Retinopathy of prematurity occurs because the retina of a preterm infant at birth is incompletely vascularized, and if the postnatal environment does not match the in utero environment that supported retinal development, the vessels and neural retina will not grow normally. Risk factors determined from many clinical studies and animal studies fall into 2 categories: prenatal factors and postnatal factors.
We present a case of bilateral ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum in 1-day-old girl and describe our surgical approach. The bands connecting the upper and lower eyelids of both eyes were severed using blunt scissors. Point bleeding at the cut bands stopped in 1-2 minutes, without the need for cauterization or compression. The patient was able to open her eyes shortly after the procedure, as she woke up from anesthesia. Examination under general anesthesia showed normal eye examination appropriate for age. Postoperatively, the patient maintained open palpebral fissures. Visual development over 3 years' follow-up was normal.
Importance: Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies are a novel treatment option in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Data on dosing, efficacy, and safety are insufficient. Objective: To investigate lower doses of anti-VEGF therapy with ranibizumab, a substance with a significantly shorter systemic half-life than the standard treatment, bevacizumab. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized, multicenter, double-blind, investigator-initiated trial at 9 academic medical centers in Germany compared ranibizumab doses of 0.12 mg vs 0.20 mg in infants with bilateral aggressive posterior ROP; ROP stage 1 with plus disease, 2 with plus disease, or 3 with or without plus disease in zone I; or ROP stage 3 with plus disease in posterior zone II. Patients were recruited between September 2014 and August 2016. Twenty infants were screened and 19 were randomized. Interventions: All infants received 1 baseline ranibizumab injection per eye. Reinjections were allowed in case of ROP recurrence after at least 28 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the number of infants who did not require rescue therapy at 24 weeks. Key secondary end points included time-to-event analyses, progression of physiologic vascularization, and plasma VEGF levels. Stages of ROP were photodocumented and reviewed by an expert committee. Results: Nineteen infants with ROP were enrolled (9 [47.4%] female; median [range] postmenstrual age at first treatment, 36.4 [34.7-39.7] weeks), 3 of whom died during the study (1 in the 0.12-mg group and 2 in the 0.20-mg group). Of the surviving infants, 8 (88.9%) (17 eyes [94.4%]) in the 0.12-mg group and 6 (85.7%) (13 eyes [92.9%]) in the 0.20-mg group did not require rescue therapy. Both ranibizumab doses were equally successful in controlling acute ROP (Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel analysis; odds ratio, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.26-13.49; P = .53). Physiologic intraretinal vascularization was superior in the 0.12-mg group. The VEGF plasma levels were not systematically altered in either group. Conclusions and Relevance: This pilot study demonstrates that ranibizumab is effective in controlling acute ROP and that 24% of the standard adult dose (0.12 mg) appears equally effective as 40% (0.20 mg). Superior vascularization of the peripheral retina with 0.12 mg of ranibizumab indicates that the lower dose may be favorable. Unchanged plasma VEGF levels point toward a limited systemic drug exposure after ranibizumab. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02134457 and clinicaltrialsregister.eu Identifier: 2013-002539-13.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To describe the design and baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in the multicenter, prospective natural history study of Stargardt disease type 4. METHODS: Fifteen eligible patients aged 6 years and older at baseline, harboring disease-causing variants in the PROM1 gene, and with specified ocular lesions were enrolled. They were examined at baseline using a standard protocol, with 6 monthly follow-up visits for a 2-year period including best-corrected ETDRS visual acuity, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), mesopic and scotopic microperimetry (MP). Areas of definitely decreased FAF (DDAF) and questionably decreased FAF were outlined and quantified on FAF images. RESULTS: Amongst the 15 patients (29 eyes) that were enrolled at 5 centers in the USA and Europe, 10 eyes (34.5%) had areas of DDAF with an average lesion area of 3.2 ± 3.5 mm2 (range 0.36-10.39 mm2) at baseline. The mean retinal sensitivity of the posterior pole derived from mesopic MP was 8.8 ± 5.8 dB. CONCLUSIONS: Data on disease progression in PROM1-related retinopathy from this study will contribute to the characterization of the natural history of disease and the exploration of the utility of several modalities to track progression and therefore to potentially be used in future interventional clinical trials.
