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Pineles SL, Henderson RJ, Repka MX, Heidary G, Liu GT, Waldman AT, Borchert MS, Khanna S, Graves JS, Collinge JE, Conley JA, Davis PL, Kraker RT, Cotter SA, Holmes JM, Holmes JM. The Pediatric Optic Neuritis Prospective Outcomes Study: Two-Year Results. Ophthalmology 2022;129(8):856-864.Abstract
PURPOSE: Pediatric optic neuritis (ON) is a rare disease that has not been well characterized. The Pediatric ON Prospective Outcomes Study (PON1) was the first prospective study to our knowledge aiming to evaluate visual acuity (VA) outcomes, including VA, recurrence risk, and final diagnosis 2 years after enrollment. DESIGN: Nonrandomized observational study at 23 pediatric ophthalmology or neuro-ophthalmology clinics in the United States and Canada. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 28 (64%) of 44 children initially enrolled in PON1 (age 3-<16 years) who completed their 2-year study visit. METHODS: Participants were treated at the investigator's discretion. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Age-normal monocular high-contrast VA (HCVA). Secondary outcomes included low-contrast VA (LCVA), neuroimaging findings, and final diagnoses. RESULTS: A total of 28 participants completed the 2-year outcome with a median enrollment age of 10.3 years (range, 5-15); 46% were female, and 68% had unilateral ON at presentation. Final 2-year diagnoses included isolated ON (n = 11, 39%), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-associated demyelination (n = 8, 29%), multiple sclerosis (MS) (n = 4,14%), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease (NMOSD) (n = 3, 11%), and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (n = 2, 7%). Two participants (7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1-24) had subsequent recurrent ON (plus 1 participant who did not complete the 2-year visit); all had MS. Two other participants (7%) had a new episode in their unaffected eye. Mean presenting HCVA was 0.81 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) (∼20/125), improving to 0.14 logMAR (∼20/25-2) at 6 months, 0.12 logMAR (∼20/25-2) at 1 year, and 0.11 logMAR (20/25-1) at 2 years (95% CI, -0.08 to 0.3 [20/20+1-20/40-1]). Twenty-four participants (79%) had age-normal VA at 2 years (95% CI, 60-90); 21 participants (66%) had 20/20 vision or better. The 6 participants without age-normal VA had 2-year diagnoses of NMOSD (n = 2 participants, 3 eyes), MS (n = 2 participants, 2 eyes), and isolated ON (n = 2 participants, 3 eyes). Mean presenting LCVA was 1.45 logMAR (∼20/500-2), improving to 0.78 logMAR (∼20/125+2) at 6 months, 0.69 logMAR (∼20/100+1) at 1 year, and 0.68 logMAR (∼20/100+2) at 2 years (95% CI, 0.48-0.88 [20/50+1-20/150-1]). CONCLUSIONS: Despite poor VA at presentation, most children had marked improvement in VA by 6 months that was maintained over 2 years. Associated neurologic autoimmune diagnoses were common. Additional episodes of ON occurred in 5 (18%) of the participants (3 relapses and 2 new episodes).
