Yee KMP, Feener EP, Madigan M, Jackson NJ, Gao B-B, Ross-Cisneros FN, Provis J, Aiello LP, Sadun AA, Sebag J. Proteomic Analysis of Embryonic and Young Human Vitreous. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;56(12):7036-42.Abstract

PURPOSE: The proteomic profile of vitreous from second-trimester human embryos and young adults was characterized using mass spectrometry and analyzed for changes in protein levels that may relate to structural changes occurring during this time. This vitreous proteome was compared to previous reports to confirm proteins already identified and reveal novel ones. METHODS: Vitreous from 17 human embryos aged 14 to 20 weeks gestation (WG) and from a 12-, a 14-, a 15-, and a 28-year-old was individually analyzed using tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Peptide spectral count associations with embryonic age were assessed using a general linear model of fold changes and Spearman's rank correlation. Differences between embryonic and young adult vitreous proteomes were also compared. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate three proteins in five additional fetal (10-18 WG) human eyes. RESULTS: There were 1217 proteins identified in fetal and young adult human vitreous, 206 after quantile normalization and variance filtering. In embryos, the peptide counts of 37 proteins changed significantly from 14 to 20 WG: 75.7% increased, 24.3% decreased. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the absence of clusterin and cadherin in 10 and 14 WG eyes and their presence at 18 WG. Comparing embryonic to young adult vitreous, 47 proteins were significantly higher or lower. A total of 768 proteins not previously identified in the literature are presented. CONCLUSIONS: Proteins previously unreported in the human vitreous were identified. The human vitreous proteome undergoes significant changes during embryogenesis and young adulthood. A number of protein levels change considerably during the second trimester, with the majority decreasing.

Gaier ED, Boudreault K, Rizzo JF, Falardeau J, Cestari DM. Atypical Optic Neuritis. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2015;15(12):76.Abstract

Classic demyelinative optic neuritis is associated with multiple sclerosis and typically carries a good prognosis for visual recovery. This disorder is well characterized with respect to its presentation and clinical features by baseline data obtained through the optic neuritis treatment trial and numerous other studies. Atypical optic neuritis entails clinical manifestations that deviate from this classic pattern of features. Clinical signs and symptoms that deviate from the typical presentation should prompt consideration of less common etiologies. Atypical features to consider include lack of pain, simultaneous or near-simultaneous onset, lack of response to or relapse upon tapering from corticosteroids, or optic nerve head or peripapillary hemorrhages. The most important alternative etiologies to consider and the steps towards their respective diagnostic evaluations are suggested for these atypical features.

Meyer Zu Horste G, Derksen A, Stassart R, Szepanowski F, Thanos M, Stettner M, Boettcher C, Lehmann HC, Hartung H-P, Kieseier BC. Neuronal ADAM10 Promotes Outgrowth of Small-Caliber Myelinated Axons in the Peripheral Nervous System. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2015;74(11):1077-85.Abstract

The regulation of myelination and axonal outgrowth in the peripheral nervous system is controlled by a complex signaling network involving various signaling pathways. Members of the A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase (ADAM) family are membrane-anchored proteinases with both proteolytic and disintegrin characteristics that modulate the function of signaling molecules. One family member, ADAM17, is known to influence myelination by cleaving and thus regulating one of the key signals, neuregulin-1, which controls peripheral nervous system myelination. A similar function for ADAM10 had been suggested by previous in vitro studies. Here, we assessed whether ADAM10 exerts a similar function in vivo and deleted ADAM10 in a cell type-specific manner in either neurons or Schwann cells. We found that ADAM10 is not required in either Schwann cells or neurons for normal myelination during development or for remyelination after injury. Instead, ADAM10 is required specifically in neurons for the outgrowth of myelinated small-fiber axons in vitro and after injury in vivo. Thus, we report for the first time a neuron-intrinsic function of ADAM10 in axonal regeneration that is distinct from that of the related protein family member ADAM17 and that may have implications for targeting ADAM function in nervous system diseases.