The retina is one of the most metabolically active tissues in the body, consuming high levels of oxygen and nutrients. A well-organized ocular vascular system adapts to meet the metabolic requirements of the retina to ensure visual function. Pathological conditions affect growth of the blood vessels in the eye. Understanding the neuronal biological processes that govern retinal vascular development is of interest for translational researchers and clinicians to develop preventive and interventional therapeutics for vascular eye diseases that address early drivers of abnormal vascular growth. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the cellular and molecular processes governing both physiological and pathological retinal vascular development, which is dependent on the interaction among retinal cell populations, including neurons, glia, immune cells, and vascular endothelial cells. We also review animal models currently used for studying retinal vascular development.
We report a case of juvenile xanthogranuloma in a 12-month-old girl presenting with heterochromia, hyphema, and elevated intraocular pressure. This case demonstrates new ultrasound biomicroscopy iris findings of a generalized bumpy iris contour, suggesting diffuse heterogeneous involvement. This imaging finding has not been previously described. Untreated, iris juvenile xanthogranuloma may lead to corneal blood staining, glaucoma, and amblyopia. An understanding of the full range of ultrasound features of juvenile xanthogranuloma expands our appreciation for the clinical findings in this condition.
Testi I, Agrawal R, Mahajan S, Agarwal A, Gunasekeran DV, Raje D, Aggarwal K, Murthy SI, Westcott M, Chee S-P, McCluskey P, Ho SL, Teoh S, Cimino L, Biswas J, Narain S, Agarwal M, Mahendradas P, Khairallah M, Jones N, Tugal-Tutkun I, Babu K, Basu S, Carreño E, Lee R, Al-Dhibi H, Bodaghi B, Invernizzi A, Goldstein DA, Herbort CP, Barisani-Asenbauer T, González-López JJ, Androudi S, Bansal R, Moharana B, Esposti SD, Tasiopoulou A, Nadarajah S, Agarwal M, Abraham S, Vala R, Singh R, Sharma A, Sharma K, Zierhut M, Kon OM, Cunningham ET, Kempen JH, Nguyen QD, Pavesio C, Gupta V. The Collaborative Ocular Tuberculosis Study (COTS)-1: A Multinational Descriptive Review of Tubercular Uveitis in Paediatric Population. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2020;:1-7.Abstract
PURPOSE: To examine disease profile of tubercular uveitis (TBU) in Paediatric population. METHODS: Among 945 patients of the retrospective multinational study by the Collaborative Ocular Tuberculosis Study (COTS)-1, 29 Paediatric patients diagnosed with TBU were analyzed. RESULTS: Mean age of disease presentation was 12.8 (range 4-18 years), with predominance of males (n = 14/20; 70.0%) and Asian ethnicity (n = 25/29; 86.2%). Posterior uveitis (n = 14/28; 50%) was the most frequent uveitis phenotype, with choroidal involvement occurring in 64.7% (n = 11/17). Incidence of optic disc edema and macular edema was higher in children (n = 8/18; 44.4% and n = 5/18; 27.8%, respectively) than in adults (n = 160/942; 16.9% and n = 135/942; 14.3%, respectively). Comparison of optic disc edema between subgroups showed a significant difference (). All patients received oral corticosteroids, most of them with antitubercular therapy. Treatment failure developed in 4.8% (n = 1/21). CONCLUSIONS: Children have a more severe inflammatory response to the disease, and an intensive anti-inflammatory therapeutic regimen is required to achieve a positive treatment outcome.