Singh RB, Perepelkina T, Testi I, Young BK, Mirza T, Invernizzi A, Biswas J, Agarwal A. Imaging-based Assessment of Choriocapillaris: A Comprehensive Review. Semin Ophthalmol 2022;:1-22.Abstract
PURPOSE: Over the past two decades, advancements in imaging modalities have significantly evolved the diagnosis and management of retinal diseases. Through these novel platforms, we have developed a deeper understanding of the anatomy of the choroidal vasculature and the choriocapillaris. The recently developed tools such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) have helped elucidate the pathological mechanisms of several posterior segment diseases. In this review, we have explained the anatomy of the choriocapillaris and its close relationship to the outer retina and retinal pigment epithelium. METHODS: A comprehensive search of medical literature was performed through the Medline/PubMed database using search terms: choriocapillaris, choroid, quantification, biomarkers, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, choroidal blood flow, mean blur rate, flow deficit, optical coherence tomography, optical coherence tomography angiography, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, OCTA, Doppler imaging, uveitis, choroiditis, white dot syndrome, tubercular serpiginous-like choroiditis, choroidal granuloma, pachychoroid, toxoplasmosis, central serous chorioretinopathy, multifocal choroiditis, choroidal neovascularization, choroidal thickness, choroidal vascularity index, choroidal vascular density, and choroidal blood supply. The search terms were used either independently or combined with choriocapillaris/choroid. RESULTS: The imaging techniques which are used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze choriocapillaris are described. The pathological alterations in the choriocapillaris in an array of conditions such as diabetes mellitus, age-related macular degeneration, pachychoroid spectrum of diseases, and inflammatory disorders have been comprehensively reviewed. The future directions in the study of choriocapillaris have also been discussed. CONCLUSION: The development of imaging tools such as OCT and OCTA has dramatically improved the assessment of choriocapillaris in health and disease. The choriocapillaris can be delineated from the stromal choroid using the OCT and quantified by manual or automated methods. However, these techniques have inherent limitations due to the lack of an anatomical distinction between the choriocapillaris and the stromal choroid, which can be overcome with the use of predefined segmentation slabs on OCT and OCTA. These segmentation slabs help in standardizing the choriocapillaris imaging and obtain repeatable measurements in various conditions such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, pachychoroid spectrum, and ocular inflammations. Additionally, Doppler imaging has also been effectively used to evaluate the choroidal blood flow and quantifying the choriocapillaris and establishing its role in the pathogenesis of various retinochoroidal diseases. As tremendous technological advancements such as wide-field and ultra-wide field imaging take place, there will be a significant improvement in the ease and accuracy of quantifying the choriocapillaris.
Dohlman C. The Boston Keratoprosthesis-The First 50 Years: Some Reminiscences. Annu Rev Vis Sci 2022;8:1-32.Abstract
Millions of people worldwide are bilaterally blind due to corneal diseases including infectious etiologies, trauma, and chemical injuries. While corneal transplantation can successfully restore sight in many, corneal graft survival decreases in eyes with chronic inflammation and corneal vascularization. Additionally, the availability of donor cornea material can be limited, especially in underdeveloped countries where corneal blindness may also be highly prevalent. Development of methods to create and implant an artificial cornea (keratoprosthesis) may be the only option for patients whose eye disease is not suitable for corneal transplantation or who live in regions where corneal transplantation is not possible. The Boston Keratoprosthesis (B-KPro) is the most commonly implanted keratoprosthesis worldwide, having restored vision in thousands of patients. This article describes the initial design of the B-KPro and the modifications that have been made over many years. Additionally, some of the complications of surgical implantation and long-term care challenges, particularly complicating inflammation and glaucoma, are discussed.
Selvan H, Gupta S, Wiggs JL, Gupta V. Juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma - A clinical and genetic update. Surv Ophthalmol 2022;67(4):1099-1117.Abstract
Juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) is a subset of primary open-angle glaucoma that is diagnosed before 40 years of age. The disease may be familial or non-familial, with proportions varying among different populations. Myocilin mutations are the most commonly associated. JOAG is characterized by high intraocular pressures (IOP), with many patients needing surgery. The mean age at diagnosis is in the 3rd decade, with a male preponderance. Myopia is a common association. The pathophysiology underlying the disease is immaturity of the conventional outflow pathways, which may or may not be observed on gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography. The unique optic nerve head features include large discs with deep, steep cupping associated with high IOP-induced damage. Progression rates among JOAG patients are comparable to adult primary glaucomas, but as the disease affects younger patients, the projected disability from this disease is higher. Early diagnosis, prompt management, and life-long monitoring play an important role in preventing disease progression. Gene-based therapies currently under investigation offer future hope.
