Retina

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Gong Y, Fu Z, Edin ML, Liu C-H, Wang Z, Shao Z, Fredrick TW, Saba NJ, Morss PC, Burnim SB, Meng SS, Lih FB, Stephen Lee KS, Moran EP, SanGiovanni JP, Hellström A, Hammock BD, Zeldin DC, Smith LEH. Cytochrome P450 Oxidase 2C Inhibition Adds to ω-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Protection Against Retinal and Choroidal Neovascularization. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2016;36(9):1919-27.Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Pathological ocular neovascularization is a major cause of blindness. Increased dietary intake of ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) reduces retinal neovascularization and choroidal neovascularization (CNV), but ω-3 LCPUFA metabolites of a major metabolizing pathway, cytochrome P450 oxidase (CYP) 2C, promote ocular pathological angiogenesis. We hypothesized that inhibition of CYP2C activity will add to the protective effects of ω-3 LCPUFA on neovascular eye diseases. APPROACH AND RESULTS: The mouse models of oxygen-induced retinopathy and laser-induced CNV were used to investigate pathological angiogenesis in the retina and choroid, respectively. The plasma levels of ω-3 LCPUFA metabolites of CYP2C were determined by mass spectroscopy. Aortic ring and choroidal explant sprouting assays were used to investigate the effects of CYP2C inhibition and ω-3 LCPUFA-derived CYP2C metabolic products on angiogenesis ex vivo. We found that inhibition of CYP2C activity by montelukast added to the protective effects of ω-3 LCPUFA on retinal neovascularization and CNV by 30% and 20%, respectively. In CYP2C8-overexpressing mice fed a ω-3 LCPUFA diet, montelukast suppressed retinal neovascularization and CNV by 36% and 39% and reduced the plasma levels of CYP2C8 products. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition, which blocks breakdown and inactivation of CYP2C ω-3 LCPUFA-derived active metabolites, increased oxygen-induced retinopathy and CNV in vivo. Exposure to selected ω-3 LCPUFA metabolites of CYP2C significantly reversed the suppression of both angiogenesis ex vivo and endothelial cell functions in vitro by the CYP2C inhibitor montelukast. CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of CYP2C activity adds to the protective effects of ω-3 LCPUFA on pathological retinal neovascularization and CNV.

Göz Aytürk D, You W, Cepko CL. Mouse Lines with Cre-Mediated Recombination in Retinal Amacrine Cells. eNeuro 2022;9(1)Abstract
Amacrine cells (ACs) are the most diverse neuronal cell type in the vertebrate retina. Yet little is known about the contribution of ACs to visual processing and retinal disease. A major challenge in evaluating AC function is genetic accessibility. A classic tool of mouse genetics, Cre-mediated recombination, can provide such access. We have screened existing genetically-modified mouse strains and identified multiple candidates that express Cre-recombinase in subsets of retinal ACs. The Cre-expressing mice were crossed to fluorescent-reporter mice to assay Cre expression. In addition, a Cre-dependent fluorescent reporter plasmid was electroporated into the subretinal space of Cre strains. Herein, we report three mouse lines (Tac1::IRES-cre, Camk2a-cre, and Scx-cre) that express Cre recombinase in sub-populations of ACs. In two of these lines, recombination occurred in multiple AC types and a small number of other retinal cell types, while recombination in the Camk2a-cre line appears specific to a morphologically distinct AC. We anticipate that these characterized mouse lines will be valuable tools to the community of researchers who study retinal biology and disease.
