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Hong J, Qian T, Wei A, Sun Z, Wu D, Chen Y, Marmalidou A, Lu Y, Sun X, Liu Z, Amparo F, Xu J. Nasolacrimal recanalization as an alternative to external dacryocystorhinostomy for treating failed nasolacrimal duct intubation. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016;95(30):e4350.Abstract

To compare the surgical duration and clinical outcomes of nasolacrimal recanalization versus external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) in the treatment of failed nasolacrimal duct intubation.This is a retrospective, comparative, and interventional study. We evaluated the outcomes of 66 consecutive patients undergoing either nasolacrimal recanalization (n = 32) or DCR (n = 34) in a tertiary lacrimal disease referral center. Length of surgical duration, clinical outcomes, and rate of recurrence at 18 months postoperatively were compared.The mean surgical duration was 18.5 minutes (range, 15-25 minutes) for nasolacrimal recanalization and 48.2 minutes (range, 45-61 minutes) for DCR, respectively (P < 0.001). The rate of success was 84.4% in the recanalization group and 85.3% in the DCR group, respectively (P = 0.91). The time to recurrence was 2.6 ± 1.1 months in the recanalization group and 5.6 ± 2.1 months in the DCR group (P < 0.001). Five failed cases in each group received a secondary DCR surgery with the same resolution rate (40%). The absence of ocular discharge at baseline was a significant predictor for a successful outcome in the recanalization group (P = 0.04) but not in the DCR group (P = 0.63).Nasolacrimal recanalization is an effective, safe, and time-saving alternative to DCR for the treatment of failed nasolacrimal duct intubation. Clinicians should be cautious in patients with discharge.

Wong LL, Lee NG, Amarnani D, Choi CJ, Bielenberg DR, Freitag SK, D'Amore PA, Kim LA. Orbital Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis in Thyroid Eye Disease: An Analysis of Vascular Growth Factors with Clinical Correlation. Ophthalmology 2016;123(9):2028-36.Abstract

PURPOSE: The human orbit is an environment that is vulnerable to inflammation and edema in the setting of autoimmune thyroid disease. Our study investigated the tenet that orbital adipose tissue lacks lymphatic vessels and analyzed the clinicopathologic differences between patients with acute and chronic thyroid eye disease (TED). The underlying molecular mediators of blood and lymphatic vessel formation within the orbital fat also were evaluated. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: The study included fat specimens from 26 orbits of 15 patients with TED undergoing orbital decompression. Orbital fat specimens from patients without TED as well as cadaveric orbital fat served as controls. METHODS: Tissue specimens were processed as formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections or frozen cryosections for immunohistochemistry. Total RNA was extracted and analyzed via quantitative (real-time) reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Clinicopathologic correlation was made by determining the clinical activity score (CAS) of each patient with TED. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Samples were examined for vascular and lymphatic markers including podoplanin, lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1), and cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) by immunohistochemistry, as well as for mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptors, semaphorin 3F, neuropilin 1, neuropilin 2, podoplanin, and LYVE-1 by quantitative (real-time) reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Clinicopathologic correlation revealed increased staining of CD31-positive blood vessels in patients with acute TED with a CAS more than 4, as well as rare staining of podoplanin-positive lymphatic vessels within acutely inflamed orbital fat tissue. Additionally, quantitative (real-time) reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated increased expression of VEGF receptor (VEGFR) 2 as well as VEGF signaling molecules VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D. CONCLUSIONS: In acute TED, compared with chronic TED and control orbital fat, there is increased blood vessel density, suggesting neovascularization and rare lymphatic vessels suggestive of limited lymphangiogenesis. This proangiogenic and prolymphangiogenic microenvironment is likely the result of the increased expression of VEGFR-2, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D. These findings imply that orbital edema in acute TED may be mediated, in part, by both the formation of new, immature blood vessels and the formation of lymphatic capillaries that are functionally incapable of draining interstitial fluid.

Syed ZA, Chen TC. New Ultrasound Biomicroscopy Iris Findings in Juvenile Xanthogranuloma. J Glaucoma 2016;25(8):e759-60.Abstract

We report a case of juvenile xanthogranuloma in a 12-month-old girl presenting with heterochromia, hyphema, and elevated intraocular pressure. This case demonstrates new ultrasound biomicroscopy iris findings of a generalized bumpy iris contour, suggesting diffuse heterogeneous involvement. This imaging finding has not been previously described. Untreated, iris juvenile xanthogranuloma may lead to corneal blood staining, glaucoma, and amblyopia. An understanding of the full range of ultrasound features of juvenile xanthogranuloma expands our appreciation for the clinical findings in this condition.