Galetta K, Ryan S, Manzano G, Chibnik LB, Balaban D, Prasad S, Chwalisz BK, Salazar-Camelo A, Conway S, Levy M, Matiello M. Treatment outcomes of first-ever episode of severe optic neuritis. Mult Scler Relat Disord 2022;66:104020.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Severe optic neuritis (ON) is an acute inflammatory attack of the optic nerve(s) leading to severe visual loss that may occur in isolation or as part of a relapsing neuroinflammatory disease, such neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD), or more rarely multiple sclerosis (MS). In cases of first-ever severe ON of uncertain etiology best treatment strategies remain unclear. METHODS: We reviewed records of all patients with a documented diagnosis of ON between 2004 and 2019 at Mass General Brigham (MGB) and Johns Hopkins University (JHU) hospitals. Out of 381 patients identified, 90 (23.6%) satisfied the study criteria for severe ON with visual acuity (VA) equal to or worse than 20/200 (logMAR=1) at nadir in the affected eye and had sufficient follow-up data. Treatment strategies with corticosteroids only or treatment escalation with therapeutic plasma exchange (PLEX) after steroids were compared and evaluated for differences in visual outcomes at follow-up. RESULTS: Of the 90 patients with severe optic neuritis, 71(78.9%) received corticosteroids only, and 19 (17.0%) underwent PLEX following corticosteroids. Of the 71 patients who received steroids without escalation to PLEX, 30 patients (42.2%) achieved complete recovery (VA 20/20 on the affected eye), whereas 35 (49.3%) had a partial recovery and 6 (8.4%) had no recovery. Among the 19 corticosteroid non-responders patients who underwent escalation treatment, 13 (68.4%) made complete recovery, 6 (31.6%) had partial visual recoveries (p=0.0434). The median delta logMAR of patients who underwent escalation of care was -1.2 compared with 2.0 for the ones who did not (p=0.0208). A change of delta logmar 2.0 is equivalent of going from hand motion to light perception and the positive delta value refers to intra-attack worsening. Other than not responding to steroids, patients who underwent PLEX tended to have more severe ON with significantly worse nadir visual acuity compared with those who received corticosteroids alone (logMAR 3.12 (min 2.0 - max 5.0) vs. 2.17 (min 1.3 - max 3.0); p=0.004). CONCLUSION: In our cohort of first-ever severe optic neuritis of unknown etiology, patients that did not respond adequately to corticosteroids benefited from treatment escalation to PLEX, followed in most cases by Rituximab, regardless of final etiology. Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm the best treatment strategies.
Feldman RM, Chuang AZ, Mansberger SL, Tanna AP, Blieden LS, Bell NP, Gross RL, Pasquale LR, Greenfield DS, Liebmann JM, Weinreb RN, Weinreb RN. Outcomes of the Second Aqueous Shunt Implant Versus Transscleral Cyclophotocoagulation Treatment Study: A Randomized Comparative Trial. J Glaucoma 2022;31(9):701-709.Abstract
PRCIS: Short-term overall success rates were high with either SGDD or CPC. However, SGDD was associated with more clinic visits and an increased risk of additional glaucoma surgery. Both treatments were reasonable options for eyes with inadequately controlled IOP after a single GDD. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to compare the implantation of a second glaucoma drainage device (SGDD) and transscleral cyclophotocoagulation (CPC) in eyes with inadequately controlled intraocular pressure (IOP), despite the presence of a preexisting glaucoma drainage device. METHODS: Patients with inadequately controlled IOP, despite the medical therapy and a preexisting glaucoma drainage device, were enrolled at 14 clinical centers and randomly assigned to treatment with a SGDD or CPC. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Surgical failure was defined as: (1) IOP ≤5 mm Hg or >18 mm Hg or <20% reduction below baseline on maximum tolerated topical ocular hypotensive therapy, (2) reoperation for glaucoma, or (3) loss of light perception. The primary outcome measure was overall success with or without adjunctive medical therapy. RESULTS: Forty-two eyes of 42 participants were randomized to SGDD (n=22) or CPC (n=20). Mean duration of follow-up was 18.6 (±12.1; range: 1.1-38.6) months. The cumulative success rate was 79% for SGDD and 88% for CPC at 1 year ( P =0.63). Although the study was underpowered, no significant differences in IOP, postoperative number of IOP-lowering medications, or adverse events were observed. The number of additional glaucoma surgeries ( P =0.003), office visits during the first 3 months ( P <0.001), and office visits per month after month 3 ( P <0.001) were greater in the SGDD group. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term overall success rates were high with either SGDD or CPC. However, SGDD was associated with more clinic visits and an increased risk of additional glaucoma surgery.
