Pediatric Ophthalmology

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Escuder AG, Kazlas MA, Heidary G, Hunter DG, Zurakowski D, Dagi LR. Incidence of symptomatic vertical and torsional diplopia after superior rectus transposition for esotropic Duane syndrome and abducens nerve palsy. J AAPOS 2020;Abstract
PURPOSE: To report the incidence of symptomatic vertical and torsional diplopia after superior rectus transposition (SRT) for esotropic Duane syndrome and abducens nerve palsy. METHODS: The medical records of patients with esotropic Duane syndrome or abducens nerve palsy seen at Boston Children's Hospital (2006-2018) and treated with unilateral SRT with or without augmentation was performed. The primary outcome was incidence of postoperative vertical or torsional diplopia in primary position. The secondary outcome was induced vertical deviation in affected side gaze. RESULTS: A total of 69 patients met inclusion criteria: 32 with abducens nerve palsy and 37 with esotropic Duane syndrome. Vertical alignment changed in both hyper- and hypotropic directions. Median pre- and postoperative vertical deviation in primary gaze was 1.1 (10th-90th percentile, 0-6 hypertropia) and 0.4 (10th-90th percentile, 6 hypotropia to 8 hypertropia), respectively. Postoperative vertical diplopia occurred in 7%, including 4 of 49 treated with loop myopexy (8%), 1 of 13 without augmentation (8%), and 0 of 7 treated with sclera-fixated augmentation. All but one was successfully treated with prism or secondary surgery. Intorsional change predominated, but no patient had torsional diplopia post adjustment. Vertical misalignment in affected side gaze increased from 19% to 45% after SRT (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this largest-to-date review of patients treated with SRT, with or without MR recession, no patient developed persistent torsional diplopia, while 7% developed symptomatic vertical diplopia in primary position, similar to the reported incidence after balanced vertical rectus transposition. Vertical misalignment in affected side gaze increased, however fusion is already limited by unresolved esotropia in this field.
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Falcone MM, Hunter DG, Gaier ED. Emerging therapies for amblyopia. Semin Ophthalmol 2021;:1-7.Abstract
Traditional therapies to treat amblyopia, such as optical correction or occlusion/penalization of the non-amblyopic eye, are efficacious but are not without limitations such as poor adherence and decreased success with increasing age. Recently, there has been an interest in new amblyopia therapies, some using binocular techniques, through a variety of platforms including video games, movies, and virtual reality. Overall, available efficacy results for these treatments are highly variable.
Fu Z, Meng SS, Burnim SB, Smith LEH, Lo AC. Lutein facilitates physiological revascularization in a mouse model of retinopathy of prematurity. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017;45(5):529-538.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity is one of the leading causes of childhood blindness worldwide, with vessel growth cessation and vessel loss in phase I followed by neovascularization in phase II. Ischaemia contributes to its pathogenesis, and lutein protects against ischaemia-induced retinal damages. We aimed to investigate the effects of lutein on a murine model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. METHODS: Mouse pups were exposed to 75% oxygen for 5 days and returned to room air for another 5 days. Vascular obliteration, neovascularization and blood vessel leakage were examined. Immunohistochemistry for glial cells and microglia were performed. RESULTS: Compared with vehicle controls, mouse pups receiving lutein treatment displayed smaller central vaso-obliterated area and reduced blood vessel leakage. No significant difference in neovascular area was found between lutein and vehicle controls. Lutein promoted endothelial tip cell formation and maintained the astrocytic template in the avascular area in oxygen-induced retinopathy. No significant changes in Müller cell gliosis and microglial activation in the central avascular area were found in lutein-treated pups. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations indicated that lutein significantly promoted normal retinal vascular regrowth in the central avascular area, possibly through promoting endothelial tip cell formation and preserving astrocytic template. Our results indicated that lutein might be considered as a supplement for the treatment of proliferative retinopathy of prematurity because of its role in facilitating the revascularization of normal vasculature.