Grishchuk Y, Stember KG, Matsunaga A, Olivares AM, Cruz NM, King VE, Humphrey DM, Wang SL, Muzikansky A, Betensky RA, Thoreson WB, Haider N, Slaugenhaupt SA. Retinal Dystrophy and Optic Nerve Pathology in the Mouse Model of Mucolipidosis IV. Am J Pathol 2016;186(1):199-209.Abstract

Mucolipidosis IV is a debilitating developmental lysosomal storage disorder characterized by severe neuromotor retardation and progressive loss of vision, leading to blindness by the second decade of life. Mucolipidosis IV is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the MCOLN1 gene, which encodes the transient receptor potential channel protein mucolipin-1. Ophthalmic pathology in patients includes corneal haze and progressive retinal and optic nerve atrophy. Herein, we report ocular pathology in Mcoln1(-/-) mouse, a good phenotypic model of the disease. Early, but non-progressive, thinning of the photoreceptor layer, reduced levels of rhodopsin, disrupted rod outer segments, and widespread accumulation of the typical storage inclusion bodies were the major histological findings in the Mcoln1(-/-) retina. Electroretinograms showed significantly decreased functional response (scotopic a- and b-wave amplitudes) in the Mcoln1(-/-) mice. At the ultrastructural level, we observed formation of axonal spheroids and decreased density of axons in the optic nerve of the aged (6-month-old) Mcoln1(-/-) mice, which indicates progressive axonal degeneration. Our data suggest that mucolipin-1 plays a role in postnatal development of photoreceptors and provides a set of outcome measures that can be used for ocular therapy development for mucolipidosis IV.

Grob S, Yonekawa Y, Eliott D. Multimodal imaging of adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy. Saudi J Ophthalmol 2014;28(2):104-10.Abstract
Adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy (AOFVD) is a clinically heterogeneous maculopathy that may mimic other conditions and be difficult to diagnose. It is characterized by late onset, slow progression and high variability in morphologic and functional alterations. Diagnostic evaluation should include careful ophthalmoscopy and imaging studies. The typical ophthalmoscopic findings are bilateral, asymmetric, foveal or perifoveal, yellow, solitary, round to oval elevated subretinal lesions, often with central pigmentation. The lesions characteristically demonstrate increased autofluorescence and hypofluorescent lesions surrounded by irregular annular hyperfluorescence on fluorescein angiography. Optical coherence tomography studies demonstrate homogenous or heterogeneous hyperreflective material between the retinal pigment epithelium and the neurosensory retina. The visual prognosis is generally favorable, but visual loss can occur from chorioretinal atrophy and choroidal neovascularization.
Grotz S, Schäfer J, Wunderlich KA, Ellederova Z, Auch H, Bähr A, Runa-Vochozkova P, Fadl J, Arnold V, Ardan T, Veith M, Santamaria G, Dhom G, Hitzl W, Kessler B, Eckardt C, Klein J, Brymova A, Linnert J, Kurome M, Zakharchenko V, Fischer A, Blutke A, Döring A, Suchankova S, Popelar J, Rodríguez-Bocanegra E, Dlugaiczyk J, Straka H, May-Simera H, Wang W, Laugwitz K-L, Vandenberghe LH, Wolf E, Nagel-Wolfrum K, Peters T, Motlik J, Fischer DM, Wolfrum U, Klymiuk N. Early disruption of photoreceptor cell architecture and loss of vision in a humanized pig model of usher syndromes. EMBO Mol Med 2022;14(4):e14817.Abstract
Usher syndrome (USH) is the most common form of monogenic deaf-blindness. Loss of vision is untreatable and there are no suitable animal models for testing therapeutic strategies of the ocular constituent of USH, so far. By introducing a human mutation into the harmonin-encoding USH1C gene in pigs, we generated the first translational animal model for USH type 1 with characteristic hearing defect, vestibular dysfunction, and visual impairment. Changes in photoreceptor architecture, quantitative motion analysis, and electroretinography were characteristics of the reduced retinal virtue in USH1C pigs. Fibroblasts from USH1C pigs or USH1C patients showed significantly elongated primary cilia, confirming USH as a true and general ciliopathy. Primary cells also proved their capacity for assessing the therapeutic potential of CRISPR/Cas-mediated gene repair or gene therapy in vitro. AAV-based delivery of harmonin into the eye of USH1C pigs indicated therapeutic efficacy in vivo.