Cocho L, Gonzalez-Gonzalez LA, Molina-Prat N, Doctor P, Sainz-de-la-Maza M, Foster SC. Scleritis in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener). Br J Ophthalmol 2016;100(8):1062-5.Abstract

AIMS: To describe and compare clinical features, complications and outcomes in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA)-associated scleritis with those seen in idiopathic and other autoimmune-associated scleritis, and to further describe the features that may serve as an indicator of life-threatening systemic disease. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed electronic health records of all patients with scleritis seen at two tertiary care centres. Of 500 patients, 14 had GPA-associated scleritis and were included in this analysis. Measures included were age, gender, laterality, visual acuity and underlying systemic or ocular diseases. Clinical features (location, pain, inflammation) and ocular complications of these patients (decrease of vision, concomitant anterior uveitis and ocular hypertension) were studied and correlated. RESULTS: Fourteen of 500 patients with scleritis were GPA associated. Most of the patients with GPA-associated scleritis presented with sudden onset, bilateral, diffuse anterior scleral inflammation, with moderate-or-severe pain. Vision loss was not significantly different, and pain was more severe in these patients than in those with idiopathic scleritis. When compared with patients with other underlying autoimmune diseases, there were no significant differences found in epidemiological or clinical signs. Necrotising scleritis and corneal involvement were more commonly observed in GPA than in idiopathic scleritis and other autoimmune diseases and are often the presenting feature of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of necrotising changes or corneal involvement in the setting of scleral inflammation is highly suggestive of an underlying systemic vasculitis, of which GPA is the most common. These features should alert the doctor/optometrist and prompt a thorough diagnostic approach and an aggressive treatment given that it could reveal a life-threatening disease.

Saeed HN, Kohanim S, Le H-G, Chodosh J, Jacobs DS. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Corneal Ectasia: Management and a Case for Association. Am J Ophthalmol 2016;169:276-81.Abstract

PURPOSE: To report the occurrence of corneal ectasia (ECT) in patients with history of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and to make the case for an association between these 2 diagnoses. We also report the impact of prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) treatment on visual acuity (VA) in these patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: A manufacturing database of PROSE patients from 2002 to 2014 at Boston Foundation for Sight (BFS), a single-center clinical practice, was reviewed to identify patients with diagnoses of both SJS and ECT. RESULTS: Nine patients were identified with diagnoses of both SJS and ECT. In each case, review of the medical record revealed that diagnosis of SJS preceded that of ECT. The prevalence of ECT in this population exceeded that in the general population (P < .0001). Videokeratography was available for 13 eyes in 7 patients; using Krumeich's classification of keratoconus, 3 eyes were found to be at stage 1, 3 at stage 2, 1 at stage 3, and 6 at stage 4. Sixteen of 18 eyes underwent PROSE treatment. Of these 16 eyes, initial median VA was 20/200 (range, count fingers to 20/20; logMAR 1.0). Median VA after PROSE customization was 20/30 (range, 20/60-20/15; logMAR 0.1761, P < .0025). CONCLUSIONS: ECT occurs at a higher-than-expected rate in patients with a history of SJS. PROSE treatment improves VA in these patients. The basis of the association between SJS and ECT is considered, as well as the role of plausible contributory factors such as corneal microtrauma and matrix metalloproteinases.

Annunziata R, Kheirkhah A, Aggarwal S, Hamrah P, Trucco E. A fully automated tortuosity quantification system with application to corneal nerve fibres in confocal microscopy images. Med Image Anal 2016;32:216-32.Abstract

Recent clinical research has highlighted important links between a number of diseases and the tortuosity of curvilinear anatomical structures like corneal nerve fibres, suggesting that tortuosity changes might detect early stages of specific conditions. Currently, clinical studies are mainly based on subjective, visual assessment, with limited repeatability and inter-observer agreement. To address these problems, we propose a fully automated framework for image-level tortuosity estimation, consisting of a hybrid segmentation method and a highly adaptable, definition-free tortuosity estimation algorithm. The former combines an appearance model, based on a Scale and Curvature-Invariant Ridge Detector (SCIRD), with a context model, including multi-range learned context filters. The latter is based on a novel tortuosity estimation paradigm in which discriminative, multi-scale features can be automatically learned for specific anatomical objects and diseases. Experimental results on 140 in vivo confocal microscopy images of corneal nerve fibres from healthy and unhealthy subjects demonstrate the excellent performance of our method compared to state-of-the-art approaches and ground truth annotations from 3 expert observers.

