PURPOSE: To evaluate occurrence of subtarsal fibrosis in patients with graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) and to determine its association with ocular surface epitheliopathy.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
METHODS: We enrolled 40 patients with moderate or severe dry eye disease, including 20 patients with chronic ocular GVHD and 20 patients without (as the control group). All patients had a comprehensive ophthalmic assessment including evaluation for subtarsal fibrosis, corneal and conjunctival staining, tear break-up time (TBUT), and Schirmer test. Furthermore, meibomian gland drop-out area and densities of epithelial and stromal immune cells were measured using meibography and in vivo confocal microscopy, respectively.
RESULTS: Subtarsal fibrosis was not seen in any eye of the non-GVHD group. However, 16 eyes (40%) of 10 patients (50%) in the GVHD group had subtarsal fibrosis (P < .001) with an average involvement of 28.9% ± 13.7% of the tarsal area. Fibrosis was more frequent in the upper lids (35%) than in the lower lids (5%). Regression analyses showed that corneal fluorescein staining was significantly associated with the extent of fibrosis (P < .001, β = 0.14) and TBUT (P < .001, β = -0.53) but not with other clinical or imaging parameters. Conjunctival lissamine green staining also had a statistically significant association with the extent of fibrosis (P = .04, β = 0.12) but not other clinical or imaging parameters. Eyes with subtarsal fibrosis had a more severe ocular surface epitheliopathy compared with eyes without fibrosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Subtarsal fibrosis is present in a significant percentage of patients with chronic ocular GVHD, likely contributing to the ocular surface damage in these patients.
A challenge in the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections is the high prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains and the formation of non-growing, dormant 'persister' subpopulations that exhibit high levels of tolerance to antibiotics and have a role in chronic or recurrent infections. As conventional antibiotics are not effective in the treatment of infections caused by such bacteria, novel antibacterial therapeutics are urgently required. Here we used a Caenorhabditis elegans-MRSA infection screen to identify two synthetic retinoids, CD437 and CD1530, which kill both growing and persister MRSA cells by disrupting lipid bilayers. CD437 and CD1530 exhibit high killing rates, synergism with gentamicin, and a low probability of resistance selection. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that the ability of retinoids to penetrate and embed in lipid bilayers correlates with their bactericidal ability. An analogue of CD437 was found to retain anti-persister activity and show an improved cytotoxicity profile. Both CD437 and this analogue, alone or in combination with gentamicin, exhibit considerable efficacy in a mouse model of chronic MRSA infection. With further development and optimization, synthetic retinoids have the potential to become a new class of antimicrobials for the treatment of Gram-positive bacterial infections that are currently difficult to cure.
The work outlined herein describes AU-011, a novel recombinant papillomavirus-like particle (VLP) drug conjugate and its initial evaluation as a potential treatment for primary uveal melanoma. The VLP is conjugated with a phthalocyanine photosensitizer, IRDye 700DX, that exerts its cytotoxic effect through photoactivation with a near-infrared laser. We assessed the anticancer properties of AU-011utilizing a panel of human cancer cell lines andusing murine subcutaneous and rabbit orthotopic xenograft models of uveal melanoma. The specificity of VLP binding (tumor targeting), mediated through cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), was assessed using HSPG-deficient cells and by inclusion of heparin instudies. Our results provide evidence of potent and selective anticancer activity, bothandAU-011 activity was blocked by inhibiting its association with HSPG using heparin and using cells lacking surface HSPG, indicating that the tumor tropism of the VLP was not affected by dye conjugation and cell association is critical for AU-011-mediated cytotoxicity. Using the uveal melanoma xenograft models, we observed tumor uptake following intravenous (murine) and intravitreal (rabbit) administration and, after photoactivation, potent dose-dependent tumor responses. Furthermore, in the rabbit orthotopic model, which closely models uveal melanoma as it presents in the clinic, tumor treatment spared the retina and adjacent ocular structures. Our results support further clinical development of this novel therapeutic modality that might transform visual outcomes and provide a targeted therapy for the early-stage treatment of patients with this rare and life-threatening disease..