Jakobiec FA, Stagner AM, Lefebvre DR. Uniformly Sclerotic Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of the Orbit. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2015;Abstract

Over a year, a 51-year-old man developed a mass in the anteromedial orbit in the region of the lacrimal sac that caused epiphora. Imaging studies disclosed no bone destruction. On biopsy, a sclerotic lesion was discovered populated by hyperchromatic cells that had been apparently distorted by crush artifact, indicative of fragile cells. The lesion simulated a sclerosing inflammatory process or a desmoplastic metastatic carcinoma. CD20 revealed that the background cells were large neoplastic B-lymphocytes. A systemic workup uncovered widespread skeletal disease. The patient is undergoing R-CHOP chemotherapy with a relatively favorable prognosis due to negative testing for MYC.

Kheirkhah A, Rahimi Darabad R, Cruzat A, Hajrasouliha AR, Witkin D, Wong N, Dana R, Hamrah P. Corneal Epithelial Immune Dendritic Cell Alterations in Subtypes of Dry Eye Disease: A Pilot In Vivo Confocal Microscopic Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;56(12):7179-85.Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate density and morphology of corneal epithelial immune dendritic cells (DCs) in different subtypes of dry eye disease (DED) using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). METHODS: This retrospective study included 59 eyes of 37 patients with DED and 40 eyes of 20 age-matched healthy controls. Based on clinical tests, eyes with DED were categorized into two subtypes: aqueous-deficient (n = 35) and evaporative (n = 24). For all subjects, images of laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) of the central cornea were analyzed for DC density and DC morphology (DC size, number of dendrites, and DC field). These DC parameters were compared among all dry eye and control groups. RESULTS: Compared with the controls, patients with DED had significantly higher DC density, larger DC size, higher number of dendrites, and larger DC field (all P < 0.001). Comparison between aqueous-deficient and evaporative subtypes demonstrated that DC density was significantly higher in aqueous-deficient subtype (189.8 ± 36.9 vs. 58.9 ± 9.4 cells/mm2, P = 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in morphologic parameters between DED subtypes. When aqueous-deficient DED with underlying systemic immune disease (Sjögren's syndrome and graft versus host disease) were compared with nonimmune conditions, the immunologic subgroup showed significantly higher DC density, DC size, and number of dendrites (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Corneal IVCM demonstrated differential changes in DC density and morphologic DC parameters between subtypes of DED. These changes, which reflect the degree of immune activation and inflammation in DED, can be used for clinical practice and endpoints in clinical trials.

Odorcic S, Haas W, Gilmore MS, Dohlman CH. Fungal Infections After Boston Type 1 Keratoprosthesis Implantation: Literature Review and In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Hypochlorous Acid. Cornea 2015;34(12):1599-605.Abstract

PURPOSE: To review the current literature describing cases of fungal keratitis and endophthalmitis after Boston keratoprosthesis (KPro) implantation and to characterize the antifungal activity of 0.01% hypochlorous acid against medically relevant fungi. METHODS: A literature review of fungal keratitis or endophthalmitis in KPro patients from January 2001 to April 2015, and an in vitro time kill assay characterizing the fungicidal activity of 0.01% hypochlorous acid against fungi causing ocular infections. RESULTS: Fifteen publications, predominantly retrospective case series, were identified. Infection rates after KPro implantation ranged from 0.009 to 0.02 fungal infections per patient-year of follow-up. The largest single-surgeon series reported an incidence of 2.4% for fungal endophthalmitis during a 10-year period. Causative organisms included both yeasts and molds. Outcomes were favorable if infections were caught early and treated appropriately; less favorable outcomes were reported in developing countries where fungal species are endemic and resources are limited. 0.01% hypochlorous acid is rapidly fungicidal, reducing the number of viable yeast cells or mold conidia by at least 99.99% within 60 seconds. The antifungal activity extended to all molds (Acremonium kiliense, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium solani, and Mucor indicus) and yeast species (Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis) tested. CONCLUSIONS: Fungal infections remain a lifelong concern in patients after KPro implantation. There is a growing need for a standard antifungal prophylaxis regimen, especially in the developing world. The rapid broad-spectrum in vitro fungicidal activity of 0.01% hypochlorous acid against all fungi tested makes it an attractive candidate as an antifungal prophylaxis in KPro patients.

