Bouffard MA, Cestari DM. Diplopia after Cataract Extraction. Semin Ophthalmol 2017;:1-6.Abstract
Diplopia after cataract extraction is an unexpected outcome for the patient and often a source of confusion for the physician, owing to its relative infrequency. This article reviews the pertinent literature on the subject. Mechanisms include anesthetic myotoxicity, surgical trauma, optical aberrations, cortical disorders in patients with congenital strabismus, and the unmasking of previously unnoticed ocular misalignment. As the population continues to age and cataract extraction is performed in increasing volume, familiarity with this uncommon but important outcome may help to clarify and effectively treat post-cataract-extraction diplopia.
Wang JC, Laíns I, Providência J, Armstrong GW, Santos AR, Gil P, Gil J, Talcott KE, Marques JH, Figueira J, Vavvas DG, Kim IK, Miller JW, Husain D, Silva R, Miller JB. Diabetic Choroidopathy: Choroidal Vascular Density and Volume in Diabetic Retinopathy With Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography. Am J Ophthalmol 2017;184:75-83.Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare choroidal vascular density (CVD) and volume (CVV) in diabetic eyes and controls, using en face swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: Setting: Multicenter. PATIENT POPULATION: Total of 143 diabetic eyes-27 with no diabetic retinopathy (DR), 47 with nonproliferative DR (NPDR), 51 with NPDR and diabetic macular edema (DME), and 18 with proliferative DR (PDR)-and 64 age-matched nondiabetic control eyes. OBSERVATION PROCEDURES: Complete ophthalmologic examination and SS-OCT imaging. En face SS-OCT images of the choroidal vasculature were binarized. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: CVD, calculated as the percent area occupied by choroidal vessels in the central macular region (6-mm-diameter circle centered on the fovea), and throughout the posterior pole (12 × 9 mm). The central macular CVV was calculated by multiplying the average CVD by macular area and choroidal thickness (obtained with SS-OCT automated software). Multilevel mixed linear models were performed for analyses. RESULTS: Compared to controls (0.31 ± 0.07), central macular CVD was significantly decreased by 9% in eyes with NPDR + DME (0.28 ± 0.06; ß = -0.03, P = .02) and by 15% in PDR (0.26 ± 0.05; ß = -0.04, P = .01). The central macular CVV was significantly decreased by 19% in eyes with PDR (0.020 ± 0.005 mm3, ß = -0.01, P = .01) compared to controls (0.025 ± 0.01 mm3). CONCLUSIONS: Choroidal vascular density and volume are significantly reduced in more advanced stages of diabetic retinopathy. New imaging modalities should allow further exploration of the contributions of choroidal vessel disease to diabetic eye disease pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatment response.
Chou J, Kosowsky T, Payal AR, Gonzalez Gonzalez LA, Daly MK. CONSTRUCT AND FACE VALIDITY OF THE EYESI INDIRECT OPHTHALMOSCOPE SIMULATOR. Retina 2017;37(10):1967-1976.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate construct and face validity of the Eyesi Binocular Indirect Ophthalmoscope Simulator. METHODS: The performance of 25 medical students (Group A) was compared with that of 17 ophthalmology and optometry trainees (Group B) on the Eyesi Binocular Indirect Ophthalmoscope Simulator. During the course of a single session, each participant viewed an orientation module followed by an instruction session and a demonstration case, and performed 6 cases of progressively increasing difficulty (4 levels) and a 10-question face validity questionnaire. Outcomes included total score, total examination time, percent retina examined, and duration of eye exposure to light. RESULTS: Group B achieved significantly better total scores than Group A on all difficulty levels (P = 0.02, P = 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.0001, for Levels 1-4, respectively) and had a significantly faster mean duration of examination (8 minutes 58 seconds vs. 5 minutes 21 seconds, P < 0.0001). Medical students reported higher scores in the face validity questionnaire for the simulator experience being helpful at orienting them to true indirect ophthalmology, and that further training on the simulator would improve their skills in the clinic (P = 0.03 for all). CONCLUSION: The Eyesi Binocular Indirect Ophthalmoscope Simulator has significant construct and face validity and shows promise for medical education.