Grundy SJ, Tshering L, Wanjala SW, Diamond MB, Audi MS, Prasad S, Shinohara RT, Rogo D, Wangmo D, Wangdi U, Aarayang A, Tshering T, Burke TF, Mateen FJ. Retinal Parameters as Compared with Head Circumference, Height, Weight, and Body Mass Index in Children in Kenya and Bhutan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018;99(2):482-488.Abstract
The retina shares embryological derivation with the brain and may provide a new measurement of overall growth status, especially useful in resource-limited settings. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides detailed quantification of retinal structures. We enrolled community-dwelling children ages 3-11 years old in Siaya, Kenya and Thimphu, Bhutan in 2016. We measured head circumference (age < 5 years only), height, and weight, and standardized these by age and gender. Research staff performed OCT (; Optovue, Inc., Fremont, CA), measuring the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) thicknesses. A neuro-ophthalmologist performed quality control for centration, motion artifact, and algorithm-derived quality scores. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the relationship between anthropometric and retinal measurements. Two hundred and fifty-eight children (139 females, average age 6.4 years) successfully completed at least one retinal scan, totaling 1,048 scans. Nine hundred and twenty-two scans (88.0%) were deemed usable. Fifty-three of the 258 children (20.5%) were able to complete all six scans. Kenyan children had a thinner average GCC ( < 0.001) than Bhutanese children after adjustment for age and gender, but not RNFL ( = 0.70). In models adjusting for age, gender, and study location, none of standardized height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were statistically significantly associated with RNFL or GCC. We determined that OCT is feasible in some children in resource-limited settings, particularly those > 4 years old, using the device. We found no evidence for GCC or RNFL as a proxy for height-, weight-, or BMI-for-age. The variation in mean GCC thickness in Asian versus African children warrants further investigation.
Guan J-T, Li X-X, Peng D-W, Zhang W-M, Qu J, Lu F, D'Amato RJ, Chi Z-L. MicroRNA-18a-5p Administration Suppresses Retinal Neovascularization by Targeting FGF1 and HIF1A. Front Pharmacol 2020;11:276.Abstract
Pathologic ocular neovascularization commonly results in visual impairment or even blindness in numerous fundus diseases, including proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). MicroRNAs regulate angiogenesis through modulating target genes and disease progression, making them a new class of targets for drug discovery. In this study, we investigated the potential role of miR-18a-5p in retinal neovascularization using a mouse model of oxygen-induced proliferative retinopathy (OIR). We found that miR-18a-5p was highly expressed in the retina of pups as well as retinal endothelial cells, and was consistently down-regulated during retinal development. On the other hand, miR-18a-5p was increased significantly during pathologic neovascularization in the retinas of OIR mice. Moreover, intravitreal administration of miRNA mimic, agomiR-18a-5p, significantly suppressed retinal neovascularization in OIR models. Accordingly, agomir-18a-5p markedly suppressed human retinal microvascular endothelial cell (HRMEC) function including proliferation, migration, and tube formation ability. Additionally, we demonstrated that miR-18a-5p directly down-regulated known vascular growth factors, fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1A), as the target genes. In conclusion, miR-18a-5p may be a useful drug target for pathologic ocular neovascularization.