Central corneal thickness (CCT) is one of the most heritable ocular traits and it is also a phenotypic risk factor for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). The present study uses the BXD Recombinant Inbred (RI) strains to identify novel quantitative trait loci (QTLs) modulating CCT in the mouse with the potential of identifying a molecular link between CCT and risk of developing POAG. The BXD RI strain set was used to define mammalian genomic loci modulating CCT, with a total of 818 corneas measured from 61 BXD RI strains (between 60-100 days of age). The mice were anesthetized and the eyes were positioned in front of the lens of the Phoenix Micron IV Image-Guided OCT system or the Bioptigen OCT system. CCT data for each strain was averaged and used to QTLs modulating this phenotype using the bioinformatics tools on GeneNetwork (www.genenetwork.org). The candidate genes and genomic loci identified in the mouse were then directly compared with the summary data from a human POAG genome wide association study (NEIGHBORHOOD) to determine if any genomic elements modulating mouse CCT are also risk factors for POAG.This analysis revealed one significant QTL on Chr 13 and a suggestive QTL on Chr 7. The significant locus on Chr 13 (13 to 19 Mb) was examined further to define candidate genes modulating this eye phenotype. For the Chr 13 QTL in the mouse, only one gene in the region (Pou6f2) contained nonsynonymous SNPs. Of these five nonsynonymous SNPs in Pou6f2, two resulted in changes in the amino acid proline which could result in altered secondary structure affecting protein function. The 7 Mb region under the mouse Chr 13 peak distributes over 2 chromosomes in the human: Chr 1 and Chr 7. These genomic loci were examined in the NEIGHBORHOOD database to determine if they are potential risk factors for human glaucoma identified using meta-data from human GWAS. The top 50 hits all resided within one gene (POU6F2), with the highest significance level of p = 10-6 for SNP rs76319873. POU6F2 is found in retinal ganglion cells and in corneal limbal stem cells. To test the effect of POU6F2 on CCT we examined the corneas of a Pou6f2-null mice and the corneas were thinner than those of wild-type littermates. In addition, these POU6F2 RGCs die early in the DBA/2J model of glaucoma than most RGCs. Using a mouse genetic reference panel, we identified a transcription factor, Pou6f2, that modulates CCT in the mouse. POU6F2 is also found in a subset of retinal ganglion cells and these RGCs are sensitive to injury.
BACKGROUND: Prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) treatment is an effective, nonsurgical therapeutic option for patients with ocular surface disease related to cranial nerve deficits secondary to skull base tumor resection. METHODS: This case series describes the impact of PROSE treatment in patients with symptomatic exposure keratopathy or neurotrophic keratitis after skull base tumor surgery. RESULTS: All patients improved symptomatically and functionally with PROSE treatment, and have had sustained improvement for as long as 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: In postneurosurgical cases in which neurologic function may recover, PROSE treatment offers a safe, nonsurgical treatment option to support the ocular surface during the period of observation awaiting neurologic recovery.
Contact lenses have been a common means of vision correction for more than half a century. Recent developments have raised the possibility that the next few decades will see a considerable broadening of the range of applications for contact lenses, with associated expansions in the number and type of individuals who consider them a valuable option. The novel applications of contact lenses include treatment platforms for myopic progression, biosensors, and ocular drug delivery. Orthokeratology has shown the most consistent treatment for myopia control with the least side effects. Recent work has resulted in commercialization of a device to monitor intraocular pressure for up to 24 hours, and extensive efforts are underway to develop a contact lens sensor capable of continuous glucose tear film monitoring for the management of diabetes. Other studies on drug-eluting contact lenses have focused on increasing the release duration through molecular imprinting, use of vitamin E, and increased drug binding to polymers by sandwiching a poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) layer in the lens. This review demonstrates the potential for contact lenses to provide novel opportunities for refractive management, diagnosis, and management of diseases.
PURPOSE: To assess the relationship of forward and backward scattering and corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) with corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). METHODS: This retrospective study comprised 25 eyes of 25 consecutive patients who underwent PK using the VisuMax femtosecond laser system and age-matched 25 eyes of 25 healthy subjects. We quantitatively assessed objective scattering index (OSI) using the double-pass instrument (OQAS II, Visiometrics), corneal densitometry (CD) and corneal HOAs with the Scheimpflug rotating camera (Pentacam HR, Oculus) 1 year postoperatively. RESULTS: The OSI, CD, and corneal HOAs were significantly larger in the PK group than those in the control group (p ≤ 0.011). We found significant correlations of logMAR CDVA with the OSI (r = 0.477, p = 0.016), and with the anterior, posterior, and total corneal HOAs of the central 4-mm zone (anterior: r = 0.573, p = 0.003, posterior: r = 0.596, p = 0.002, total: r = 0.472, p = 0.017), but no significant association with the CD of the 0-2 mm zone at any layers (anterior: r = 0.236, p = 0.257, center: r = 0.139, p = 0.506, posterior: r = 0.073, p = 0.728, total: r = 0.212, p = 0.308). Similar results were obtained when the analysis was repeated with corneal HOAs of the central 6-mm zone and CDs in 2-6 mm zone. CONCLUSIONS: Our pilot study demonstrated that the postoperative CDVA was significantly correlated with OSI and corneal HOAs, but not with backward scattering in post-PK eyes, suggesting that OSI as well as corneal HOAs plays an essential role in postoperative visual performance after PK.