Mantagos IS, Kleinman ME, Kieran MW, Gordon LB. Ophthalmologic Features of Progeria. Am J Ophthalmol 2017;182:126-132.Abstract
PURPOSE: To establish the natural history of ophthalmic characteristics in Progeria patients and to determine incidence of ocular manifestations. DESIGN: Retrospective case series of patients with Progeria who were seen between 2007 and 2016. METHODS: Setting: Tertiary-care academic center. PATIENT POPULATION: Fourteen patients (28 eyes) with Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome were included for statistical analysis from a total of 84 patients who have been enrolled in clinical trials for Progeria at Boston Children's Hospital. Clinical treatment trial patients who were not seen at the Department of Ophthalmology at our hospital, but for whom we had detailed clinical ophthalmologic records, were also included. This essentially represents an estimated 20% of the world's known patients with Progeria. Interventions or Observation Procedures: Complete ophthalmic examination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual acuity, stereoacuity, refraction, clinical findings of slit-lamp and dilated fundus examinations. RESULTS: Ophthalmic manifestations noted were hyperopia and signs of ocular surface disease owing to nocturnal lagophthalmos and exposure keratopathy. Additional ophthalmic manifestations included reduced brow hair, madarosis, and reduced accommodation. Most patients had relatively good acuity; however, advanced ophthalmic disease was associated with reduced acuity. CONCLUSIONS: Children with Progeria are at risk for serious ophthalmic complications owing to ocular surface disease. Children with Progeria should have an ophthalmic evaluation at the time of diagnosis and at least yearly after that. Aggressive ocular surface lubrication is recommended, including the use of tape tarsorrhaphy at night.
Iao TWU, Rong SS, Ling AN, Brelén ME, Young AL, Chong KKL. Electrophysiological Studies in Thyroid Associated Orbitopathy: A Systematic Review. Sci Rep 2017;7(1):12108.Abstract
Dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) is the commonest cause of blindness in thyroid associated orbitopathy (TAO). While diagnosis remains clinical, objective tests for eyes with early or equivocal findings are lacking. Various electrophysiological studies (EPS) have been reported, yet the types and parameters useful for DON remain inconclusive. We performed a systematic literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane databases via the OVID platform up to August 20, 2017. 437 records were identified for screening and 16 original studies (1327 eyes, 787 patients) were eligible for review. Pattern visual evoked potential (pVEP) was the most frequently studied EPS. Eyes of TAO patients with DON showed delayed P100 latencies, decreased P100 amplitudes or delayed N75 latencies during pVEP, compared to those without or healthy controls. Due to study heterogeneity, no quantitative analysis was possible. This review highlights the most common type (pVEP) and useful parameters (P100 latency and amplitude) of EPS, and supports further research on them using standardized testing conditions.
Foulsham W, Marmalidou A, Amouzegar A, Coco G, Chen Y, Dana R. Review: The function of regulatory T cells at the ocular surface. Ocul Surf 2017;15(4):652-659.Abstract
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical modulators of immune homeostasis. Tregs maintain peripheral tolerance to self-antigens, thereby preventing autoimmune disease. Furthermore, Tregs suppress excessive immune responses deleterious to the host. Recent research has deepened our understanding of how Tregs function at the ocular surface. This manuscript describes the classification, the immunosuppressive mechanisms, and the phenotypic plasticity of Tregs. We review the contribution of Tregs to ocular surface autoimmune disease, as well as the function of Tregs in allergy and infection at the ocular surface. Finally, we review the role of Tregs in promoting allotolerance in corneal transplantation.
Syed ZA, Tran JA, Jurkunas UV. Peripheral Endothelial Cell Count Is a Predictor of Disease Severity in Advanced Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy. Cornea 2017;36(10):1166-1171.Abstract
PURPOSE: In advanced Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD), central endothelial changes do not correlate with disease severity. The peripheral endothelial cell count (ECC) has not been studied as a marker of FECD severity. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between the peripheral ECC and known clinical markers of FECD in advanced cases. METHODS: Patients with FECD examined between January 1, 2013, and September 1, 2016, by 1 cornea specialist were identified. Medical records from all previous visits were reviewed to include eyes with high-quality central and peripheral in vivo confocal microscopy images performed on the same day as a clinical evaluation. Endothelial photographs were used to perform manual cell counts centrally and peripherally. Clinical grading of FECD from 1 to 4 was performed at the slit-lamp. RESULTS: We identified 154 eyes of 126 patients that met criteria for inclusion. With higher disease grades, central ECC and peripheral ECC decreased, visual acuity worsened, and central corneal thickness (CCT) increased (all P < 0.05). In patients with advanced disease (defined as either grade 3 or 4, CCT >700, or central ECC <350), the peripheral ECC was the best predictor of disease severity and had the highest number of statistically significant correlations with other clinical markers compared with competing variables. CONCLUSIONS: In advanced FECD, severity is best determined by the peripheral ECC compared with the central ECC, visual acuity, clinical disease grade, and CCT. The peripheral ECC should be added to the clinical parameters used to evaluate FECD severity.