Guhan S, Peng S-L, Janbatian H, Saadeh S, Greenstein S, Al Bahrani F, Fadlallah A, Yeh T-C, Melki SA. Surgical adhesives in ophthalmology: history and current trends. Br J Ophthalmol 2018;Abstract
Tissue adhesives are gaining popularity in ophthalmology, as they could potentially reduce the complications associated with current surgical methods. An ideal tissue adhesive should have superior tensile strength, be non-toxic and anti-inflammatory, improve efficiency and be cost-effective. Both synthetic and biological glues are available. The primary synthetic glues include cyanoacrylate and the recently introduced polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives, while most biological glues are composed of fibrin. Cyanoacrylate has a high tensile strength, but rapidly polymerises upon contact with any fluid and has been associated with histotoxicity. Fibrin induces less toxic and inflammatory reactions, and its polymerisation time can be controlled. Tensile strength studies have shown that fibrin is not as strong as cyanoacrylate. While more research is needed, PEG variants currently appear to have the most promise. These glues are non-toxic, strong and time-effective. Through MEDLINE and internet searches, this paper presents a systematic review of the current applications of surgical adhesives to corneal, glaucoma, retinal, cataract and strabismus surgeries. Our review suggests that surgical adhesives have promise to reduce problems in current ophthalmic surgical procedures.
Guo C, Cho K-S, Li Y, Tchedre K, Antolik C, Ma J, Chew J, Utheim TP, Huang XA, Yu H, Malik MTA, Anzak N, Chen DF. IGFBPL1 Regulates Axon Growth through IGF-1-mediated Signaling Cascades. Sci Rep 2018;8(1):2054.Abstract
Activation of axonal growth program is a critical step in successful optic nerve regeneration following injury. Yet the molecular mechanisms that orchestrate this developmental transition are not fully understood. Here we identified a novel regulator, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-like 1 (IGFBPL1), for the growth of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons. Expression of IGFBPL1 correlates with RGC axon growth in development, and acute knockdown of IGFBPL1 with shRNA or IGFBPL1 knockout in vivo impaired RGC axon growth. In contrast, administration of IGFBPL1 promoted axon growth. Moreover, IGFBPL1 bound to insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and subsequently induced calcium signaling and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) phosphorylation to stimulate axon elongation. Blockage of IGF-1 signaling abolished IGFBPL1-mediated axon growth, and vice versa, IGF-1 required the presence of IGFBPL1 to promote RGC axon growth. These data reveal a novel element in the control of RGC axon growth and suggest an unknown signaling loop in the regulation of the pleiotropic functions of IGF-1. They suggest new therapeutic target for promoting optic nerve and axon regeneration and repair of the central nervous system.
Gupta MP, Dow E, Jeng-Miller KW, Mukai S, Orlin A, Xu K, Yonekawa Y, Chan PRV. SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FINDINGS IN COATS DISEASE. Retina 2019;39(6):1177-1185.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate microstructural retinal abnormalities on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging of eyes with Coats disease. METHODS: This is a multicenter, retrospective study in which SD-OCT images of patients with treatment-naive Coats disease were correlated with clinical examination and visual acuity and, when available, followed longitudinally over time. RESULTS: Macular SD-OCT of 27 eyes with Coats disease revealed intraretinal edema (59%), intraretinal exudates (67%), subretinal fluid (37%), subretinal exudate (48%), ellipsoid zone disruption (52%), external limiting membrane disruption (41%), and subfoveal nodule (26%). All these microstructural abnormalities correlated with worse baseline and final visual acuities (P < 0.05) on univariate analysis, except for intraretinal edema which exhibited a nonstatistically significant trend toward worse baseline visual acuity (P = 0.16). Within stage 2b eyes, external limiting membrane disruption and subretinal nodule on SD-OCT were associated with worse baseline visual acuity (P = 0.02 for both), and there was a trend toward worse final visual acuity with external limiting membrane disruption and subretinal nodule (P = 0.17 for both) and worse baseline (P = 0.08) and final (P = 0.13) visual acuities with ellipsoid zone disruption. No microstructural abnormalities were noted on OCT of fellow eyes. CONCLUSION: Spectral domain OCT can identify microstructural abnormalities in Coats disease that are associated on univariate analysis with worse baseline visual acuity and visual prognosis. Further larger studies are necessary.
