemulsification surgery. Satisfaction was highest for capsulotomies, lens fragmentation, lens softening, arcuate incisions and the graphic user interface (mean scores 9.4, 8.7, 8.7, 7.2 and 8.9, respectively). Preferred capsulotomy diameter was 4.8-5.2 mm (64.7% of respondents). About half (52.9%) of respondents centered the capsulotomy on the pupil and the other 47.1% centered the capsulotomy using optical coherence tomography. Most respondents (81.3%) preferred transepithelial arcuate incisions compared to intrastromal incisions. Satisfaction was lowest with FSL-created, main, clear corneal incisions and paracenteses (mean scores 4.4 and 4.2, respectively). Conclusion: Laser-assisted cataract surgery has a short learning curve and a high rate of user satisfaction. Further software and hardware development is warranted to improve user satisfaction with peripheral and clear corneal incisions.
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Turalba A, Payal AR, Gonzalez-Gonzalez LA, Cakiner-Egilmez T, Chomsky AS, Vollman DE, Baze EF, Lawrence M, Daly MK. Cataract Surgery Outcomes in Glaucomatous Eyes: Results From the Veterans Affairs Ophthalmic Surgery Outcomes Data Project. Am J Ophthalmol 2015;160(4):693-701.e1.Abstract

PURPOSE: To compare visual acuity outcomes, vision-related quality of life, and complications related to cataract surgery in eyes with and without glaucoma. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Cataract surgery outcomes in cases with and without glaucoma from the Veterans Affairs Ophthalmic Surgical Outcomes Data Project were compared. RESULTS: We identified 608 glaucoma cases and 4306 controls undergoing planned cataract surgery alone. After adjusting for age, pseudoexfoliation, small pupil, prior ocular surgery, and anterior chamber depth, we found that glaucoma cases were more likely to have posterior capsular tear with vitrectomy (odds ratio [OR] 1.8, P = .03) and sulcus intraocular lens placement (OR 1.65, P = .03) during cataract surgery. Glaucoma cases were more likely to have postoperative inflammation (OR 1.73, P < .0001), prolonged elevated intraocular pressure (OR 2.96, P = .0003), and additional surgery within 30 days (OR 1.92, P = .03). Mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ) scores significantly improved after cataract surgery in both groups (P < .0001), but there were larger improvements in BCVA (P = .01) and VFQ composite scores (P < .0001) in the nonglaucoma vs the glaucoma group. A total of 3621 nonglaucoma cases (94.1%) had postoperative BCVA 20/40 or better, compared to 466 glaucoma cases (89.6%) (P = .0003). CONCLUSIONS: Eyes with glaucoma are at increased risk for complications and have more modest visual outcomes after cataract surgery compared to eyes without glaucoma. Despite this, glaucoma patients still experience significant improvement in vision-related outcomes after cataract extraction. Further study is needed to explore potential factors that influence cataract surgery outcomes in glaucomatous eyes.

Turalba A, Cakiner-Egilmez T, Payal AR, Gonzalez-Gonzalez LA, Chomsky AS, Vollman DE, Baze EF, Lawrence MG, Daly MK. Outcomes after cataract surgery in eyes with pseudoexfoliation: Results from the Veterans Affairs Ophthalmic Surgery Outcomes Data Project. Can J Ophthalmol 2017;52(1):61-68.Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical outcomes of cataract surgery in eyes with and without pseudoexfoliation (PXF). DESIGN: Retrospective deidentified data analysis. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 123 PXF and 4776 non-PXF eyes of patients who underwent cataract surgery. METHODS: We compared data on visual acuity, Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ)-based quality of life, and complications in PXF and non-PXF eyes from the Veterans Affairs (VA) Ophthalmic Surgery Outcomes Data Project across 5 VA medical centres. RESULTS: Pupillary expansion devices were used in 31 (25.2%) PXF cases and 398 (8.4%) non-PXF cases (p < 0.0001). Capsular tension rings were used in 6 (4.9%) PXF cases and 55 (1.2%) non-PXF cases (p < 0.004). The following complications occurred more frequently in PXF cases: zonular dehiscence without vitrectomy (4 [3.3%] PXF cases vs 40 [0.8%] non-PXF cases p = 0.02), persistent inflammation (28 [24.1%] vs 668 [14.5%]; p = 0.007), and persistent intraocular pressure elevation (5 [4.3%] vs 68 [1.5%]; p = 0.03). Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved in both groups after 1 month, but 87 (83.7%) PXF cases achieved postoperative BCVA better than or equal to 20/40 compared to 3991 (93.8%) non-PXF cases (p = 0.0003). There was no significant difference in the postoperative composite VFQ scores between PXF (82.1 ± 16.9) and non-PXF cases (84.2 ± 16.8, p = 0.09). CONCLUSIONS: Several complications occurred more frequently in the PXF group compared to the non-PXF group, and fewer PXF cases achieved BCVA better than or equal to 20/40. Despite this, both groups experienced similar improvement in vision-related quality of life after cataract surgery.