Fu Z, Löfqvist CA, Liegl R, Wang Z, Sun Y, Gong Y, Liu C-H, Meng SS, Burnim SB, Arellano I, Chouinard MT, Duran R, Poblete A, Cho SS, Akula JD, Kinter M, Ley D, Hansen Pupp I, Talukdar S, Hellström A, Smith LEH. Photoreceptor glucose metabolism determines normal retinal vascular growth. EMBO Mol Med 2018;10(1):76-90.Abstract
The neural cells and factors determining normal vascular growth are not well defined even though vision-threatening neovessel growth, a major cause of blindness in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (and diabetic retinopathy), is driven by delayed normal vascular growth. We here examined whether hyperglycemia and low adiponectin (APN) levels delayed normal retinal vascularization, driven primarily by dysregulated photoreceptor metabolism. In premature infants, low APN levels correlated with hyperglycemia and delayed retinal vascular formation. Experimentally in a neonatal mouse model of postnatal hyperglycemia modeling early ROP, hyperglycemia caused photoreceptor dysfunction and delayed neurovascular maturation associated with changes in the APN pathway; recombinant mouse APN or APN receptor agonist AdipoRon treatment normalized vascular growth. APN deficiency decreased retinal mitochondrial metabolic enzyme levels particularly in photoreceptors, suppressed retinal vascular development, and decreased photoreceptor platelet-derived growth factor (Pdgfb). APN pathway activation reversed these effects. Blockade of mitochondrial respiration abolished AdipoRon-induced Pdgfb increase in photoreceptors. Photoreceptor knockdown of Pdgfb delayed retinal vascular formation. Stimulation of the APN pathway might prevent hyperglycemia-associated retinal abnormalities and suppress phase I ROP in premature infants.
Furutani E, Shah AS, Zhao Y, Andorsky D, Dedeoglu F, Geddis A, Zhou Y, Libermann TA, Myers KC, Shimamura A. Inflammatory manifestations in patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome: A novel phenotype. Am J Med Genet A 2020;182(7):1754-1760.Abstract
Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by exocrine pancreatic dysfunction, bone marrow failure, and leukemia predisposition. Approximately 90% of cases are due to biallelic mutations in the Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond (SBDS) gene. Additional phenotypic features variably associated with SDS include skeletal, neurologic, hepatic, cardiac, endocrine, and dental abnormalities. We report five subjects with SDS who developed a range of inflammatory manifestations. Three patients developed inflammatory eye conditions. Single cases of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis, and scleroderma were also noted. Clinical presentation and treatment responses are described. Proteomic analysis revealed increased inflammatory signatures in SDS subjects as compared to controls. Treatment of inflammatory manifestations in patients with SDS may be complicated by potential myelosuppressive toxicities of anti-rheumatic medications. Further research is needed to better understand the potential link between inflammatory disorders and SDS to inform effective treatment strategies.
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Gaier ED, Heidary G. Pediatric Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension. Semin Neurol 2019;39(6):704-710.Abstract
The presentation of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) in pediatric populations has several important distinctions from that in adults, especially among prepubertal patients, in which there is no apparent association with gender or obesity. Pediatric patients are more likely to be asymptomatic or present with atypical symptoms than their adult counterparts, posing a diagnostic challenge in some cases. It is important to be aware of the ways in which diagnostic criteria for IIH are modified from that of adults. Ideal treatment practices and the natural history of pediatric IIH remain unclear. Acetazolamide is the mainstay of medical treatment, but some patients with significant visual loss may require surgical intervention. Multicenter studies to accrue a large number of cases and future prospective studies will help to better define pediatric IIH and to formulate consensus guidelines for treatment and management of these patients.