Gupta A, El-Rami H, Barham R, Fleming A, van Hemert J, Sun JK, Silva PS, Aiello LP. Effect of phase-plate adjustment on retinal image sharpness and visible retinal area on ultrawide field imaging. Eye (Lond) 2019;33(4):587-591.Abstract
BACKGROUND: To evaluate changes in image sharpness across ultrawide field (UWF) images and the effect of phase-plate adjustment on image contrast and extent of visible retinal area (VRA). METHODS: This was a single site evaluation of 200° UWF images acquired with phase-plate adjustment (California, Optos, plc) and without (200TX, Optos, plc). Images were acquired using standardized protocol. VRA was manually outlined on each image and quantified using customized software. Mean image sharpness was evaluated using an automated method within the full VRA of each image and within the peripheral region of the VRA. The VRA and image sharpness were evaluated and compared between the two devices. RESULTS: Twenty eyes of 10 healthy volunteers were evaluated. Devices with and without phase-plate adjustment produced a similar extent of VRA. Eye steering increased VRA in devices with and without phase-plate adjustment by 39.3% and 34.3%, respectively. Regardless of gaze direction, mean sharpness of the full VRA was reduced in peripheral area with or without phase-plate adjustment. Compared to images without phase-plate adjustment, use of phase-plate adjustment reduced the loss of peripheral image sharpness in all fields (-4.2 to -26.0%; p < 0.001 all fields). The sharpness of the peripheral area for on-axis images was 61.5% higher with phase-plate adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: The use of phase-plate adjustment does not alter the extent of VRA. However, for on-axis images the loss of sharpness in the periphery is 4.5-fold less with phase-plate adjustment, potentially reducing the need to steer images and improving lesion detection in these areas.
Gupta MP, Talcott KE, Kim DY, Agarwal S, Mukai S. Retinal findings and a novel TINF2 mutation in Revesz syndrome: Clinical and molecular correlations with pediatric retinal vasculopathies. Ophthalmic Genet 2017;:1-10.Abstract

BACKGROUND: Revesz syndrome is a telomere disorder in the dyskeratosis congenita (DKC) spectrum characterized by exudative retinopathy, bone marrow failure, neuroradiographic abnormalities, and integumentary findings. MATERIALS/METHODS: We report the ophthalmologic findings, documented by examinations under anesthesia with clinical photography and fluorescein angiography, as well as the systemic manifestations and genetic and molecular testing, in identical twins with Revesz syndrome, and compare and contrast these features to those of other pediatric retinal vasculopathies. RESULTS: Both twins exhibited widespread avascularity and anomalous vasculature of the retinal periphery, retinal telangiectasias, and exudation. One twin developed a combination exudative/tractional/rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, while the other exhibited a focal collection of buds of retinal neovascularization. Both twins developed bone marrow failure and were found to have cerebellar hypoplasia and widespread cerebral calcifications. Telomere testing in lymphocytes and granulocytes revealed telomere length less than the 1st percentile for age, and gene sequencing revealed a novel mutation in the TINF2 gene, resulting in the T284P TIN2 protein variant. CONCLUSIONS: We report ophthalmic findings in twins with Revesz syndrome due to a previously unreported mutation in TINF2 and propose that phenotypic and molecular overlaps between DKC spectrum disorders and pediatric retinal vasculopathies may reflect a shared pathophysiologic basis.