Kozycki CT, Kodati S, Huryn L, Wang H, Warner BM, Jani P, Hammoud D, Abu-Asab MS, Jittayasothorn Y, Mattapallil MJ, Tsai WL, Ullah E, Zhou P, Tian X, Soldatos A, Moutsopoulos N, Kao-Hsieh M, Heller T, Cowen EW, Lee C-CR, Toro C, Kalsi S, Khavandgar Z, Baer A, Beach M, Long Priel D, Nehrebecky M, Rosenzweig S, Romeo T, Deuitch N, Brenchley L, Pelayo E, Zein W, Sen N, Yang AH, Farley G, Sweetser DA, Briere L, Yang J, de Oliveira Poswar F, Schwartz IVD, Silva Alves T, Dusser P, Koné-Paut I, Touitou I, Titah SM, van Hagen PM, van Wijck RTA, van der Spek PJ, Yano H, Benneche A, Apalset EM, Jansson RW, Caspi RR, Kuhns DB, Gadina M, Takada H, Ida H, Nishikomori R, Verrecchia E, Sangiorgi E, Manna R, Brooks BP, Sobrin L, Hufnagel RB, Beck D, Shao F, Ombrello AK, Aksentijevich I, Kastner DL, Kastner DL. Gain-of-function mutations in ALPK1 cause an NF-κB-mediated autoinflammatory disease: functional assessment, clinical phenotyping and disease course of patients with ROSAH syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis 2022;81(10):1453-1464.Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that ROSAH (retinal dystrophy, optic nerve oedema, splenomegaly, anhidrosis and headache) syndrome, caused by dominant mutation in ALPK1, is an autoinflammatory disease. METHODS: This cohort study systematically evaluated 27 patients with ROSAH syndrome for inflammatory features and investigated the effect of ALPK1 mutations on immune signalling. Clinical, immunologic and radiographical examinations were performed, and 10 patients were empirically initiated on anticytokine therapy and monitored. Exome sequencing was used to identify a new pathogenic variant. Cytokine profiling, transcriptomics, immunoblotting and knock-in mice were used to assess the impact of ALPK1 mutations on protein function and immune signalling. RESULTS: The majority of the cohort carried the p.Thr237Met mutation but we also identified a new ROSAH-associated mutation, p.Tyr254Cys.Nearly all patients exhibited at least one feature consistent with inflammation including recurrent fever, headaches with meningeal enhancement and premature basal ganglia/brainstem mineralisation on MRI, deforming arthritis and AA amyloidosis. However, there was significant phenotypic variation, even within families and some adults lacked functional visual deficits. While anti-TNF and anti-IL-1 therapies suppressed systemic inflammation and improved quality of life, anti-IL-6 (tocilizumab) was the only anticytokine therapy that improved intraocular inflammation (two of two patients).Patients' primary samples and in vitro assays with mutated ALPK1 constructs showed immune activation with increased NF-κB signalling, STAT1 phosphorylation and interferon gene expression signature. Knock-in mice with the Alpk1 T237M mutation exhibited subclinical inflammation.Clinical features not conventionally attributed to inflammation were also common in the cohort and included short dental roots, enamel defects and decreased salivary flow. CONCLUSION: ROSAH syndrome is an autoinflammatory disease caused by gain-of-function mutations in ALPK1 and some features of disease are amenable to immunomodulatory therapy.
Li L-Y, Wang Y-Y, Gao J-W, Chen J, Kang M, Ying P, Liao XL, Wang Y, Zou J, Su T, Wei H, Shao Y. The Predictive Potential of Altered Voxel-Based Morphometry in Severely Obese Patients With Meibomian Gland Dysfunction. Front Neurosci 2022;16:939268.Abstract
Objective: To investigate voxel-based morphometry (VBM) by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in meibomian gland dysfunction patients with severe obesity (PATs) and to explore the application of VBM in the early diagnosis, prevention of cognitive impairment and targeted treatment of this disease. Methods: Sixteen PATs and 12 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled and underwent MRI. Whole-head images were analyzed using VBM and data were compared between groups using an independent samples t-test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were utilized to assess the diagnostic value of this approach. Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores were used to assess cognitive impairment and were analyzed using an independent samples t-test. Results: Compared with HCs, the VBM values in PATs were reduced in the left cerebellum and right thalamus but increased in the right brainstem, right precuneus and right paracentral lobule. The results of ROC curve analysis indicated that VBM may be useful in meibomian gland disease diagnosis. Comparison of MMSE scores between groups showed mild cognitive impairment in PATs. Conclusion: PATs showed altered VBM values in some brain areas. These findings may provide information about the pathophysiology of meibomian gland dysfunction and may help to explain the underlying mechanisms of clinical manifestations in PATs, such as cognitive impairment. Abnormal VBM values in these brain areas may serve as predictive factors for development of meibomian gland disease in severely obese people and as indicators for individualized treatment.