Geffrey AL, Geenen KR, Abati E, Greenstein SH, VanderVeen DK, Levy RL, Davidson SL, McGarrey MP, Thiele EA, Aronow ME. Juvenile cataract in association with tuberous sclerosis complex. Ophthalmic Genet 2020;41(4):345-349.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by benign hamartomas occurring in multiple organ systems including the brain, kidneys, heart, lungs, liver, skin, and the eyes. Typical retinal findings associated with TSC include astrocytic hamartoma and achromic patch. While rare cases of cataract occurring in the setting of TSC have been reported, this is the first analysis of a large series of individuals with TSC that aims to quantify the frequency of this finding and to describe its clinical and genetic associations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of 244 patients from the Herscot Center for Tuberous Sclerosis Complex at the Massachusetts General Hospital who underwent complete ophthalmic examination. We describe the clinical and genetic findings in five individuals with TSC and juvenile cataract. RESULTS: Four of five cases (80%) were unilateral. The cataract was described as having an anterior subcapsular component in 3 of 5 cases (60%). Three individuals (60%) underwent lensectomy with intraocular lens (IOL) implant and two individuals (40%) were observed. Genetic testing revealed a known disease-causing mutation in in 100% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Recent evidence suggests that mTOR signaling may play a role in cataract formation which could explain the relatively high incidence of juvenile cataract in this population. Juvenile cataract is a potentially under-recognized ocular manifestation of TSC.
Gilbert AL, Hunter DG. Duane syndrome with prominent oculo-auricular phenomenon. J AAPOS 2017;21(2):165-167.Abstract

Duane syndrome is a congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder involving absent or anomalous innervation of the lateral and medial rectus muscles that is sometimes associated with other manifestations of dysinnervation. We describe a patient with right esotropic Duane syndrome with a long-standing retroauricular tugging sensation in right gaze who was noted to have prominent ipsilateral oculo-auricular phenomenon, representing either abnormal enhancement of existing innervation or an uncommon dysinnervation. After successful strabismus surgery the tugging sensation improved but the phenomenon could still be elicited.

Gilbert AL, Koo EB, Heidary G. Evaluation and Management of Acute Acquired Comitant Esotropia in Children. Semin Ophthalmol 2017;32(1):8-13.Abstract

Acute acquired comitant esotropia (AACE) is characterized by a sudden-onset eye misalignment with an equal angle of deviation in all fields of gaze. This form of esotropia is distinct from common forms of childhood esotropia, such as infantile esotropia and accommodative esotropia, in the rapid tempo and typically later timing of onset; further, AACE is distinct from restrictive or paretic strabismus, which usually results in an incomitant angle of deviation that varies with the direction of gaze. The underlying etiologies for AACE are broad but, in some cases, it may be associated with significant neurologic disease. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine and summarize the current literature on AACE to provide a framework for the evaluation and management of this form of acquired strabismus.

Gilbert AL, Heidary G. Update on the evaluation of pediatric idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2016;Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Papilledema associated with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) may result in irreversible, progressive visual loss. The development of tools for the evaluation of pediatric patients with IIH is particularly relevant as many patients may not be able to comply with the detailed clinical evaluation utilized in adults for the treatment and management of this disease. The purpose of this review is to summarize relevant articles on the diagnostic tools used in evaluation and management of pediatric IIH. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies suggest that characteristic pediatric IIH MRI findings include empty sella turcica, decreased pituitary gland size, optic nerve tortuosity, perioptic subarachnoid space enlargement, posterior globe flattering, and intraocular protrusion of the optic nerve head. On optical coherence tomography (OCT), increased retinal nerve fiber layer and macular thickness may be observed in children with IIH compared with controls. The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness seems to coincide with the severity of papilledema and may be more sensitive than funduscopy for detecting optic nerve head elevation. Research on ultrasound of the optic nerve shows increased size of the optic nerve sheath diameter in pediatric IIH patients, and this may correlate with increased opening pressure on lumbar puncture. SUMMARY: There appears to be characteristic findings on MRI, OCT, and ultrasound studies in pediatric IIH patients. Although ultrasound is rarely used for monitoring these patients nowadays, MRI and OCT can be useful in the evaluation and management of these individuals.

Gise RA, Heidary G. Update on Pediatric Optic Neuritis. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2020;20(3):4.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on advances in the understanding of pediatric demyelinating optic neuritis. RECENT FINDINGS: In the past decade, the disease phenotypes for demyelinating syndromes in children have been more clearly defined. Pediatric optic neuritis may present as a clinically isolated syndrome or in the setting of underlying neurologic disease. In addition to optic neuritis associated with multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica, recent work has identified antibodies to the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG IgG) as a unique demyelinating cause with distinct features regarding treatment and prognosis. The disease phenotypes for demyelinating pediatric optic neuritis have expanded. Treatment strategies vary and are not universally effective for each cause of demyelinating disease. Accurately distinguishing among these unique clinical syndromes is therefore critical for initiation of appropriate treatment to prevent disability, to maximize visual outcomes, and to provide insight into long-term prognosis.