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Haddock LJ, Kim DY, Mukai S. Simple, inexpensive technique for high-quality smartphone fundus photography in human and animal eyes. J Ophthalmol 2013;2013:518479.Abstract
Purpose. We describe in detail a relatively simple technique of fundus photography in human and rabbit eyes using a smartphone, an inexpensive app for the smartphone, and instruments that are readily available in an ophthalmic practice. Methods. Fundus images were captured with a smartphone and a 20D lens with or without a Koeppe lens. By using the coaxial light source of the phone, this system works as an indirect ophthalmoscope that creates a digital image of the fundus. The application whose software allows for independent control of focus, exposure, and light intensity during video filming was used. With this app, we recorded high-definition videos of the fundus and subsequently extracted high-quality, still images from the video clip. Results. The described technique of smartphone fundus photography was able to capture excellent high-quality fundus images in both children under anesthesia and in awake adults. Excellent images were acquired with the 20D lens alone in the clinic, and the addition of the Koeppe lens in the operating room resulted in the best quality images. Successful photodocumentation of rabbit fundus was achieved in control and experimental eyes. Conclusion. The currently described system was able to take consistently high-quality fundus photographs in patients and in animals using readily available instruments that are portable with simple power sources. It is relatively simple to master, is relatively inexpensive, and can take advantage of the expanding mobile-telephone networks for telemedicine.
Hamad AE, Moinuddin O, Blair MP, Schechet SA, Shapiro MJ, Quiram PA, Mammo DA, Berrocal AM, Prakhunhungsit S, Cernichiaro-Espinosa LA, Mukai S, Yonekawa Y, Ung C, Holz ER, Harper AC, Young RC, Besirli CG, Nagiel A, Lee TC, Gupta MP, Walsh MK, Khawly JA, Campbell PJ, Kychenthal A, Nudleman ED, Robinson JE, Hartnett ME, Calvo CM, Chang EY. Late-Onset Retinal Findings and Complications in Untreated Retinopathy of Prematurity. Ophthalmol Retina 2020;4(6):602-612.Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate late retinal findings and complications of eyes with a history of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) that did not meet treatment criteria and did not receive treatment during infancy. DESIGN: Retrospective, nonconsecutive, noncomparative, multicenter case series. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred sixty-three eyes of 186 patients. METHODS: Data were requested from multiple providers on premature patients with a history of ROP and no treatment during infancy who demonstrated late retinal findings or complications and included age, gender, gestational age and weight, zone and stage at infancy, visual acuity, current retina vascularization status, vitreous character, presence of peripheral retinal findings such as lattice retinal tears and detachments (RDs), retinoschisis, and fluorescein findings. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of RDs and factors conferring a higher risk of RDs. RESULTS: The average age was 34.5 years (range, 7-76 years), average gestational age was 26.6 weeks (range, 23-34 weeks), and average birth weight was 875 g (range, 425-1590 g). Findings included lattice in 196 eyes (54.0%), atrophic holes in 126 eyes (34.7%), retinal tears in 111 eyes (30.6%), RDs in 140 eyes (38.6 %), tractional retinoschisis in 44 eyes (11.9%), and visible vitreous condensation ridge-like interface in 112 eyes (30.5%). Fluorescein angiography (FA) was performed in 113 eyes, of which 59 eyes (52.2%) showed leakage and 16 eyes (14.2%) showed neovascularization. Incomplete vascularization posterior to zone 3 was common (71.6% of eyes). Retinal detachments were more likely in patients with a gestational age of 29 weeks or less (P < 0.05) and in eyes with furthest vascularization to posterior zone 2 eyes compared with zone 3 eyes (P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Eyes with ROP not meeting the treatment threshold during infancy showed various late retinal findings and complications, of which RDs were the most concerning. Complications were seen in all age groups, including patients born after the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Study. Contributing factors to RDs included atrophic holes within peripheral avascular retina, visible vitreous condensation ridge-like interface with residual traction, and premature vitreous syneresis. We recommend regular examinations and consideration of ultra-widefield FA examinations. Prospective studies are needed to explore the frequency of complications and benefit of prophylactic treatment and if eyes treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy are at risk of similar findings and complications.