González-Andrades M, Mata R, González-Gallardo MDC, Medialdea S, Arias-Santiago S, Martínez-Atienza J, Ruiz-García A, Pérez-Fajardo L, Lizana-Moreno A, Garzón I, Campos A, Alaminos M, Carmona G, Cuende N. A study protocol for a multicentre randomised clinical trial evaluating the safety and feasibility of a bioengineered human allogeneic nanostructured anterior cornea in patients with advanced corneal trophic ulcers refractory to conventional treatment. BMJ Open 2017;7(9):e016487.Abstract
INTRODUCTION: There is a need to find alternatives to the use of human donor corneas in transplants because of the limited availability of donor organs, the incidence of graft complications, as well as the inability to successfully perform corneal transplant in patients presenting limbal deficiency, neo-vascularized or thin corneas, etc. We have designed a clinical trial to test a nanostructured fibrin-agarose corneal substitute combining allogeneic cells that mimics the anterior human native cornea in terms of optical, mechanical and biological behaviour. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a phase I-II, randomised, controlled, open-label clinical trial, currently ongoing in ten Spanish hospitals, to evaluate the safety and feasibility, as well as clinical efficacy evidence, of this bioengineered human corneal substitute in adults with severe trophic corneal ulcers refractory to conventional treatment, or with sequelae of previous ulcers. In the initial phase of the trial (n=5), patients were sequentially recruited, with a safety period of 45 days, receiving the bioengineered corneal graft. In the second phase of the trial (currently ongoing), subjects are block randomised (2:1) to receive either the corneal graft (n=10), or amniotic membrane (n=5), as the control treatment. Adverse events, implant status, infection signs and induced neovascularization are evaluated as determinants of safety and feasibility of the bioengineered graft (main outcomes). Study endpoints are measured along a follow-up period of 24 months, including 27 post-implant assessment visits according to a decreasing frequency. Intention to treat, and per protocol, and safety analysis will be performed. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial protocol received written approval by the corresponding Ethics Committee and the Spanish Regulatory Authority and is currently recruiting subjects. On completion of the trial, manuscripts with the results of phases I and II of the study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION: identifier: NCT01765244 (Jan2013). EudraCT number: 2010-024290-40 (Dec2012).
Gipson IK, Mandel U, Menon B, Michaud S, Tisdale A, Campos D, Clausen H. Generation and characterization of a monoclonal antibody to the cytoplasmic tail of MUC16. Glycobiology 2017;27(10):920-926.Abstract
MUC16 is a large transmembrane mucin expressed on the apical surfaces of the epithelium covering the ocular surface, respiratory system and female reproductive tract. The transmembrane mucin is overexpressed by ovarian carcinomas, it is one of the most frequently used diagnostic markers for the disease and it is considered a promising target for immunotherapeutic intervention. Immunodetection of the mucin has to date been through antibodies that recognize its exceptionally large ectodomain. Similar to other membrane anchored mucins, MUC16 has a short cytoplasmic tail (CT), but studies of the biological relevance of the C-terminal domain of MUC16 has been limited by lack of availability of monoclonal antibodies that recognize the native CT. Here, we report the development of a novel monoclonal antibody to the CT region of the molecule that recognizes native MUC16 and its enzymatically released CT region. The antibody is useful for immunoprecipitation of the released CT domain as demonstrated with the OVCAR3 ovarian cancer cell line and can be used for detailed cytolocalization in cells as well as in frozen sections of ocular surface and uterine epithelium.
Poon LY-C, Solá-Del Valle D, Turalba AV, Falkenstein IA, Horsley M, Kim JH, Song BJ, Takusagawa HL, Wang K, Chen TC. The ISNT Rule: How Often Does It Apply to Disc Photographs and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measurements in the Normal Population?. Am J Ophthalmol 2017;184:19-27.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine what percentage of normal eyes follow the ISNT rule, and whether ISNT rule variants may be more generalizable to the normal population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Setting: Institutional setting. STUDY POPULATION: Total of 110 normal subjects. OBSERVATION PROCEDURES: Neuroretinal rim assessments from disc photographs and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The percentages of subjects that obeyed the ISNT rule and its variants. RESULTS: The ISNT rule is only valid for 37.0% of disc photograph rim assessments and 43.8% of RNFL measurements. Deviation of the nasal sector from the expected ISNT pattern was a major cause for the ISNT rule not being obeyed for both rim and RNFL assessments. Specifically, 10.9% of subjects had wider nasal rims than the inferior rims, 29.4% had wider nasal rims than the superior rims, 14.7% had narrower nasal rims than the temporal rims, and 42.9% had thinner nasal RNFLs compared to the temporal quadrant. Exclusion of the nasal quadrant from the ISNT rule significantly increased the validity of ISNT variant rules, with 70.9% and 76.4% of disc photographs following the IST rule and the IS rule, respectively. Similarly, for RNFL thickness, 70.9% and 71.8% of patients followed the IST and IS rule, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The ISNT rule is only valid for about a third of disc photographs and less than half of RNFL measurements in normal patients. ISNT rule variants, such as the IST and IS rule, may be considered, as they are valid in more than 70% of patients.