Modest JR, Johnston SC, Majzoub KM, Moore B, Trudell EK, Ramsey JE, Vernacchio L. Results of a primary care-based quality improvement project to optimize chart-based vision screening for preschool age children. J AAPOS 2016;Abstract

PURPOSE: To design chart-based vision screening for preschool-aged children. METHODS: Our program consisted of educational sessions for providers as well as hands-on training for practice staff. We evaluated the intervention through pre- and post-intervention review of medical records. RESULTS: Completion of full vision screening (distance visual acuity in each eye plus stereovision beginning at 3 years of age, as recommended at the time of the project) at well-child visits improved for 5-year-olds (45.0% to 58.2%; risk difference +13.2% [95% CI, 1.7-24.7]) and 4-year-olds (39.3% to 51.4%; risk difference +12.0% [95% CI, 0.7-23.4]) but declined somewhat among 3-year-olds (23.1% to 14.3%; risk difference, -8.8% [95% CI, -17.7 to 0.0]). Risk factors for not being fully screened included being 3 years old (risk ratio of 4.1 compared to 5-year-olds) and being a patient of a small practice (risk ratio of 1.9 compared to large practices). CONCLUSIONS: This quality improvement project showed that screening for visual acuity and stereovision among preschool-aged children using chart-based techniques is difficult to accomplish and unlikely to be consistently successful, especially among 3-year-olds.

Kang JH, Wu J, Cho E, Ogata S, Jacques P, Taylor A, Chiu C-J, Wiggs JL, Seddon JM, Hankinson SE, Schaumberg DA, Pasquale LR. Contribution of the Nurses' Health Study to the Epidemiology of Cataract, Age-Related Macular Degeneration, and Glaucoma. Am J Public Health 2016;106(9):1684-9.Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To review the contribution of the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) to understanding the genetic and lifestyle factors that influence the risk of cataract, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma. METHODS: We performed a narrative review of the publications of the NHS between 1976 and 2016. RESULTS: The NHS has helped to elucidate the roles of genetics, lifestyle factors (e.g., cigarette smoking associated with cataract extraction and age-related macular degeneration), medical conditions (e.g., diabetes associated with cataract extraction and glaucoma), and dietary factors (e.g., greater carotenoid intake and lower glycemic diet associated with lower risk of age-related macular degeneration) in the etiology of degree and progression of lens opacities, cataract extraction, age-related macular degeneration, primary open-angle glaucoma, and exfoliation glaucoma. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from the NHS, combined with those of other studies, have provided compelling evidence to support public health recommendations for helping to prevent age-related eye diseases: abstinence from cigarette smoking, maintenance of healthy weight and diabetes prevention, and a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables.

Ismail AM, Lee JS, Dyer DW, Seto D, Rajaiya J, Chodosh J. Selection Pressure in the Human Adenovirus Fiber Knob Drives Cell Specificity in Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis. J Virol 2016;90(21):9598-9607.Abstract

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) contain seven species (HAdV-A to -G), each associated with specific disease conditions. Among these, HAdV-D includes those viruses associated with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC), a severe ocular surface infection. The reasons for corneal tropism for some but not all HAdV-Ds are not known. The fiber protein is a major capsid protein; its C-terminal "knob" mediates binding with host cell receptors to facilitate subsequent viral entry. In a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of HAdV-D capsid genes, fiber knob gene sequences of HAdV-D types associated with EKC formed a unique clade. By proteotyping analysis, EKC virus-associated fiber knobs were uniquely shared. Comparative structural modeling showed no distinct variations in fiber knobs of EKC types but did show variation among HAdV-Ds in a region overlapping with the known CD46 binding site in HAdV-B. We also found signature amino acid positions that distinguish EKC from non-EKC types, and by in vitro studies we showed that corneal epithelial cell tropism can be predicted by the presence of a lysine or alanine at residue 240. This same amino acid residue in EKC viruses shows evidence for positive selection, suggesting that evolutionary pressure enhances fitness in corneal infection, and may be a molecular determinant in EKC pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE: Viruses adapt various survival strategies to gain entry into target host cells. Human adenovirus (HAdV) types are associated with distinct disease conditions, yet evidence for connections between genotype and cellular tropism is generally lacking. Here, we provide a structural and evolutionary basis for the association between specific genotypes within HAdV species D and epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, a severe ocular surface infection. We find that HAdV-D fiber genes of major EKC pathogens, specifically the fiber knob gene region, share a distinct phylogenetic clade. Deeper analysis of the fiber gene revealed that evolutionary pressure at crucial amino acid sites has a significant impact on its structural conformation, which is likely important in host cell binding and entry. Specific amino acids in hot spot residues provide a link to ocular cell tropism and possibly to corneal pathogenesis.