Trofimov AV, Aronow ME, Gragoudas ES, Keane FK, Kim IK, Shih HA, Bhagwat MS. A systematic comparison of dose distributions delivered in iodine-125 plaque brachytherapy and proton radiation therapy for ocular melanoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To characterize dose distributions with iodine-125 plaque brachytherapy as compared to proton radiation therapy for ocular melanoma, for relevant clinical scenarios, based upon tumor base diameter (d), apical height (h), and location. METHOD: Plaque and proton treatment plans were created for four groups of cases: 1) REF: 39 instances of reference midsize circular-base tumor (d=12 mm, h=5 mm), in locations varying by retinal clock hours, and distance to fovea, optic disc, corneal limbus; 2) SUP: 25 superiorly located; 3) TEMP: 25 temporal; and 4) NAS: 25 nasally located tumors that were a fixed distance from the fovea, but varying in d (6-18 mm), and h (3-11 mm). For both modalities, 111 unique scenarios were characterized in terms of the distance to points of interest, doses delivered to fovea, optic disc, optic nerve at 3 mm posterior to the disc (ON@3mm), lens, and retina. Comparative statistical evaluation was performed with the Mann-Whitney U-test. RESULTS: Superior dose distributions favored plaque for sparing of (i) fovea in large (d+h≥21 mm) NAS tumors; (ii) ON@3mm in REF cases located ≤4 dd (disc diameters) from disc, and in NAS overall. Protons achieved superior dose sparing of (i) fovea, optic disc in REF, SUP, TEMP; (ii) ON@3mm in REF >4 dd from disc, and in SUP, TEMP; (iii) the lens center overall, and lens periphery in REF ≤6 mm from the corneal limbus, and in TEMP, NAS with h≥5 mm. Although protons could completely spare sections of the retina, plaque dose was more target-conformal in the high-dose range (50% and 90% of prescription dose). CONCLUSION: Although comparison between plaque and proton therapy is not straightforward, due to the disparity in dose rate, prescriptions, applicators and delivery techniques, it is possible to identify distinctions between dose distributions, which could help inform decisions by providers and patients.
van Zyl T, Yan W, McAdams AM, Monavarfeshani A, Hageman GS, Sanes JR. Cell atlas of the human ocular anterior segment: Tissue-specific and shared cell types. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022;119(29):e2200914119.Abstract
The anterior segment of the eye consists of the cornea, iris, ciliary body, crystalline lens, and aqueous humor outflow pathways. Together, these tissues are essential for the proper functioning of the eye. Disorders of vision have been ascribed to defects in all of them; some disorders, including glaucoma and cataract, are among the most prevalent causes of blindness in the world. To characterize the cell types that compose these tissues, we generated an anterior segment cell atlas of the human eye using high-throughput single-nucleus RNA sequencing (snRNAseq). We profiled 195,248 nuclei from nondiseased anterior segment tissues of six human donors, identifying >60 cell types. Many of these cell types were discrete, whereas others, especially in the lens and cornea, formed continua corresponding to known developmental transitions that persist in adulthood. Having profiled each tissue separately, we performed an integrated analysis of the entire anterior segment, revealing that some cell types are unique to a single structure, whereas others are shared across tissues. The integrated cell atlas was then used to investigate cell type-specific expression patterns of more than 900 human ocular disease genes identified through either Mendelian inheritance patterns or genome-wide association studies.