Han H, Yang Y, Wu Z, Liu B, Dong L, Deng H, Tian J, Lei H. Capilliposide B blocks VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro in primary human retinal microvascular endothelial cells. Biomed Pharmacother 2021;133:110999.Abstract
Abnormal angiogenesis is associated with intraocular diseases such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy and neovascular age-related macular degeneration, and current therapies for these eye diseases are not satisfactory. The purpose of this study was to determine whether capilliposide B (CPS-B), a novel oleanane triterpenoid saponin derived from Lysimachia capillipes Hemsl, can inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis signaling events and cellular responses in primary human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs). Our study revealed that the capilliposide B IC for HRECs was 8.5 μM at 72 h and that 1 μM capilliposide B specifically inhibited VEGF-induced activation of VEGFR2 and its downstream signaling enzymes Akt and Erk. In addition, we discovered that this chemical effectively blocked VEGF-stimulated proliferation, migration and tube formation of the HRECs, suggesting that capilliposide B is a promising prophylactic for angiogenesis-associated diseases such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
Han H, Chen N, Huang X, Liu B, Tian J, Lei H. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ inactivation prevents vitreous-induced activation of AKT/MDM2/p53 and migration of retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Biol Chem 2019;294(42):15408-15417.Abstract
Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of lipid kinases that play a critical role in transmitting signals from cell-surface molecules to intracellular protein effectors. Key PI3Ks include PI3Kα, PI3Kβ, and PI3Kδ, which are regulated by receptors. The signaling pathway comprising the PI3Ks, along with a Ser/Thr kinase (AKT), a proto-oncogene product (mouse double minute (MDM)2), and a tumor suppressor protein (p53), plays an essential role in experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), which is a fibrotic blinding eye disorder. However, which PI3K isoforms are involved in PVR is unknown. A major characteristic of PVR is the formation of epi (or sub)-retinal membranes that consist of extracellular matrix and cells, including retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, glial cells, and macrophages. RPE cells are considered key players in PVR pathogenesis. Using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses, we herein provide the evidence that PI3Kδ is highly expressed in human RPEs when it is primarily expressed in leukocytes. We also found that PI3Kδ inactivation through two approaches, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated depletion and a PI3Kδ-specific inhibitor (idelalisib), not only blocks vitreous-induced activation of AKT and MDM2 but also abrogates a vitreous-stimulated decrease in p53. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PI3Kδ inactivation prevents vitreous-induced proliferation, migration, and contraction of human RPEs. These results suggest that PI3Kδ may represent a potential therapeutic target for RPE-related eye diseases, including PVR.
Han H, Yang Y, Liu B, Tian J, Dong L, Qi H, Zhu W, Wang J, Lei H. Chalcomoracin prevents vitreous-induced activation of AKT and migration of retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Cell Mol Med 2021;25(19):9102-9111.Abstract
Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are the major cell type in the epi- or sub-retinal membranes in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), which is a blinding fibrotic eye disease and still short of effective medicine. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate whether Chalocomoracin (CMR), a novel purified compound from fungus-infected mulberry leaves, is able to inhibit vitreous-induced signalling events and cellular responses intrinsic to PVR. Our studies have revealed that the CMR IC50 for ARPE-19 cells is 35.5 μmol/L at 72 hours, and that 5 μmol/L CMR inhibits vitreous-induced Akt activation and p53 suppression; in addition, we have discovered that this chemical effectively blocks vitreous-stimulated proliferation, migration and contraction of ARPE-19 cells, suggesting that CMR is a promising PVR prophylactic.
Hansen RM, Moskowitz A, Akula JD, Fulton AB. The neural retina in retinopathy of prematurity. Prog Retin Eye Res 2017;56:32-57.Abstract

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a neurovascular disease that affects prematurely born infants and is known to have significant long term effects on vision. We conducted the studies described herein not only to learn more about vision but also about the pathogenesis of ROP. The coincidence of ROP onset and rapid developmental elongation of the rod photoreceptor outer segments motivated us to consider the role of the rods in this disease. We used noninvasive electroretinographic (ERG), psychophysical, and retinal imaging procedures to study the function and structure of the neurosensory retina. Rod photoreceptor and post-receptor responses are significantly altered years after the preterm days during which ROP is an active disease. The alterations include persistent rod dysfunction, and evidence of compensatory remodeling of the post-receptor retina is found in ERG responses to full-field stimuli and in psychophysical thresholds that probe small retinal regions. In the central retina, both Mild and Severe ROP delay maturation of parafoveal scotopic thresholds and are associated with attenuation of cone mediated multifocal ERG responses, significant thickening of post-receptor retinal laminae, and dysmorphic cone photoreceptors. These results have implications for vision and control of eye growth and refractive development and suggest future research directions. These results also lead to a proposal for noninvasive management using light that may add to the currently invasive therapeutic armamentarium against ROP.