Gise R, Gaier ED, Heidary G. Diagnosis and Imaging of Optic Nerve Head Drusen. Semin Ophthalmol 2019;:1-8.Abstract
The presence of optic nerve swelling in pediatric patients is a frequent cause for referral to pediatric ophthalmologists and neuro-ophthalmologists because this finding can be the harbinger of serious neurologic disease including brain tumor, demyelinating disease, infiltrative disease of the optic nerve, or idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) are common and can be particularly difficult to distinguish from true optic nerve swelling in pediatric patients because the ONHD are typically buried beneath the substance of the optic nerve. Correct identification of ONHD is relevant because of the visual morbidity associated with this condition and because of the need to distinguish pseudopapilledema secondary to ONHD from true optic nerve swelling. A variety of imaging modalities may be employed to evaluate for the presence of ONHD, including ultrasound, optical coherence tomography (OCT), enhanced depth imaging-OCT, fluorescein angiography, fundus autofluorescence, and optical coherence tomography angiography. To date, there is no consensus as to which of these techniques is most accurate and which should be part of a standardized evaluation for children suspected of ONHD. This review examines the recent literature analyzing these diagnostic tools and summarizes data regarding best practices for identifying ONHD.
Gise R, Elhusseiny AM, Scelfo C, Mantagos IS. Mycoplasma Pneumoniae-Induced Rash and Mucositis: A Longitudinal Perspective and Proposed Management Criteria. Am J Ophthalmol 2020;219:351-356.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the natural history and ophthalmologic morbidity of Mycoplasma pneumoniae-induced rash and mucositis (MIRM) and propose a treatment algorithm. DESIGN: Retrospective, interventional case series. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all MIRM patients examined by the department of ophthalmology at a tertiary children's hospital. Diagnosis was established clinically concomitant with either positive Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM or PCR testing from January 1, 2010, until December 31, 2019. The main outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity, long-term ocular sequelae, and duration and type of ophthalmic intervention. RESULTS: There were 15 patients (10 male and 5 female) aged 10.9 ± 4.2 years who had primary episodes of MIRM; of those, 4 had multiple episodes. All patients required topical steroid treatment, 3 required amniotic membrane transplantation, and 1 patient underwent placement of a sutureless biologic corneal badage device. There were no patients who suffered visual loss, but 1 was left with mild symblephara near the lateral canthus in each eye and 2 others had scarring of the eyelid margins and blepharitis. CONCLUSIONS: The ocular morbidity is significantly less in MIRM than in other closely related syndromes such as erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. However, these patients still require close observation and a low threshold for intervention to avoid permanent ophthalmic sequelae and possible blindness.
Gjerde H, Mantagos IS. Charting the Globe: How Technologies Have Affected Our Understanding of Retinal Findings in Abusive Head Trauma/Shaken Baby Syndrome. Semin Ophthalmol 2021;:1-5.Abstract
Ocular findings such as retinal hemorrhages are common in abusive head trauma (AHT). Binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy has been the standard for assessing the eyes of children who are victims of AHT. However, technological advances have changed our understanding of retinal findings in AHT. Literature review on AHT - retinal findings, imaging technologies, models of representation, and telemedicine applications. Many studies suggest vitreoretinal traction from repetitive acceleration-deceleration shearing forces during shaking plays an important role in the development of retinal findings in AHT. This is further supported by different imaging modalities [optical coherence tomography (OCT); magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); fluorescein angiography (FA)] and models of representation (animal and mechanical models; finite element analysis). Emerging technologies have augmented our diagnostic abilities, enhanced our understanding regarding the pathophysiology of retinal findings, and strengthened the link between vitreoretinal traction and ocular pathology in AHT. Telemedicine is also starting to play an important role in AHT.