Pasquale LR, Hanyuda A, Ren A, Giovingo M, Greenstein SH, Cousins C, Patrianakos T, Tanna AP, Wanderling C, Norkett W, Wiggs JL, Green K, Kang JH, Knepper PA. Nailfold Capillary Abnormalities in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Multisite Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;56(12):7021-8.Abstract

PURPOSE: There is considerable evidence for systemic vascular dysfunction in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). We performed nailfold capillary video microscopy to observe directly the nature of nonocular microvasculature abnormalities in POAG. METHODS: We enrolled 199 POAG patients and 124 control subjects from four sites. We used JH-1004 capillaroscopes to perform nailfold capillary video microscopy on the fourth and fifth digits of each subject's nondominant hand. Videos were evaluated for hemorrhages, dilated capillary loops > 50 μm, and avascular zones > 100 μm by graders masked to case status. Multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for POAG were obtained by means of logistic regression analyses that were applied to data from all cases and controls. Corresponding estimates of moderate or severe POAG versus mild POAG (based on the Hodapp-Anderson-Parrish scale) were obtained among cases only. RESULTS: After controlling for demographic factors, family history of glaucoma, systemic diseases, and use of anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy, for each 100 nailfold capillaries assessed, all types of microvascular abnormalities were significantly associated with POAG. Specifically, the presence of any dilated capillaries (OR = 2.9; 95% CI, 1.6-5.6), avascular zones (OR = 4.4; 95% CI, 1.7-11.3) and hemorrhages (OR = 12.2; 95% CI, 5.9-25.1) were associated with POAG. Among cases, the frequency of microvascular abnormalities was not associated with glaucoma severity (P ≥ 0.43). CONCLUSIONS: These data provided support for nonocular capillary bed abnormalities in POAG. Comparable vascular abnormalities in the optic nerve may render it susceptible to glaucomatous damage.

for the Network WCDRCR, Gross JG, Glassman AR, Jampol LM, Inusah S, Aiello LP, Antoszyk AN, Baker CW, Berger BB, Bressler NM, Browning D, Elman MJ, Ferris FL, Friedman SM, Marcus DM, Melia M, Stockdale CR, Sun JK, Beck RW. Panretinal Photocoagulation vs Intravitreous Ranibizumab for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2015;314(20):2137-46.Abstract

IMPORTANCE: Panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) is the standard treatment for reducing severe visual loss from proliferative diabetic retinopathy. However, PRP can damage the retina, resulting in peripheral vision loss or worsening diabetic macular edema (DME). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the noninferiority of intravitreous ranibizumab compared with PRP for visual acuity outcomes in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized clinical trial conducted at 55 US sites among 305 adults with proliferative diabetic retinopathy enrolled between February and December 2012 (mean age, 52 years; 44% female; 52% white). Both eyes were enrolled for 89 participants (1 eye to each study group), with a total of 394 study eyes. The final 2-year visit was completed in January 2015. INTERVENTIONS: Individual eyes were randomly assigned to receive PRP treatment, completed in 1 to 3 visits (n = 203 eyes), or ranibizumab, 0.5 mg, by intravitreous injection at baseline and as frequently as every 4 weeks based on a structured re-treatment protocol (n = 191 eyes). Eyes in both treatment groups could receive ranibizumab for DME. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was mean visual acuity change at 2 years (5-letter noninferiority margin; intention-to-treat analysis). Secondary outcomes included visual acuity area under the curve, peripheral visual field loss, vitrectomy, DME development, and retinal neovascularization. RESULTS: Mean visual acuity letter improvement at 2 years was +2.8 in the ranibizumab group vs +0.2 in the PRP group (difference, +2.2; 95% CI, -0.5 to +5.0; P < .001 for noninferiority). The mean treatment group difference in visual acuity area under the curve over 2 years was +4.2 (95% CI, +3.0 to +5.4; P < .001). Mean peripheral visual field sensitivity loss was worse (-23 dB vs -422 dB; difference, 372 dB; 95% CI, 213-531 dB; P < .001), vitrectomy was more frequent (15% vs 4%; difference, 9%; 95% CI, 4%-15%; P < .001), and DME development was more frequent (28% vs 9%; difference, 19%; 95% CI, 10%-28%; P < .001) in the PRP group vs the ranibizumab group, respectively. Eyes without active or regressed neovascularization at 2 years were not significantly different (35% in the ranibizumab group vs 30% in the PRP group; difference, 3%; 95% CI, -7% to 12%; P = .58). One eye in the ranibizumab group developed endophthalmitis. No significant differences between groups in rates of major cardiovascular events were identified. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, treatment with ranibizumab resulted in visual acuity that was noninferior to (not worse than) PRP treatment at 2 years. Although longer-term follow-up is needed, ranibizumab may be a reasonable treatment alternative, at least through 2 years, for patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier: NCT01489189.