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Wilson ME, O'Halloran H, VanderVeen D, Roarty J, Plager DA, Markwardt K, Gedif K, Lambert SR. Difluprednate versus prednisolone acetate for inflammation following cataract surgery in pediatric patients: a randomized safety and efficacy study. Eye (Lond) 2016;30(9):1187-94.Abstract

PurposeTo evaluate safety and efficacy of difluprednate 0.05% ophthalmic emulsion for treatment of postoperative inflammation after cataract surgery in pediatric patients.MethodsThis was a phase 3B, multicentre, randomized, double-masked, active-controlled study of patients aged 0-3 years who underwent uncomplicated cataract surgery in one eye, with/without intraocular lens implantation. Patients were randomized to receive difluprednate 0.05% four times daily or prednisolone acetate 1% for 14 days post surgery, followed by tapering for 14 days. Safety included evaluation of adverse events. Primary efficacy was the proportion of patients with an anterior cell grade of 0 (no cells) at day 14; secondary efficacy was a global inflammation score.ResultsForty patients were randomized to each treatment group. Adverse drug reactions included corneal oedema (difluprednate 0.5%, n=1; prednisolone acetate 1%, n=0) and increased intraocular pressure or ocular hypertension (n=2/group). Mean intraocular pressure values during treatment were 2-3 mm Hg higher with difluprednate 0.05% compared with prednisolone acetate 1%; mean values were similar between groups by the first week after treatment cessation. At 2 weeks post surgery, the incidence of complete clearing of anterior chamber cells was similar between groups (difluprednate 0.05%, n=30 (78.9%); prednisolone acetate 1%, n=31 (77.5%). Compared with prednisolone acetate 1%, approximately twice as many difluprednate 0.05%-treated patients had a global inflammation assessment score indicating no inflammation on day 1 (n=12 (30.8%) vs n=7 (17.5%) and day 8 (n=18 (48.7%) vs n=10 (25.0%).ConclusionsDifluprednate 0.05% four times daily showed safety and efficacy profiles similar to prednisolone acetate 1% four times daily in children 0-3 years undergoing cataract surgery.

Witkin AJ, Shah AR, Engstrom RE, Kron-Gray MM, Baumal CR, Johnson MW, Witkin DI, Leung J, Albini TA, Moshfeghi AA, Batlle IR, Sobrin L, Eliott D. Postoperative Hemorrhagic Occlusive Retinal Vasculitis: Expanding the Clinical Spectrum and Possible Association with Vancomycin. Ophthalmology 2015;122(7):1438-51.Abstract

PURPOSE: To describe a syndrome of hemorrhagic occlusive retinal vasculitis (HORV) that developed after seemingly uncomplicated cataract surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SUBJECTS: Eleven eyes of 6 patients from 6 different institutions. METHODS: Cases were identified after discussion among retina specialists. The findings on presentation, clinical course, and outcome of a series of 7 eyes of 4 patients were compared with a previous report of 4 eyes of 2 patients, and data from both series were combined for a comprehensive analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Historical data, examination findings, imaging results, systemic evaluation findings, treatment regimens, and visual outcomes. RESULTS: Eleven eyes of 6 patients underwent otherwise uncomplicated cataract surgery, receiving viscoelastic and prophylactic intracameral vancomycin during the procedure. Despite good initial vision on postoperative day 1, between 1 to 14 days after surgery, all eyes demonstrated painless vision loss resulting from HORV. Extensive ocular and systemic evaluations were unrevealing in all patients. All patients were treated with aggressive systemic and topical corticosteroids. Additional treatments included systemic antiviral medication in 4 patients, intravitreal antibiotics in 4 eyes, and pars plana vitrectomy in 4 eyes. Skin testing for vancomycin sensitivity showed negative results in 3 patients and was not performed in the others. Neovascular glaucoma developed in 7 eyes, and all eyes received intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injection, panretinal photocoagulation, or both for retinal ischemia. Final visual acuity was less than 20/100 in 8 of 11 eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative HORV is an exceedingly rare and potentially devastating condition that can occur after otherwise uncomplicated cataract surgery. Although the precise cause remains unknown, this disease may represent a delayed immune reaction similar to vancomycin-induced leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Despite treatment with high-dose corticosteroids, antiviral medication, and early vitrectomy in many patients, visual outcomes typically were poor in this series. Early intervention with intravitreal anti-VEGF medication and panretinal photocoagulation may help to prevent additional vision loss resulting from neovascular glaucoma.

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Yiu G, Marra KV, Wagley S, Krishnan S, Sandhu H, Kovacs K, Kuperwaser M, Arroyo JG. Surgical outcomes after epiretinal membrane peeling combined with cataract surgery. Br J Ophthalmol 2013;97(9):1197-201.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare functional and anatomical outcomes after idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) peeling combined with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation versus ERM peeling alone. METHODS: A retrospective, non-randomised comparative case series study was conducted of 81 eyes from 79 patients who underwent ERM peeling at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center between 2001 and 2010. Eyes that underwent combined surgery for ERM and cataracts (group 1) were compared with those that had ERM peeling alone (group 2) with respect to best-corrected visual acuity at 6 months and 1 year after surgery, postoperative central macular thickness (CMT) as measured on optical coherence tomography, and rates of complications, including elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), ERM recurrence and need for reoperation. RESULTS: Mean logMAR visual acuity improved significantly in both groups at 6 months (p<0.001) and 1 year (p<0.001) after surgery. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in visual acuity improvement at 6 months (p=0.108) or 1 year (p=0.094). Mean CMT of both groups also significantly decreased after surgery (p=0.002), with no statistical difference in CMT reduction between the two groups, but a trend toward less CMT reduction in group 1 (p=0.061). The rates of complications, including IOP elevation, ERM recurrence and frequency of reoperation, were similar in the two groups, with non-statistical trends toward greater ERM recurrence (p=0.084) and need for reoperation (p=0.096) in those that had combined surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Combined surgery for ERMs and cataracts may potentially be as effective as membrane peeling alone with respect to visual and anatomical outcomes. Further studies are necessary to determine if there may be greater ERM recurrence or need for reoperation after combined surgery.

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