Patel NA, Acaba-Berrocal LA, Hoyek S, Fan KC, Martinez-Castellanos MA, Baumal CR, Harper AC, Berrocal AM, of (ROPIC) RPIC. Practice Patterns and Outcomes of Intravitreal Anti-VEGF Injection for Retinopathy of Prematurity - An International Multicenter Study. Ophthalmology 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To report practice patterns of intravitreal injections of anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) for Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) and outcomes data with a focus on retreatments and complications. DESIGN: Multicenter, international, retrospective, consecutive series. SUBJECTS: Patients with ROP treated with anti-VEGF injections from 2007 to 2021. METHODS: Twenty-three sites (16 Unites States [US] and 7 non-US sites) participated. Data collected included demographics, birth characteristics, exam findings, and methods of injections. Comparisons between US and non-US sites were made. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcomes included number and types of retreatments as well as complications. Secondary outcomes included specifics of the injection protocols including types of medication, doses, distance from limbus, use of antibiotics, and quadrants where injections were delivered. RESULTS: A total of 1677 eyes of 918 patients (43% females, 57% males) were included. Mean gestational age was 25.7 weeks (range 21.2-41.5), and mean birth weight was 787 g (range 300-2,700). Overall, a 30 G needle was most commonly utilized (51%) and the quadrant injected was most frequently the inferior-temporal (51.3%). The distance from the limbus ranged from 0.75 to 2 mm, 1 mm being the most common (65%). Bevacizumab was the most common anti-VEGF (71.4%), with a dose of 0.625 mg in 64% of cases. Overall, 604 (36%) of eyes required retreatment. Of those, 79.8% were retreated with laser alone, 10.6% with anti-VEGF injection alone, and 9.6% with combined laser and injection. Complications following anti-VEGF injections occurred in 15 (0.9%) eyes and no cases of endophthalmitis were reported. Patients in the US had lower birth weights and gestational ages (665.6 g and 24.5 weeks, respectively) compared to non-US patients (912.7 g and 26.9 weeks, respectively) (p<0.0001). Retreatment with reinjection and laser was significantly more common in the US compared to the non-US group (8.5% vs 4.7% [p=0.0016] and 55% vs 7.2% [p<0.001], respectively). There was no difference in the incidence of complications between the two geographical subgroups. CONCLUSION: Anti-VEGF injections for ROP were safe and well tolerated despite a variance in practice patterns. Infants with ROP receiving injections in the United States tended to be younger, smaller, and were treated earlier with more re-treatments than non-United States neonates with ROP.
Mercado CL, Froines CP, Gaier ED, Wang Q, Indaram M, Wan MJ, Shah AS, Koo EB. Prevalence and Characteristics of Cytomegalovirus Ocular Disease in Children: A Multi-Center Study. Clin Ophthalmol 2022;16:2209-2217.Abstract
Purpose: The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of CMV ocular disease in children and to identify associated risk factors for ocular involvement. Design: Retrospective multicenter, cross-sectional study. Methods: Setting: Hospitalized patients screened for CMV viremia by PCR between 2005 and 2018 at four pediatric referral centers. Participants: Seven-hundred and ninety-three children showed CMV viremia (>135 copies/mL by polymerase chain reaction; PCR). Main Outcomes and Measures: (1) Occurrence of ophthalmologic examination. (2) Presence of CMV ocular disease, defined as retinitis, vasculitis, hemorrhage, optic nerve atrophy, or anterior uveitis in the setting of CMV viremia without other identifiable causes. Results: A total of 296/793 (37%) underwent ophthalmologic examination following CMV viremia. A total of23/296 patients (8%) had ocular symptoms prompting evaluation while the rest had eye exams for baseline screening unrelated to CMV viremia. Of these, 13 cases (4% of those with an eye exam) with ocular disease were identified (three congenital CMV, five severe combined immunodeficiency disorder (SCID) status post-stem cell transplantation, three hematologic malignancy status post-stem cell transplantation for two of them, one Evans syndrome status post-stem cell transplantation, and one medulloblastoma status post-bone marrow transplantation). No patients with solid organ transplantation developed CMV ocular disease in our cohort. Conclusion: CMV ocular disease was a rare occurrence in this cohort without an identifiable pattern across sub-groups. Excluding the three congenital CMV cases, nine out of ten patients with CMV ocular disease were status post-stem cell transplantation. We provide integrated screening guidelines based on the best available evidence for this rare condition.