Dagi Glass LR, Choi CJ, Lee NG. Orbital Complication Following Calcium Hydroxylapatite Filler Injection. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2015;Abstract

Cosmetic facial fillers have gained immense popularity in recent years. Although some patients opt to undergo an injection over surgery in light of the risks of an operation, there have been numerous reports of complications from these injections, including blindness. It is thought that filler particles can migrate within an artery and become emboli within small vessels. This case of focal orbital inflammation and dysmotility as a consequence of calcium hydroxylapatite filler injection in the face has not yet been documented in the literature.

Rao R, MacIntosh PW, Yoon MK, Lefebvre DR. Current trends in the management of thyroid eye disease. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2015;26(6):484-90.Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review summarizes the body of literature concerning the medical and surgical treatment of thyroid eye disease (TED) from 1 January 2014 through 30 March 2015. RECENT FINDINGS: Corticosteroids continue to be the primary medical therapy for TED. Recent research has offered insight into potential differences between oral corticosteroid and intravenous corticosteroid treatment regimens in terms of efficacy and side-effect profiles. Steroid-sparing medications, for example, rituximab and others, are an area of active study. There has been renewed interest in the role of radiation therapy as a nonmedical treatment for TED with some promising data. The use of balanced orbital decompression techniques have become popular, although the data regarding postoperative diplopia are mixed, and 'fat decompression' offers an alternative or an augmentation to bony decompression. Stereotactic image guidance is a useful adjunct to orbital decompression surgery. SUMMARY: TED continues to be a difficult condition for the patient to cope with and for the clinician to treat, and recent research builds on the present foundation of knowledge and treatments, but unfortunately does not offer paradigm-shifting information at the present time.

Tiedemann LM, Manley P, Smith ER, Dagi LR. Visual Field Loss in a Case of Recurrent Cystic Craniopharyngioma During Concomitant Treatment With Pegylated Interferon α-2b. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2015;Abstract

A 13-year-old male with suprasellar cystic craniopharyngioma initially controlled with sequential subtotal resections and proton-beam irradiation was later treated with intracystic pegylated interferon α-2b due to progression and a lack of further surgical options. After initial successful control of recurrent cyst enlargement and stabilization of the ophthalmic examination, progressive and irreversible visual field loss ensued. Imaging revealed intracranial leakage from the intracystic catheter, and direct administration of interferon α-2b was discontinued. Given the recent interest in interferon α-2b, oncologists are advised to vigilantly monitor patients for signs of local toxicity that may result from unintended leakage during intracystic delivery.

White ML, Chodosh J, Jang J, Dohlman C. Incidence of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Chemical Burns to the Eye. Cornea 2015;34(12):1527-33.Abstract

PURPOSE: This population-based observational study was designed to estimate the incidence and distribution of SJS-spectrum (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and toxic epidermal Necrolysis/Stevens-Johnson syndrome overlap) and chemical burns (alkali or acid burn of the cornea/conjunctiva) in the United States and extrapolate these numbers to the world. METHODS: All patients evaluated in 961 hospital-based US emergency departments between July 1, 2010, and June 30, 2012 were identified retrospectively using the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. SJS-spectrum and chemical burn cases were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic codes. RESULTS: A mean of 3834 new SJS-spectrum cases per year were identified in the United States, resulting in an incidence rate of 12.35 new cases per million per year. Similarly, a mean of 15,865 new chemical burn cases per year were identified, resulting in an incidence rate of 51.10 new cases per million per year. CONCLUSIONS: If the incidence of SJS-spectrum is approximately uniform the world-over, extrapolation from the US figure would amount to approximately 86,500 new cases per year in the world. Extrapolation of ocular chemical burns to the world is difficult because the incidence and severity are anticipated to be higher in the developing world than in the United States. Still, using a US incidence rate, a minimum of 357,710 burn accidents would be expected to occur worldwide every year; there are presently too few data available to calculate the degree of severity and bilaterality.