Hanumunthadu D, Lescrauwaet B, Jaffe M, Sadda SV, Wiecek E, Hubschman JP, Patel PJ. Clinical Update on Metamorphopsia: Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Imaging. Curr Eye Res 2021;46(12):1777-1791.Abstract
Purpose: To discuss the pathophysiology of metamorphopsia, its characterisation using retinal imaging and methods of assessment of patient symptoms and visual function.Methods: A literature search of electronic databases was performedResults: Metamorphopsia has commonly been associated with vitreomacular interface disorders (such as epiretinal membrane) and has also regularly been noted in diseases of the retina and choroid, particularly age-related macular degeneration and central serous chorioretinopathy. Developments in optical coherence tomography retinal imaging have enabled improved imaging of the foveal microstructure and have led to the localisation of the pathophysiology of metamorphopsia within the retinal layers of the macula. Alteration of alignment of inner and outer retinal layers at various retinal loci has been identified using multimodal imaging in patients with metamorphopsia in a range of conditions. Although the Amsler Grid assessment of metamorphopsia is a useful clinical indicator, new emerging methods of metamorphopsia assessment with psychophysical tests such as M-CHARTS and preferential hyperacuity perimetry, have been developed.Conclusions: It appears that there is a complex relationship between visual acuity and metamorphopsia symptoms that vary between retinal conditions. Although metamorphopsia has traditionally been challenging to measure in the clinic, advances in technology promise more robust, easy-to-use tests. It is possible that home assessment of metamorphopsia, particularly in conditions such as age-related macular degeneration, may help to guide the need for further clinic evaluation and consideration of treatment.
Harris JM, Han IC, Sachdeva MM, Zhang AY, Zebardast N. Post-operative intracranial gas migration with optic nerve infiltration and atrophy following retinal detachment repair. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2020;20:100920.Abstract
Purpose: To report a patient with post-operative gas migration into the optic nerve and lateral ventricles after retinal detachment repair. Observations: A 78-year-old pseudophakic man developed a temporal visual field cut in his non-operative, right eye 3 weeks after repair of a recurrent, shallow, macula-involving retinal detachment with perfluoropropane intraocular gas in the left eye. Visual acuity in the right eye measured 20/40, and static perimetry demonstrated temporal visual field loss that respected the vertical midline. Dilated fundus examination of the right eye was unrevealing for any retinal cause, raising suspicion for an intracranial etiology. An urgent CT scan of the brain demonstrated gas in all segments of the left optic nerve and lateral ventricles, consistent with intracranial gas migration along the optic nerve. Given the absence of systemic neurologic symptoms, cautious observation was advised on consultation with neuroradiology and neurosurgery, and follow-up CT scan 1 week later showed resolution of the intracranial gas. By 10-weeks post-operatively, vision returned to 20/20 in the right eye with persistent temporal field loss, and the left eye was hand motions (20/70 pre-operatively) with evidence of optic nerve atrophy and severe cupping. Conclusions: Intracranial gas migration is a rare complication of retinaldetachment repair with intraocular gas and may occur in the setting of structural defects of the optic nerve and high post-operative intraocular pressure. Clinicians should be alert to this rare but serious complication, which can cause neurologic symptoms and result in vision loss in both the operative and non-operative eyes.

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