This review compared the clinical results of transepithelial corneal crosslinking (CXL) to epithelium-off (epi-off) CXL in progressive corneal ectasia using a metaanalysis. The Cochrane databases and Medline were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Seven RCTs involving 505 eyes that met the eligibility criteria were identified. The epi-off CXL group showed significantly better outcomes in postoperative changes in maximum keratometry (K) during 1-year observation periods. Transepithelial CXL resulted in significantly greater post-treatment central corneal thickness and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA). The presence of a postoperative demarcation line was significantly more frequent after epi-off CXL than that after transepithelial CXL. No statistically significant difference was found between other parameters. Although patients in the transepithelial CXL group demonstrated a greater improvement in BSCVA compared with patients in the epi-off CXL group at the 1 year follow-up, transepithelial CXL had less impact on halting progressive corneal ectasia in terms of maximum K than epi-off CXL.
OBJECTIVES: Surveys are an important tool to assess the impact of research on physicians' approach to patient care. This survey was conducted to assess current practice patterns in the management of infantile cataracts in light of the findings of the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. METHODS: Pediatric ophthalmologists were emailed a link to the survey using newsletters from American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, World Society of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, and the Pediatric Listserv. The 17-question survey was anonymous and active during July to August 2016. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-five respondents (North America, 65%; Asia, 12%; Europe, 9%; and other, 14%) reported operating on pediatric cataracts. Most practice in a university setting (55%). There was a strong consensus that unilateral cataract surgery should be performed between ages 4 to 6 weeks and aphakic contact lenses should be used to optically correct their eyes, particularly in children ≤6 months of age. For bilateral cataracts, there was a trend for surgeons to perform cataract surgery at an older age than unilateral cataract surgery. Surgeons who performed less than 5 versus greater than 20 pediatric cataract surgeries/year were more likely to use aphakic contact lenses in children undergoing cataract surgery more than 6 months of age (62% vs. 35%, P=0.04). Most respondents (73%) indicated that the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study had changed how they manage unilateral congenital cataracts. CONCLUSION: Most pediatric cataract surgeons perform congenital cataract surgery between ages 4 to 6 weeks and use aphakic contact lenses for initial optical correction in infants less than 6 months. Surgeons have equal preference for intraocular lenses and contact lenses in infants more than 6 months of age.
Contradictory data have been presented regarding the implication of the NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in the Western world. Recognizing that antibody specificity may explain this discrepancy and in line with recent National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines requiring authentication of key biological resources, the specificity of anti-NLRP3 antibodies was assessed to elucidate whether non-immune RPE cells express NLRP3. Using validated resources, NLRP3 was not detected in human primary or human established RPE cell lines under multiple inflammasome-priming conditions, including purported NLRP3 stimuli in RPE such as DICER1 deletion and Alu RNA transfection. Furthermore, NLRP3 was below detection limits in ex vivo macular RPE from AMD patients, as well as in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived RPE from patients with overactive NLRP3 syndrome (Chronic infantile neurologic cutaneous and articulate, CINCA syndrome). Evidence presented in this study provides new data regarding the interpretation of published results reporting NLRP3 expression and upregulation in RPE and addresses the role that this inflammasome plays in AMD pathogenesis.
We report a rare case of traumatic corneal perforation with Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) tube. A 5-year-old female child, diagnosed with refractory glaucoma, had undergone AGV implantation, presented with the posterior migration of AGV tube after trauma to the eye. The detailed ocular history, ophthalmic findings, clinical course and surgical management are discussed.