Duminuco R, Noble JW, Goody J, Sharma M, Ksander BR, Roskelley CD, Cox ME, Mills J. Integrin-linked kinase regulates senescence in an Rb-dependent manner in cancer cell lines. Cell Cycle 2015;14(18):2924-37.Abstract

Anti-integrin-linked kinase (ILK) therapies result in aberrant mitosis including altered mitotic spindle organization, centrosome declustering and mitotic arrest. In contrast to cells that expressed the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein Rb, we have shown that in retinoblastoma cell lines that do not express Rb, anti-ILK therapies induced aberrant mitosis that led to the accumulation of temporarily viable multinucleated cells. The present work was undertaken to: 1) determine the ultimate fate of cells that had survived anti-ILK therapies and 2) determine whether or not Rb expression altered the outcome of these cells. Our data indicate that ILK, a chemotherapy drug target is expressed in both well-differentiated, Rb-negative and relatively undifferentiated, Rb-positive retinoblastoma tissue. We show that small molecule targeting of ILK in Rb-positive and Rb-deficient cancer cells results in increased centrosomal declustering, aberrant mitotic spindle formation and multinucleation. However, anti-ILK therapies in vitro have different outcomes in retinoblastoma and glioblastoma cell lines that depend on Rb expression. TUNEL labeling and propidium iodide FACS analysis indicate that Rb-positive cells exposed to anti-ILK therapies are more susceptible to apoptosis and senescence than their Rb-deficient counterparts wherein aberrant mitosis induced by anti-ILK therapies exhibit mitotic arrest instead. These studies are the first to show a role for ILK in chemotherapy-induced senescence in Rb-positive cancer lines. Taken together these results indicate that the oncosuppressive outcomes for anti-ILK therapies in vitro, depend on the expression of the tumor suppressor Rb, a known G1 checkpoint and senescence regulator.

Liu C-H, Sun Y, Li J, Gong Y, Tian KT, Evans LP, Morss PC, Fredrick TW, Saba NJ, Chen J. Endothelial microRNA-150 is an intrinsic suppressor of pathologic ocular neovascularization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2015;112(39):12163-8.Abstract

Pathologic ocular neovascularization commonly causes blindness. It is critical to identify the factors altered in pathologically proliferating versus normally quiescent vessels to develop effective targeted therapeutics. MicroRNAs regulate both physiological and pathological angiogenesis through modulating expression of gene targets at the posttranscriptional level. However, it is not completely understood if specific microRNAs are altered in pathologic ocular blood vessels, influencing vascular eye diseases. Here we investigated the potential role of a specific microRNA, miR-150, in regulating ocular neovascularization. We found that miR-150 was highly expressed in normal quiescent retinal blood vessels and significantly suppressed in pathologic neovessels in a mouse model of oxygen-induced proliferative retinopathy. MiR-150 substantially decreased endothelial cell function including cell proliferation, migration, and tubular formation and specifically suppressed the expression of multiple angiogenic regulators, CXCR4, DLL4, and FZD4, in endothelial cells. Intravitreal injection of miR-150 mimic significantly decreased pathologic retinal neovascularization in vivo in both wild-type and miR-150 knockout mice. Loss of miR-150 significantly promoted angiogenesis in aortic rings and choroidal explants ex vivo and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in vivo. In conclusion, miR-150 is specifically enriched in quiescent normal vessels and functions as an endothelium-specific endogenous inhibitor of pathologic ocular neovascularization.

Rinaldi L, Vecchi T, Fantino M, Merabet LB, Cattaneo Z. The effect of hand movements on numerical bisection judgments in early blind and sighted individuals. Cortex 2015;71:76-84.Abstract

Recent evidence suggests that in representing numbers blind individuals might be affected differently by proprioceptive cues (e.g., hand positions, head turns) than are sighted individuals. In this study, we asked a group of early blind and sighted individuals to perform a numerical bisection task while executing hand movements in left or right peripersonal space and with either hand. We found that in bisecting ascending numerical intervals, the hemi-space in which the hand was moved (but not the moved hand itself) influenced the bisection bias similarly in both early blind and sighted participants. However, when numerical intervals were presented in descending order, the moved hand (and not the hemi-space in which it was moved) affected the bisection bias in all participants. Overall, our data show that the operation to be performed on the mental number line affects the activated spatial reference frame, regardless of participants' previous visual experience. In particular, both sighted and early blind individuals' representation of numerical magnitude is mainly rooted in world-centered coordinates when numerical information is given in canonical orientation (i.e., from small to large), whereas hand-centered coordinates become more relevant when the scanning of the mental number line proceeds in non-canonical direction.