Greenwald SH, Charette JR, Staniszewska M, Shi LY, Brown SDM, Stone L, Liu Q, Hicks WL, Collin GB, Bowl MR, Krebs MP, Nishina PM, Pierce EA. Mouse Models of NMNAT1-Leber Congenital Amaurosis (LCA9) Recapitulate Key Features of the Human Disease. Am J Pathol 2016;186(7):1925-38.Abstract

The nicotinamide nucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 (NMNAT1) enzyme is essential for regenerating the nuclear pool of NAD(+) in all nucleated cells in the body, and mounting evidence also suggests that it has a separate role in neuroprotection. Recently, mutations in the NMNAT1 gene were associated with Leber congenital amaurosis, a severe retinal degenerative disease that causes blindness during infancy. Availability of a reliable mammalian model of NMNAT1-Leber congenital amaurosis would assist in determining the mechanisms through which disruptions in NMNAT1 lead to retinal cell degeneration and would provide a resource for testing treatment options. To this end, we identified two separate N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-generated mouse lines that harbor either a p.V9M or a p.D243G mutation. Both mouse models recapitulate key aspects of the human disease and confirm the pathogenicity of mutant NMNAT1. Homozygous Nmnat1 mutant mice develop a rapidly progressing chorioretinal disease that begins with photoreceptor degeneration and includes attenuation of the retinal vasculature, optic atrophy, and retinal pigment epithelium loss. Retinal function deteriorates in both mouse lines, and, in the more rapidly progressing homozygous Nmnat1(V9M) mutant mice, the electroretinogram becomes undetectable and the pupillary light response weakens. These mouse models offer an opportunity for investigating the cellular mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis, evaluating potential therapies for NMNAT1-Leber congenital amaurosis, and conducting in situ studies on NMNAT1 function and NAD(+) metabolism.

Ying G-S, Vanderveen D, Daniel E, Quinn GE, Baumritter A, to of Group TAEA-PRPC. Risk Score for Predicting Treatment-Requiring Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) in the Telemedicine Approaches to Evaluating Acute-Phase ROP Study. Ophthalmology 2016;123(10):2176-82.Abstract

PURPOSE: To develop a risk score for predicting treatment-requiring retinopathy of prematurity (TR-ROP) in the Telemedicine Approaches to Evaluating Acute-Phase Retinopathy of Prematurity (e-ROP) study. DESIGN: Second analyses of an observational cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Infants with birth weight (BW) <1251 g who had ≥1 imaging session by 34 weeks of postmenstrual age (PMA) and ≥1 subsequent retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) examination for determining TR-ROP by study-certified ophthalmologists. METHODS: Nonphysician trained readers evaluated wide-field retinal image sets for characteristics of ROP, pre-plus/plus disease, and retinal hemorrhage. Risk score points for predicting TR-ROP were derived from the regression coefficients of significant predictors in a multivariate logistic regression model. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: TR-ROP. RESULTS: Eighty-five of 771 infants (11.0%) developed TR-ROP. In a multivariate model, significant predictors for TR-ROP were gestational age (GA) (odds ratio [OR], 5.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-18.9 for ≤25 vs. ≥28 weeks), need for respiratory support (OR, 7.0; 95% CI, 1.3-37.1 for high-frequency oscillatory ventilation vs. no respiratory support), slow weight gain (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.6 for weight gain ≤12 g/day vs. >15 g/day), and image findings at the first image session including number of quadrants with pre-plus (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.5-9.7 for 4 pre-plus quadrants vs. no pre-plus), stage and zone of ROP (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 2.1-11.8 for stage 1-2 zone I, OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 2.1-16.6 for stage 3 zone I vs. no ROP), and presence of blot hemorrhage (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.4-6.7). Image findings predicted TR-ROP better than GA (area under receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.82 vs. 0.75, P = 0.03). The risk of TR-ROP steadily increased with higher risk score and predicted TR-ROP well (AUC = 0.88; 95% CI, 0.85-0.92). Risk score ≥3 points for predicting TR-ROP had a sensitivity of 98.8%, specificity of 40.1%, and positive and negative predictive values of 17.0% and 99.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Image characteristics at 34 PMA weeks or earlier independently predict TR-ROP. If externally validated in other infants, risk score, calculated from image findings, GA, weight gain, and respiratory support, enables early identification of infants in need of increased surveillance for TR-ROP.