A 13-year-old male with suprasellar cystic craniopharyngioma initially controlled with sequential subtotal resections and proton-beam irradiation was later treated with intracystic pegylated interferon α-2b due to progression and a lack of further surgical options. After initial successful control of recurrent cyst enlargement and stabilization of the ophthalmic examination, progressive and irreversible visual field loss ensued. Imaging revealed intracranial leakage from the intracystic catheter, and direct administration of interferon α-2b was discontinued. Given the recent interest in interferon α-2b, oncologists are advised to vigilantly monitor patients for signs of local toxicity that may result from unintended leakage during intracystic delivery.
Dural cerebral veins (CV) are required for cerebrospinal fluid reabsorption and brain homeostasis, but mechanisms that regulate their growth and remodeling are unknown. We report molecular and cellular processes that regulate dural CV development in mammals and describe venous malformations in humans with craniosynostosis and TWIST1 mutations that are recapitulated in mouse models. Surprisingly, Twist1 is dispensable in endothelial cells but required for specification of osteoprogenitor cells that differentiate into preosteoblasts that produce bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Inactivation of Bmp2 and Bmp4 in preosteoblasts and periosteal dura causes skull and CV malformations, similar to humans harboring TWIST1 mutations. Notably, arterial development appears normal, suggesting that morphogens from the skull and dura establish optimal venous networks independent from arterial influences. Collectively, our work establishes a paradigm whereby CV malformations result from primary or secondary loss of paracrine BMP signaling from preosteoblasts and dura, highlighting unique cellular interactions that influence tissue-specific angiogenesis in mammals.
An orbital neoplasm in children is an uncommon clinical finding. Clinical suspicion should be based on many factors, including its location, the nature of onset, associated systemic signs and symptoms, family and social histories, examination findings, and radiographic characteristics. We present two cases of young children of similar age with a rapid-onset orbital mass. In both cases, a circumscribed round lesion was found in the superomedial orbit. An orbital schwannoma, a benign and usually slow growing tumor, was found in the first patient. In contrast, the biopsy of the second patient, who was nearly asymptomatic, revealed a rhabdomyosarcoma. In this review, we have explored the differential diagnosis of relatively common circumscribed round orbital tumors in the pediatric population from both the radiographic (magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) and histopathologic perspectives. A review of highly unusual orbital tumors in children is also provided.
PURPOSE: To review the published evidence to evaluate the ability of orthokeratology (Ortho-K) treatment to reduce myopic progression in children and adolescents compared with the use of spectacles or daytime contact lenses for standard refractive correction. METHODS: Literature searches of the PubMed database, the Cochrane Library, and the databases of clinical trials were last conducted on August 21, 2018, with no date restrictions but limited to articles published in English. These searches yielded 162 citations, of which 13 were deemed clinically relevant for full-text review and inclusion in this assessment. The panel methodologist then assigned a level of evidence rating to the selected studies. RESULTS: The 13 articles selected for inclusion include 3 prospective, randomized clinical trials; 7 nonrandomized, prospective comparative studies; and 3 retrospective case series. One study provided level I evidence, 11 studies provided level II evidence, and 1 study provided level III evidence. Most studies were performed in populations of Asian ethnicity. Change in axial length was the primary outcome for 10 of 13 studies and change in refraction was the primary outcome for 3 of 13 studies. In these studies, Ortho-K typically reduced axial elongation by approximately 50% over a 2-year study period. This corresponds to average axial length change values of approximately 0.3 mm for Ortho-K patients compared with 0.6 mm for control patients, which corresponds to a typical difference in refraction of approximately 0.5 diopters (D). Younger age groups and individuals with larger than average pupil size may have a greater effect with Ortho-K. Rebound can occur after discontinuation or change to alternative refractive treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Orthokeratology may be effective in slowing myopic progression for children and adolescents, with a potentially greater effect when initiated at an early age (6-8 years). Safety remains a concern because of the risk of potentially blinding microbial keratitis from contact lens wear.