Gong Y, Fu Z, Liegl R, Chen J, Hellström A, Smith LEH. ω-3 and ω-6 long-chain PUFAs and their enzymatic metabolites in neovascular eye diseases. Am J Clin Nutr 2017;106(1):16-26.Abstract
Neovascular eye diseases, including retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, threaten the visual health of children and adults. Current treatment options, including anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy and laser retinal photocoagulation, have limitations and are associated with adverse effects; therefore, the identification of additional therapies is highly desirable. Both clinical and experimental studies show that dietary ω-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) reduce retinal and choroidal angiogenesis. The ω-3 LC-PUFA metabolites from 2 groups of enzymes, cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases, inhibit [and the ω-6 (n-6) LC-PUFA metabolites promote] inflammation and angiogenesis. However, both of the ω-3 and the ω-6 lipid products of cytochrome P450 oxidase 2C promote neovascularization in both the retina and choroid, which suggests that inhibition of this pathway might be beneficial. This review summarizes our current understanding of the roles of ω-3 and ω-6 LC-PUFAs and their enzymatic metabolites in neovascular eye diseases.
Gradstein L, Hansen RM, Cox GF, Altschwager P, Fulton AB. Progressive retinal degeneration in a girl with Knobloch syndrome who presented with signs of ocular albinism. Doc Ophthalmol 2017;134(2):135-140.Abstract

PURPOSE: We report for the first time electroretinographic (ERG) evidence of progressive retinal abnormalities in a girl who presented in infancy with ocular features of albinism and gradually developed choroidal sclerosis and patchy retinal atrophy leading to a diagnosis of Knobloch syndrome (KS, OMIM 267750, COL18A1). METHODS: At age 2 months, nystagmus and esotropia prompted ophthalmic evaluation. The appearance of choroidal sclerosis and atrophic retinal patches led to further evaluation at age 8 years. Genetics consultation was obtained in infancy and again at age 8 years as retinal findings evolved. Full field ERG responses in both scotopic and photopic conditions were recorded at both ages and compared to those in healthy control subjects. RESULTS: At age 2 months ERG response parameters were within normal limits for age and tyrosinase (TYR) gene sequencing revealed one novel mutation, p.S466F, and the temperature-sensitive polymorphism, p.R402Q, suggesting the diagnosis of oculocutaneous albinism type 1 (OCA1). At age 8 years, there was significant attenuation of both scotopic and photopic ERG responses. Genetic re-analysis led to the identification of a homozygous mutation, c.3213dupC, in the COL18A1 gene, thus confirming the diagnosis of Knobloch syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Our patient with Knobloch syndrome developed abnormal ERG responses similar to those found in col18a1 knockout mice. Thus, we have documented progressive attenuation of the scotopic and photopic responses in KS.

for the Group WCPEDI, Pineles SL, Repka MX, Liu GT, Waldman AT, Borchert MS, Khanna S, Heidary G, Graves JS, Shah VS, Kupersmith MJ, Kraker RT, Wallace DK, Cotter SA, Holmes JM. Assessment of Pediatric Optic Neuritis Visual Acuity Outcomes at 6 Months. JAMA Ophthalmol 2020;Abstract
Importance: Optic neuritis (ON) in children is uncommon. There are limited prospective data for visual acuity (VA) outcomes, associated diseases, and neuroimaging findings. Prospective data from a large sample would be useful for counseling families on treatment decisions and prognosis. Objective: To prospectively study children with a first episode of ON, describe VA after 6 months, and ascertain the network's (Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group and Neuro-Ophthalmology Research Disease Investigator Consortium) ability to enroll pediatric patients with ON prospectively. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nonrandomized cohort study was conducted from September 20, 2016, to July 20, 2018, at 23 sites in the United States and Canada in pediatric ophthalmology or neuro-ophthalmology clinics. A total of 44 children (aged 3-15 years) presented with a first episode of ON (visual loss, pain on eye movements, or both) within 2 weeks of symptom onset and at least 1 of the following in the affected eye: a distance high-contrast VA (HCVA) deficit of at least 0.2 logMAR below age-based norms, diminished color vision, abnormal visual field, or optic disc swelling. Exclusion criteria included preexisting ocular abnormalities or a previous episode of ON. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were monocular HCVA and low-contrast VA at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were neuroimaging, associated diagnoses, and antibodies for neuromyelitis optica and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. Results: A total of 44 children (mean age [SD], 10.2 [3.5] years; 26 boys [59%]; 23 White individuals [52%]; 54 eyes) were enrolled in the study. Sixteen patients (36%) had bilateral ON. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed white matter lesions in 23 children (52%). Of these children, 8 had myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-associated demyelination (18%), 7 had acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (16%), 5 had multiple sclerosis (11%), and 3 had neuromyelitis optica (7%). The baseline mean HCVA was 0.95 logMAR (20/200), which improved by a mean 0.76 logMAR (95% CI, 0.54-0.99; range, -0.70 to 1.80) to 0.12 logMAR (20/25) at 6 months. The baseline mean distance low-contrast VA was 1.49 logMAR (20/640) and improved by a mean 0.72 logMAR (95% CI, 0.54-0.89; range, -0.20 to 1.50) to 0.73 logMAR (20/100) at 6 months. Baseline HCVA was worse in younger participants (aged <10 years) with associated neurologic autoimmune diagnoses, white matter lesions, and in those of non-White race and non-Hispanic ethnicity. The data did not suggest a statistically significant association between baseline factors and improvement in HCVA. Conclusions and Relevance: The study network did not reach its targeted enrollment of 100 pediatric patients with ON over 2 years. This indicates that future treatment trials may need to use different inclusion criteria or plan a longer enrollment period to account for the rarity of the disease. Despite poor VA at presentation, most children had marked improvement by 6 months. Associated neurologic autoimmune diagnoses were common. These findings can be used to counsel families about the disease.
Grundy SJ, Tshering L, Wanjala SW, Diamond MB, Audi MS, Prasad S, Shinohara RT, Rogo D, Wangmo D, Wangdi U, Aarayang A, Tshering T, Burke TF, Mateen FJ. Retinal Parameters as Compared with Head Circumference, Height, Weight, and Body Mass Index in Children in Kenya and Bhutan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018;99(2):482-488.Abstract
The retina shares embryological derivation with the brain and may provide a new measurement of overall growth status, especially useful in resource-limited settings. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides detailed quantification of retinal structures. We enrolled community-dwelling children ages 3-11 years old in Siaya, Kenya and Thimphu, Bhutan in 2016. We measured head circumference (age < 5 years only), height, and weight, and standardized these by age and gender. Research staff performed OCT (; Optovue, Inc., Fremont, CA), measuring the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) thicknesses. A neuro-ophthalmologist performed quality control for centration, motion artifact, and algorithm-derived quality scores. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the relationship between anthropometric and retinal measurements. Two hundred and fifty-eight children (139 females, average age 6.4 years) successfully completed at least one retinal scan, totaling 1,048 scans. Nine hundred and twenty-two scans (88.0%) were deemed usable. Fifty-three of the 258 children (20.5%) were able to complete all six scans. Kenyan children had a thinner average GCC ( < 0.001) than Bhutanese children after adjustment for age and gender, but not RNFL ( = 0.70). In models adjusting for age, gender, and study location, none of standardized height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were statistically significantly associated with RNFL or GCC. We determined that OCT is feasible in some children in resource-limited settings, particularly those > 4 years old, using the device. We found no evidence for GCC or RNFL as a proxy for height-, weight-, or BMI-for-age. The variation in mean GCC thickness in Asian versus African children warrants further investigation.