Ebrahimiadib N, Abusamra K, Domina AM, Stiles ER, Ewer R, Bocian CP, Foster SC. A Novel NOD2-associated Mutation and Variant Blau Syndrome: Phenotype and Molecular Analysis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2016;:1-8.Abstract

PURPOSE: To describe the clinical and molecular implications of a novel mutation in the NOD2/CARD15 gene on a family and its seven affected members. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical presentations of family members who came to our center for refractory uveitis. Genetic testing and molecular testing was performed. RESULTS: All affected members had adult onset recurrent non-granulomatous panuveitis. The inheritance pattern suggested an autosomal dominant disease and genetic analysis identified a novel mutation in the NOD2 gene that converted amino acid 600 from glutamate to alanine (E600A). Transfection of the E600A NOD2 into human embryonic kidney-293 (HEK293) cells revealed constitutive activation and a reduced ability to respond to the NOD2 ligand, muramyl dipeptide (MDP) as compared with wild-type NOD2. CONCLUSIONS: The E600A mutation in the NOD2 gene may confer a higher penetrance of uveitis but a later onset of milder forms of non-ocular involvement.

Vodopivec I, Cho TA, Rizzo JF, Frosch MP, Sims KB. Mitochondrial Encephalopathy and Optic Neuropathy Due to m.10158 MT-ND3 Complex I Mutation Presenting in an Adult Patient: Case Report and Review of the Literature. Neurologist 2016;21(4):61-5.Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Establishing a diagnosis of mitochondrial disease in adults remains a clinician's challenge. We report a case of syndrome reminiscent of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) in an adult patient who carries m.10158T>C mutation in complex I respiratory chain gene MT-ND3 (mitochondrially encoded NADH dehydrogenase 3). CASE REPORT: This 26-year-old man from Thailand presented with new-onset headaches, seizures, stroke-like episodes, and poor vision due to optic neuropathy and cortical blindness. Instead of expected mutations in the mitochondrial tRNA gene that are frequently associated with MELAS, the mutation in MT-ND3 with variable tissue heteroplasmy (blood 5.3%, muscle 89.5%) was demonstrated. The patient's clinical features, blood biomarkers, neuroimaging findings, muscle biopsy with histochemical and functional in vitro analysis, and genetic studies were analyzed and compared with all previously reported ND3 disease cases. CONCLUSIONS: ND3 disease due to m.10158T>C mutation was previously described only in patients with Leigh or Leigh-like syndrome. Our findings thus indicate that ND3 disease can manifest with atypical phenotype in adults. The diagnosis of mitochondrial disease caused by other than typical MELAS-associated mutations in adults with stroke-like episodes, headaches, and seizures should be considered. An analysis of tissue other than blood, which is more likely to harbor a tissue-specific mitochondrial DNA mutation at a measurable level, may be necessary for diagnosis.

da Cruz L, Dorn JD, Humayun MS, Dagnelie G, Handa J, Barale P-O, Sahel J-A, Stanga PE, Hafezi F, Safran AB, Salzmann J, Santos A, Birch D, Spencer R, Cideciyan AV, de Juan E, Duncan JL, Eliott D, Fawzi A, Olmos de Koo LC, Ho AC, Brown G, Haller J, Regillo C, Del Priore LV, Arditi A, Greenberg RJ, Greenberg RJ. Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial. Ophthalmology 2016;123(10):2248-54.Abstract

PURPOSE: The Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System (Second Sight Medical Products, Inc, Sylmar, CA) was developed to restore some vision to patients blind as a result of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) or outer retinal degeneration. A clinical trial was initiated in 2006 to study the long-term safety and efficacy of the Argus II System in patients with bare or no light perception resulting from end-stage RP. DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter, single-arm clinical trial. Within-patient controls included the nonimplanted fellow eye and patients' native residual vision compared with their vision with the Argus II. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty participants in 10 centers in the United States and Europe. METHODS: The worse-seeing eye of blind patients was implanted with the Argus II. Patients wore glasses mounted with a small camera and a video processor that converted images into stimulation patterns sent to the electrode array on the retina. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measures were safety (the number, seriousness, and relatedness of adverse events) and visual function, as measured by 3 computer-based, objective tests. Secondary measures included functional vision performance on objectively scored real-world tasks. RESULTS: Twenty-four of 30 patients remained implanted with functioning Argus II Systems at 5 years after implantation. Only 1 additional serious adverse event was experienced after the 3-year time point. Patients performed significantly better with the Argus II on than off on all visual function tests and functional vision tasks. CONCLUSIONS: The 5-year results of the Argus II trial support the long-term safety profile and benefit of the Argus II System for patients blind as a result of RP. The Argus II is the first and only retinal implant to have market approval in the European Economic Area, the United States, and Canada.

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