PURPOSE: To review the available evidence on the ocular safety and efficacy of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents for the treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) compared with laser photocoagulation therapy. METHODS: A literature search of the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases was conducted last on September 6, 2016, with no date restrictions and limited to articles published in English. This search yielded 311 citations, of which 37 were deemed clinically relevant for full-text review. Thirteen of these were selected for inclusion in this assessment. The panel methodologist assigned ratings to the selected articles according to the level of evidence. RESULTS: Of the 13 citations, 6 articles on 5 randomized clinical trials provided level II evidence supporting the use of anti-VEGF agents, either as monotherapy or in combination with laser therapy. The primary outcome for these articles included recurrence of ROP and the need for retreatment (3 articles), retinal structure (2 articles), and refractive outcome (1 article). Seven articles were comparative case series that provided level III evidence. The primary outcomes included the effects of anti-VEGF treatment on development of peripheral retinal vessels (1 article), refractive outcomes (1 article), or both structural and refractive or visual outcomes (5 articles). CONCLUSIONS: Current level II and III evidence indicates that intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy is as effective as laser photocoagulation for achieving regression of acute ROP. Although there are distinct ocular advantages to anti-VEGF pharmacotherapy for some cases (such as eyes with zone I disease or aggressive posterior ROP), the disadvantages are that the ROP recurrence rate is higher, and vigilant and extended follow-up is needed because retinal vascularization is usually incomplete. After intravitreal injection, bevacizumab can be detected in serum within 1 day, and serum VEGF levels are suppressed for at least 8 to 12 weeks. The effects of lowering systemic VEGF levels on the developing organ systems of premature infants are unknown, and there are limited long-term data on potential systemic and neurodevelopmental effects after anti-VEGF use for ROP treatment. Anti-VEGF agents should be used judiciously and with awareness of the known and unknown or potential side effects.
PURPOSE: To compare accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation formulae in infantile eyes with primary IOL implantation. DESIGN: Comparative case series. METHODS: The Hoffer Q, Holladay 1, Holladay 2, Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff (SRK) II, and Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff theoretic (SRK/T) formulae were used to calculate predicted postoperative refraction for eyes that received primary IOL implantation in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. The protocol targeted postoperative hyperopia of +6.0 or +8.0 diopters (D). Eyes were excluded for invalid biometry, lack of refractive data at the specified postoperative visit, diagnosis of glaucoma or suspected glaucoma, or sulcus IOL placement. Actual refraction 1 month after surgery was converted to spherical equivalent and prediction error (predicted refraction - actual refraction) was calculated. Baseline characteristics were analyzed for effect on prediction error for each formula. The main outcome measure was absolute prediction error. RESULTS: Forty-three eyes were studied; mean axial length was 18.1 ± 1.1 mm (in 23 eyes, it was <18.0 mm). Average age at surgery was 2.5 ± 1.5 months. Holladay 1 showed the lowest median absolute prediction error (1.2 D); a paired comparison of medians showed clinically similar results using the Holladay 1 and SRK/T formulae (median difference, 0.3 D). Comparison of the mean absolute prediction error showed the lowest values using the SRK/T formula (1.4 ± 1.1 D), followed by the Holladay 1 formula (1.7 ± 1.3 D). Calculations with an optimized constant showed the lowest values and no significant difference between the Holladay 1 and SRK/T formulae (median difference, 0.3 D). Eyes with globe AL of less than 18 mm had the largest mean and median prediction error and absolute prediction error, regardless of the formula used. CONCLUSIONS: The Holladay 1 and SRK/T formulae gave equally good results and had the best predictive value for infant eyes.