Wang Y, Jacobs DS. Role of therapeutic contact lenses in management of corneal disease. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2022;33(4):306-310.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review highlights areas of innovation and research in the use of contact lenses in the treatment of corneal ectasia and ocular surface disease. RECENT FINDINGS: A series of academic reports were published by a committee of experts reviewing evidence-based practice patterns of contact lens use. There continues to be active research in the use of contact lenses in the management of keratoconus, including mini-scleral lenses, custom impression-based scleral lenses and wavefront-guided scleral lenses. Recent reports on contact lenses for ocular surface disease were primarily reviews, retrospective case reports or case series, with publications on contact lens use in corneal epithelial defects, graft-vs.-host disease, limbal stem cell deficiency and neurotrophic keratitis. There are recent publications on advances in drug-eluting contact lenses. SUMMARY: Corneal specialists should be aware of current advances in the field of contact lens expanding their use in corneal ectasia and ocular surface disease.
Meshkin RS, Zhao Y, Elze T, Boland MV, Friedman DS. Remote Video Monitoring of Simultaneous Visual Field Testing. J Glaucoma 2022;31(7):488-493.Abstract
PRCIS: In this prospective interventional case series that included 474 patients, there were no significant differences in visual field (VF) parameters between fields from patients tested one-at-a-time and simultaneously, except for fixation losses. PURPOSE: To test for differences in reliability and performance parameters of patients taking VF tests while using a remote patient monitoring system to supervise 1 or 2 test sessions simultaneously. METHODS: In a prospective interventional case series, 861 eyes of 474 consecutive patients undergoing automated perimetry during a 6-month period were monitored during the test using an audio/video-enabled remote monitoring system. Two patients were simultaneously tested (simultaneous test) by a single technician if they were ready for testing at the same time. Patients were otherwise tested individually (single test). Performance and reliability parameters including false negatives, false positives, fixation losses, mean deviation, pattern standard deviation, VF index, and test duration were compared between patients undergoing simultaneous tests and single tests. Patients undergoing remotely monitored testing, for whom a prior VF could be found, had performance and reliability parameters compared with those prior tests. VFs were analyzed separately for 2 test strategies: SITA Standard 24-2 and SITA Faster 24-2C. RESULTS: No significant parameter differences were observed among SITA Standard 24-2 VFs between single and simultaneous tests, except for fixation losses (single: 16.8±19.7%, simultaneous: 22.5±25.0%, P=0.01). Similarly, there were no significant differences observed among SITA Faster 24-2C tests. Paired analyses comparing remotely monitored VFs with prior traditionally monitored VFs showed no significant differences for any parameters, except for fewer fixation losses with remote monitoring (traditional: 23.6±27.5%, remote 17.7±20.8%, P=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Remote patient monitoring of VF testing enabled technicians to supervise testing of 2 patients simultaneously with preserved performance and reliability.
Dong L, Han H, Huang X, Ma G, Fang D, Qi H, Han Z, Wang L, Tian J, Vanhaesebroeck B, Zhang G, Zhang S, Lei H. Idelalisib inhibits experimental proliferative vitroretinopathy. Lab Invest 2022;Abstract
Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a fibrotic eye disease that develops after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery and open-globe traumatic injury. Idelalisib is a specific inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) δ. While PI3Kδ is primarily expressed in leukocytes, its expression is also considerably high in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, which play a crucial part in the PVR pathogenesis. Herein we show that GeoMx Digital Spatial Profiling uncovered strong expression of fibronectin in RPE cells within epiretinal membranes from patients with PVR, and that idelalisib (10 μM) inhibited Akt activation, fibronectin expression and collagen gel contraction induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 in human RPE cells. Furthermore, we discovered that idelalisib at a vitreal concentration of 10 μM, a non-toxic dose to the retina, prevented experimental PVR induced by intravitreally injected RPE cells in rabbits assessed by experienced ophthalmologists using an indirect ophthalmoscope plus a + 30 D fundus lens, electroretinography, optical coherence tomography and histological analysis. These data suggested idelalisib could be harnessed for preventing patients from PVR.

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