Corcoran P, Hollander DA, Ousler GW, Angjeli E, Rimmer D, Lane K, Abelson MB. Dynamic Sensitivity of Corneal TRPM8 Receptors to Menthol Instillation in Dry Eye Versus Normal Subjects. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2017;33(9):686-692.Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess the sensitivity of corneal cold receptors to a known transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) agonist, menthol, in dry eye and normals, and to determine whether factors such as disease duration or age affect responses. METHODS: Dry eye disease (DED) (N = 33) and normal (N = 15) subjects were randomly assigned to receive Rohto® Hydra (0.01% menthol) or Systane® Ultra treatments (OU) in a prospective, double-blind, crossover study. DED subjects had documented disease and symptom response scores >2 on a 0- to 5-point scale. Normals had no history of DED and scores <2 on the same scale. Endpoints included mean cooling score (0 = not cool and 10 = very cool) evaluated at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 min post-instillation, sum cooling scores (5 time points, range 0-60), and ocular signs and symptoms. RESULTS: Mean (±SD) ages were similar, 62.2 ± 8.6-year (DED) versus 53.5 ± 7.6-year (normal). Corneal sensitivity scores were not different between groups. Mean cooling scores at 0.5-4 min post-menthol instillation were significantly higher in DED subjects (P ≤ 0.03). Sum cooling scores were significantly higher (P = 0.04) in DED subjects with a disease duration <10 years (N = 18, 28.3 ± 2.58) versus ≥10 years (N = 15, 20.2 ± 2.76). Age did not affect cooling response in either group. CONCLUSION: DED subjects had greater sensitivity to cold than normal subjects. DED duration, and not age, was critical to cooling sensitivity. The finding that cooling scores were higher in subjects with DED for less than 10 years compared to more than 10 years suggests that corneal cold receptor sensitivity decreases as the duration of DED increases.
Ousler GW, Rimmer D, Smith LM, Abelson MB. Use of the Controlled Adverse Environment (CAE) in Clinical Research: A Review. Ophthalmol Ther 2017;6(2):263-276.Abstract
The many internal and external factors that contribute to the pathophysiology of dry eye disease (DED) create a difficult milieu for its study and complicate its clinical diagnosis and treatment. The controlled adverse environment (CAE®) model has been developed to minimize the variability that arises from exogenous factors and to exacerbate the signs and symptoms of DED by stressing the ocular surface in a safe, standardized, controlled, and reproducible manner. By integrating sensitive, specific, and clinically relevant endpoints, the CAE has proven to be a unique and adaptable model for both identifying study-specific patient populations with modifiable signs and symptoms, and for tailoring the evaluation of interventions in clinical research studies.
Khoueir Z, Jassim F, Poon LY-C, Tsikata E, Ben-David GS, Liu Y, Shieh E, Lee R, Guo R, Papadogeorgou G, Braaf B, Simavli H, Que C, Vakoc BJ, Bouma BE, de Boer JF, Chen TC. Diagnostic Capability of Peripapillary Three-dimensional Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Volume for Glaucoma Using Optical Coherence Tomography Volume Scans. Am J Ophthalmol 2017;182:180-193.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the diagnostic capability of peripapillary 3-dimensional (3D) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) volume measurements from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) volume scans for open-angle glaucoma (OAG). DESIGN: Assessment of diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: Setting: Academic clinical setting. STUDY POPULATION: Total of 180 patients (113 OAG and 67 normal subjects). OBSERVATION PROCEDURES: One eye per subject was included. Peripapillary 3D RNFL volumes were calculated for global, quadrant, and sector regions, using 4 different-size annuli. Peripapillary 2D RNFL thickness circle scans were also obtained. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratios. RESULTS: Among all 2D and 3D RNFL parameters, best diagnostic capability was associated with inferior quadrant 3D RNFL volume of the smallest annulus (AUROC value 0.977). Otherwise, global 3D RNFL volume AUROC values were comparable to global 2D RNFL thickness AUROC values for all 4 annulus sizes (P values: .0593 to .6866). When comparing the 4 annulus sizes for global RNFL volume, the smallest annulus had the best AUROC values (P values: .0317 to .0380). The smallest-size annulus may have the best diagnostic potential, partly owing to having no areas excluded for being larger than the 6 × 6 mm(2) scanned region. CONCLUSION: Peripapillary 3D RNFL volume showed excellent diagnostic performance for detecting glaucoma. Peripapillary 3D RNFL volume parameters have the same or better diagnostic capability compared to peripapillary 2D RNFL thickness measurements, although differences were not statistically significant.
Wolfe JM. Visual Attention: Size Matters. Curr Biol 2017;27(18):R1002-R1003.Abstract
When searching real-world scenes, human attention is guided by knowledge of the plausible size of target object (if an object is six feet tall, it isn't your cat). Computer algorithms typically do not do this, but perhaps they should.
Chou J, Daly MK. Reply. Retina 2017;37(10):e118.