Children born very preterm are at greater risk of ophthalmic morbidities, including strabismus, than children born at term. We evaluated perinatal factors associated with strabismus at age 2 years in a large population of infants delivered before 28 weeks' gestation. A total of 996 infants in the multicenter ELGAN (Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn) study who had a retinal exam in infancy and a developmental assessment at 2 years corrected age are included. Their mothers were interviewed about the pregnancy, and both mother and newborn charts were reviewed. Certified examiners administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II and performed an examination of ocular alignment. Time-oriented logistic regression risk models were created to evaluate the associations of characteristics and exposures with the development of strabismus. Overall, 14% (n = 141) of the children had strabismus at 2 years, and 80% of strabismic children had esotropia. Characteristics associated with strabismus were birth before 26 weeks' gestation, severe fetal growth restriction, and maternal history of aspirin ingestion. Associated postnatal factors included a SNAP-II (Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology) illness severity value ≥30, brain ventriculomegaly, type I retinopathy of prematurity, and ventilator-dependent severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Strabismus in very preterm populations is associated with a number of antenatal and postnatal antecedents as well as clinical and imaging correlates indicative of brain damage in these children. Routine ophthalmologic assessments in the early years can allow appropriate and timely interventions.
OBJECTIVE: To report the accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) power calculations and the early refractive status in pseudophakic eyes of infants in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. METHODS: Eyes randomized to receive primary IOL implantation were targeted for a postoperative refraction of +8.0 diopters (D) for infants 28 to 48 days old at surgery and +6.0 D for those 49 days or older to younger than 7 months at surgery using the Holladay 1 formula. Refraction 1 month after surgery was converted to spherical equivalent, and prediction error (PE; defined as the calculated refraction minus the actual refraction) and absolute PE were calculated. Baseline eye and surgery characteristics and A-scan quality were analyzed to compare their effect on PE. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prediction error. RESULTS: Fifty-six eyes underwent primary IOL implantation; 7 were excluded for lack of postoperative refraction (n = 5) or incorrect technique in refraction (n = 1) or biometry (n = 1). Overall mean (SD) absolute PE was 1.8 (1.3) D and mean (SD) PE was +1.0 (2.0) D. Absolute PE was less than 1 D in 41% of eyes but greater than 2 D in 41% of eyes. Mean IOL power implanted was 29.9 D (range, 11.5-40.0 D); most eyes (88%) implanted with an IOL of 30.0 D or greater had less postoperative hyperopia than planned. Multivariate analysis revealed that only short axial length (<18 mm) was significant for higher PE. CONCLUSIONS: Short axial length correlates with higher PE after IOL placement in infants. Less hyperopia than anticipated occurs with axial lengths of less than 18 mm or high-power IOLs. Application to Clinical Practice Quality A-scans are essential and higher PE is common, with a tendency for less hyperopia than expected. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00212134.
OBJECTIVE: To identify nutritional and weight gain limitations associated with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) severity among very preterm newborns. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 1180 infants <28 weeks GA at birth with ROP examination results were grouped and analyzed by quartile of weekly total calorie, carbohydrate, protein, and lipid intake, as well as growth velocity between postnatal days 7 and 28 (adjusted for GA and birth weight Z-score). ROP was categorized by development of no, mild (
PURPOSE: To report outcomes of secondary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) SETTING:: Multicenter clinical practice DESIGN:: Secondary analysis of patients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial METHODS:: Details regarding all secondary IOL surgeries conducted in children enrolled in the IATS were compiled. We evaluated visual outcomes, refractive outcomes, and adverse events at age 10 ½ years. Comparisons were made to eyes that remained aphakic and to eyes randomized to primary IOL placement. RESULTS: 55/57 patients randomized to aphakia with contact lens correction were seen for the 10 ½ year study visit; 24/55 eyes (44%) had secondary IOL surgery. Median age at IOL surgery was 5.4 years (range 1.7 to 10.3 years). Mean absolute prediction error was 1.0 ± 0.7D. At age 10 ½ years, the median log MAR VA was 0.9 (range 0.2 to 1.7), similar to VA in the 31 eyes still aphakic (0.8, range 0.1 to 2.9); the number of eyes with stable or improved VA scores between the 4 ½ and 10 ½ year study visits was also similar (78% secondary IOL eyes, 84% aphakic eyes). For eyes undergoing IOL implantation after the 4.5 year study visit (n=22), the mean refraction at age 10 ½ years was -3.2 ±2.7D (range -9.9D to 1.1D), compared to -5.5 ±6.6 D (n=53, range -26.5 to 3.0D) in eyes with primary IOL (p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Delayed IOL implantation allows a more predictable refractive outcome at age 10 ½ years, though the range of refractive error is still large.