Guerriero RM, Patel AA, Walsh B, Baumer FM, Shah AS, Peters JM, Rodan LH, Agrawal PB, Pearl PL, Takeoka M. Systemic Manifestations in Pyridox(am)ine 5'-Phosphate Oxidase Deficiency. Pediatr Neurol 2017;76:47-53.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Pyridoxine is converted to its biologically active form pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P) by the enzyme pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase and serves as a cofactor in nearly 200 reactions in the central nervous system. Pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency leads to P5P dependent epilepsy, typically a neonatal- or infantile-onset epileptic encephalopathy treatable with P5P or in some cases, pyridoxine. Following identification of retinopathy in a patient with pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency that was reversible with P5P therapy, we describe the systemic manifestations of pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency. METHODS: A series of six patients with homozygous mutations of PNPO, the gene coding pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase, were evaluated in our center over the course of two years for phenotyping of neurological and systemic manifestations. RESULTS: Five of six were born prematurely, three had anemia and failure to thrive, and two had elevated alkaline phosphatase. A movement disorder was observed in two children, and a reversible retinopathy was observed in the most severely affected infant. All patients had neonatal-onset epilepsy and were on a continuum of developmental delay to profound encephalopathy. Electroencephalographic features included background slowing and disorganization, absent sleep features, and multifocal and generalized epileptiform discharges. All the affected probands carried a homozygous PNPO mutation (c.674 G>T, c.686 G>A and c.352G>A). CONCLUSION: In addition to the well-described epileptic encephalopathy, pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency causes a range of neurological and systemic manifestations. A movement disorder, developmental delay, and encephalopathy, as well as retinopathy, anemia, and failure to thrive add to the broadening clinical spectrum of P5P dependent epilepsy.
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Hamad AE, Moinuddin O, Blair MP, Schechet SA, Shapiro MJ, Quiram PA, Mammo DA, Berrocal AM, Prakhunhungsit S, Cernichiaro-Espinosa LA, Mukai S, Yonekawa Y, Ung C, Holz ER, Harper AC, Young RC, Besirli CG, Nagiel A, Lee TC, Gupta MP, Walsh MK, Khawly JA, Campbell PJ, Kychenthal A, Nudleman ED, Robinson JE, Hartnett ME, Calvo CM, Chang EY. Late-Onset Retinal Findings and Complications in Untreated Retinopathy of Prematurity. Ophthalmol Retina 2020;4(6):602-612.Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate late retinal findings and complications of eyes with a history of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) that did not meet treatment criteria and did not receive treatment during infancy. DESIGN: Retrospective, nonconsecutive, noncomparative, multicenter case series. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred sixty-three eyes of 186 patients. METHODS: Data were requested from multiple providers on premature patients with a history of ROP and no treatment during infancy who demonstrated late retinal findings or complications and included age, gender, gestational age and weight, zone and stage at infancy, visual acuity, current retina vascularization status, vitreous character, presence of peripheral retinal findings such as lattice retinal tears and detachments (RDs), retinoschisis, and fluorescein findings. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of RDs and factors conferring a higher risk of RDs. RESULTS: The average age was 34.5 years (range, 7-76 years), average gestational age was 26.6 weeks (range, 23-34 weeks), and average birth weight was 875 g (range, 425-1590 g). Findings included lattice in 196 eyes (54.0%), atrophic holes in 126 eyes (34.7%), retinal tears in 111 eyes (30.6%), RDs in 140 eyes (38.6 %), tractional retinoschisis in 44 eyes (11.9%), and visible vitreous condensation ridge-like interface in 112 eyes (30.5%). Fluorescein angiography (FA) was performed in 113 eyes, of which 59 eyes (52.2%) showed leakage and 16 eyes (14.2%) showed neovascularization. Incomplete vascularization posterior to zone 3 was common (71.6% of eyes). Retinal detachments were more likely in patients with a gestational age of 29 weeks or less (P < 0.05) and in eyes with furthest vascularization to posterior zone 2 eyes compared with zone 3 eyes (P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Eyes with ROP not meeting the treatment threshold during infancy showed various late retinal findings and complications, of which RDs were the most concerning. Complications were seen in all age groups, including patients born after the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Study. Contributing factors to RDs included atrophic holes within peripheral avascular retina, visible vitreous condensation ridge-like interface with residual traction, and premature vitreous syneresis. We recommend regular examinations and consideration of ultra-widefield FA examinations. Prospective studies are needed to explore the frequency of complications and benefit of prophylactic treatment and if eyes treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy are at risk of similar findings and complications.

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