PURPOSE: To compare the choroidal thickness (CT) of diabetic eyes (different stages of disease) with controls, using swept-source optical coherence tomography. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, cross-sectional study of diabetic and nondiabetic subjects using swept-source optical coherence tomography imaging. Choroidal thickness maps, according to the nine Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) subfields, were obtained using automated software. Mean CT was calculated as the mean value within the ETDRS grid, and central CT as the mean in the central 1 mm. Diabetic eyes were divided into four groups: no diabetic retinopathy (No DR), nonproliferative DR (NPDR), NPDR with diabetic macular edema (NPDR + DME), and proliferative DR (PDR). Multilevel mixed linear models were performed for analyses. RESULTS: The authors included 50 control and 160 diabetic eyes (n = 27 No DR, n = 51 NPDR, n = 61 NPDR + DME, and n = 21 PDR). Mean CT (ß = -42.9, P = 0.022) and central CT (ß = -50.2, P = 0.013) were statistically significantly thinner in PDR eyes compared with controls, even after adjusting for confounding factors. Controlling for age, DR eyes presented a significantly decreased central CT than diabetic eyes without retinopathy (β = -36.2, P = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Swept-source optical coherence tomography demonstrates a significant reduction of CT in PDR compared with controls. In the foveal region, the choroid appears to be thinner in DR eyes than in diabetic eyes without retinopathy.
PURPOSE: To characterize the plasma metabolomic profile of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using mass spectrometry (MS). DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. PARTICIPANTS: We prospectively recruited participants with a diagnosis of AMD and a control group (>50 years of age) without any vitreoretinal disease. METHODS: All participants underwent color fundus photography, used for AMD diagnosis and staging, according to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study classification scheme. Fasting blood samples were collected and plasma was analyzed by Metabolon, Inc. (Durham, NC), using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high-resolution MS. Metabolon's hardware and software were used to identify peaks and control quality. Principal component analysis and multivariate regression were performed to assess differences in the metabolomic profiles of AMD patients versus controls, while controlling for potential confounders. For biological interpretation, pathway enrichment analysis of significant metabolites was performed using MetaboAnalyst. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measures were levels of plasma metabolites in participants with AMD compared with controls and among different AMD severity stages. RESULTS: We included 90 participants with AMD (30 with early AMD, 30 with intermediate AMD, and 30 with late AMD) and 30 controls. Using UPLC and MS, 878 biochemicals were identified. Multivariate logistic regression identified 87 metabolites with levels that differed significantly between AMD patients and controls. Most of these metabolites (82.8%; n = 72), including the most significant metabolites, belonged to the lipid pathways. Analysis of variance revealed that of the 87 metabolites, 48 (55.2%) also were significantly different across the different stages of AMD. A significant enrichment of the glycerophospholipids pathway was identified (P = 4.7 × 10) among these metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Participants with AMD have altered plasma metabolomic profiles compared with controls. Our data suggest that the most significant metabolites map to the glycerophospholipid pathway. These findings have the potential to improve our understanding of AMD pathogenesis, to support the development of plasma-based metabolomics biomarkers of AMD, and to identify novel targets for treatment of this blinding disease.
Laíns I, Kelly RS, Miller JB, Vavvas DG, Kim IK, Lasky-Su J, Miller JW, Husain D. Reply. Ophthalmology 2018;125(7):e46-e47.
PURPOSE: To study the association between peripheral changes in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and dark adaptation (DA).
DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional study.
METHODS: We recruited patients with AMD and a control group (>50 years) without any vitreoretinal disease. Ultra-widefield (UWF) pseudocolor and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) were obtained, and were assessed by 2 graders for the presence of several peripheral changes in perimacular, midperipheral, and far-peripheral zones. All participants were also imaged with 7-field color fundus photographs used for AMD staging (Age-Related Eye Disease Study classification system). Both eyes of study participants were tested with a dark adaptation (DA) extended protocol (20 minutes). Multilevel mixed-effect models (accounting for correlated outcomes between 2 eyes) were used for analyses.
RESULTS: We included 128 eyes (n = 72 patients), 75% with AMD and the remainder controls. The presence of reticular pigmentary changes in the midperipheral (ß = 4.3, P = .012) and far-peripheral zones (ß = 8.4, P < .001) was associated with delayed rod-intercept times (RITs), even after adjusting for confounding factors. The presence, number, and extent of peripheral classic drusen did not show a similar association (P ≥ .148). The presence of a mottled decreased FAF pattern in the midperipheral zone was also associated with prolonged RITs (β = 4.4, P = .031).
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest an association between DA and the presence of peripheral reticular pigmentary changes, as well as the presence of a peripheral mottled decreased FAF pattern. This provides new insights on the clinical significance of peripheral changes in AMD, and their contribution to impairments on DA.