: To examine factors decreasing participation in school-based vision programs from parent and teacher perspectives.: We conducted 41 semi-structured focus groups (20 parent groups, 21 teacher/staff groups), at 10 Baltimore and 11 Chicago public elementary and middle schools offering school-based vision programs. School-based vision programs provided vision screening, eye exams, and eyeglasses if needed. Focus groups ranged in size from 2-9 participants (median = 5). Sessions were recorded, transcribed, and coded through an iterative process to develop themes using inductive analysis.: Ninety parents and 117 teachers/staff participated. Participants identified five major factors decreasing participation in school-based vision programs: (1) challenges with the consent form, including distribution, collection, and literacy and language barriers; (2) having existing eye care; (3) misunderstandings about the program, especially related to cost and insurance; (4) difficulty raising parental awareness of the program; and (5) certain attitudes towards vision, eye care, and school-based programs, including low prioritization of eye care, mistrust of the program, fear of sharing private information, not believing their child needs glasses, and reluctance accepting 'subsidized' services.: Parents and teachers identified important structural barriers to participation (i.e., consent form challenges and low parental awareness) and specific reasons for non-participation (i.e., attitudes, misunderstanding of the program, existing eye care) in school-based vision programs. Effective strategies are needed to facilitate return of consent forms and promote awareness of school-based vision programs among parents. Programs should also target services towards those currently without access to eye care and increase awareness about paediatric vision needs.
Importance: Intravitreous bevacizumab (0.25 to 0.625 mg) is increasingly used to treat type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), but there remain concerns about systemic toxicity. A much lower dose may be effective while reducing systemic risk. Objective: To find a dose of intravitreous bevacizumab that was lower than previously used for severe ROP, was effective in this study, and could be tested in future larger studies. Design, Setting, and Participants: Between May 2015 and September 2016, 61 premature infants with type 1 ROP in 1 or both eyes were enrolled in a masked, multicenter, phase 1 dose de-escalation study. One eye of 10 to 14 infants received 0.25 mg of intravitreous bevacizumab. If successful, the dose was reduced for the next group of infants (to 0.125 mg, then 0.063 mg, and finally 0.031 mg). Diluted bevacizumab was delivered using 300 µL syringes with 5/16-inch, 30-gauge fixed needles. Interventions: Bevacizumab injections at 0.25 mg, 0.125 mg, 0.063 mg, and 0.031 mg. Main Outcomes and Measures: Success was defined as improvement in preinjection plus disease or zone I stage 3 ROP by 5 days after injection or sooner, and no recurrence of type 1 ROP or severe neovascularization requiring additional treatment within 4 weeks. Results: Fifty-eight of 61 enrolled infants had 4-week outcomes completed; mean birth weight was 709 g and mean gestational age was 24.9 weeks. Success was achieved in 11 of 11 eyes at 0.25 mg, 14 of 14 eyes at 0.125 mg, 21 of 24 eyes at 0.063 mg, and 9 of 9 eyes at 0.031 mg. Conclusions and Relevance: A dose of bevacizumab as low as 0.031 mg was effective in 9 of 9 eyes in this phase 1 study and warrants further investigation. Identifying a lower effective dose of bevacizumab may reduce the risk for neurodevelopmental disability or detrimental effects on other organs.