PURPOSE: To review the published literature to assess the visual outcomes and adverse events associated with the 2 most commonly used contact lenses for treating aphakia in children: silicone elastomer (SE) and rigid gas permeable (RGP). METHODS: Literature searches were last conducted in January 2018 in the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases with no date or language restrictions. These combined searches yielded 167 citations, 27 of which were reviewed in full text. Of these, 10 articles were deemed appropriate for inclusion in this assessment and subsequently assigned a level of evidence rating by the panel methodologist. RESULTS: The literature search identified 4 level II studies and 6 level III studies. There were insufficient data to compare visual outcomes for eyes treated using SE lenses versus RGP lenses. Silicone elastomer lenses have the advantage that they can be worn on an extended-wear basis, but they were associated with more adverse events than RGP lenses. These adverse events included microbial keratitis, corneal infiltrates, corneal edema, corneal scars, lenses adhering to the cornea, superficial punctate keratopathy, lid swelling, and conjunctival hyperemia. The lens replacement rate was approximately 50% higher for RGP lenses in the only study that directly compared SE and RGP lenses. CONCLUSIONS: Limited evidence was found in the literature on this topic. Silicone elastomer and RGP contact lenses were found to be effective for treating aphakia in children. Silicone elastomer lenses are easier to fit and may be worn on an extended-wear basis. Rigid gas permeable lenses must be removed every night and require a more customized fit, but they are associated with fewer adverse events. The choice of which lens a practitioner prescribes should be based on the particular needs of each patient.
Purpose: We evaluate diabetic microaneurysm (MA) features on high-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) and their correlations with visual acuity (VA) and local retinal pathology on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). Methods: Diabetic participants underwent VA testing and AOSLO and SDOCT imaging of MAs. AOSLO images were graded for MA dimension, wall hyperreflectivity (WH), intraluminal hyperreflectivity (IH), and perfusion pattern. SDOCTs centered on each MA were graded for disorganization of the retinal inner layers (DRIL) and other neuroretinal pathology. Results: We imaged 109 MAs (30 eyes). Multivariate modeling, including statistically significant covariates from bivariate analyses, associated WH with greater MA size (P = 0.001) and DRIL (P = 0.04). IH was associated with perfusion (P = 0.003) and MA visibility on photographs (P = 0.0001), and larger MA size with partial perfusion (P = 0.03), MA ring signs (P = 0.0002), and photographic visibility (P = 0.01). Multivariate modeling revealed an association of WH and VA with DRIL. Conclusions: AOSLO imaging demonstrates associations of hyperreflective MA walls with MA size and adjacent DRIL, as well as the presence of DRIL with lower VA. This study identifies a correlation between vascular and neural pathology associated with VA decline. Further studies of MA structure and neuroretinal disorganization may enable novel approaches to assess anatomic and functional outcomes in the diabetic eye.
PURPOSE: To assess long-term effectiveness of rituximab therapy for refractory noninfectious uveitis affecting the posterior segment. METHODS: Retrospective case series. Patients diagnosed with recalcitrant noninfectious posterior uveitis who were treated with rituximab intravenous infusions between 2010 and 2015 were included. Patients underwent best-corrected visual acuity testing and fluorescein angiography evidence of disk or vascular staining at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Patients had at least 24 months of follow-up. RESULTS: Eleven patients (21 eyes) with refractory posterior uveitis treated with intravenous rituximab were included. Nine (81.8%) patients were female. Mean follow-up was 29.3 ± 7.8 months. rituximab was administered as complementary therapy because of previous inefficacy of other therapies in 7 (63.7%) patients, and it was the only treatment in four (36.3%) patients who did not tolerate other drugs. Inflammation signs by fluorescein angiography were controlled in nine (81.8%) patients at the end of follow-up. Baseline best-corrected visual acuity was 20/80 (logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution 0.6 ± 0.4), and final best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40 (0.3 ± 0.5) (P = 0.005). No significant side effects were reported. CONCLUSION: Rituximab therapy was associated with stability and remission of recalcitrant noninfectious posterior uveitis in patients who did not tolerate or did not respond to other therapies.
We generated a knockout mouse for the neuronal-specific β-tubulin isoform Tubb3 to investigate its role in nervous system formation and maintenance. Tubb3 mice have no detectable neurobehavioral or neuropathological deficits, and upregulation of mRNA and protein of the remaining β-tubulin isotypes results in equivalent total β-tubulin levels in Tubb3 and wild-type mice. Despite similar levels of total β-tubulin, adult dorsal root ganglia lacking TUBB3 have decreased growth cone microtubule dynamics and a decreased neurite outgrowth rate of 22% in vitro and in vivo. The effect of the 22% slower growth rate is exacerbated for sensory recovery, where fibers must reinnervate the full volume of the skin to recover touch function. Overall, these data reveal that, while TUBB3 is not required for formation of the nervous system, it has a specific role in the rate of peripheral axon regeneration that cannot be replaced by other β-tubulins.