Shanbhag SS, Rashad R, Chodosh J, Saeed HN. Long-Term Effect of a Treatment Protocol for Acute Ocular Involvement in Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis. Am J Ophthalmol 2019;208:331-341.Abstract
PURPOSE: To describe the long-term effect of a treatment protocol for ocular involvement in acute Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN), including focused ocular examination and pathology-appropriate use of lubrication, topical corticosteroids, topical antibiotics, and amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT). DESIGN: Retrospective, comparative case series. METHODS: A total of 48 patients (96 eyes) were included in this study. Nine of 48 patients (18 eyes) had acute SJS/TEN from 2000 to 2007 and did not receive protocol care (Group I). Thirty-nine of 48 patients (78 eyes) had acute SJS/TEN from 2008 to 2017 and received protocol care (Group II). The main outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at final follow-up visit and incidence of complications in the chronic phase. RESULTS: No eyes in Group I received AMT for SJS/TEN, compared to 87% of qualifying eyes in Group II (P < .0001) There was a significant difference in the proportion of eyes with BCVA ≥20/40 at last follow-up between Group I and Group II (33% vs 92%, P < .001). The proportion of eyes with vision-threatening complications in the chronic phase was significantly higher in Group I versus Group II (67% vs 17%, P = .002), with most complications occurring in the first 2 years after disease onset in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: A specific protocol for acute ocular care in SJS/TEN, including aggressive use of AMT, was highly successful in reducing corneal blindness and severe vision-threatening complications of the disorder.
Dorr M, Kwon MY, Lesmes LA, Miller A, Kazlas M, Chan K, Hunter DG, Lu Z-L, Bex PJ. Binocular Summation and Suppression of Contrast Sensitivity in Strabismus, Fusion and Amblyopia. Front Hum Neurosci 2019;13:234.Abstract
: Amblyopia and strabismus affect 2%-5% of the population and cause a broad range of visual deficits. The response to treatment is generally assessed using visual acuity, which is an insensitive measure of visual function and may, therefore, underestimate binocular vision gains in these patients. On the other hand, the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) generally takes longer to assess than visual acuity, but it is better correlated with improvement in a range of visual tasks and, notably, with improvements in binocular vision. The present study aims to assess monocular and binocular CSFs in amblyopia and strabismus patients. : Both monocular CSFs and the binocular CSF were assessed for subjects with amblyopia ( = 11), strabismus without amblyopia ( = 20), and normally sighted controls ( = 24) using a tablet-based implementation of the quick CSF, which can assess a full CSF in <3 min. Binocular summation was evaluated against a baseline model of simple probability summation. : The CSF of amblyopic eyes was impaired at mid-to-high spatial frequencies compared to fellow eyes, strabismic eyes without amblyopia, and control eyes. Binocular contrast summation exceeded probability summation in controls, but not in subjects with amblyopia (with or without strabismus) or strabismus without amblyopia who were able to fuse at the test distance. Binocular summation was less than probability summation in strabismic subjects who were unable to fuse. : We conclude that monocular and binocular contrast sensitivity deficits define important characteristics of amblyopia and strabismus that are not captured by visual acuity alone and can be measured efficiently using the quick CSF.
Parikh R, Avery RL, Saroj N, Thompson D, Freund BK. Incidence of New Choroidal Neovascularization in Fellow Eyes of Patients With Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treated With Intravitreal Aflibercept or Ranibizumab. JAMA Ophthalmol 2019;Abstract
Importance: Incidence of conversion to neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in untreated fellow eyes of patients who are treated for nAMD in 1 eye with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents provides important prognostic information to clinically manage patients. Objective: To investigate the association of treatment assignment (intravitreal aflibercept vs ranibizumab) and baseline characteristics with fellow eye conversion to nAMD in the VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) Trap-Eye: Investigation of Efficacy and Safety in Wet AMD (VIEW) studies. Design, Setting, and Participants: This post hoc analysis of the VIEW 1 and VIEW 2 studies (randomized, double-masked, active-controlled, multicenter, 96-week, phase 3 trials comparing the efficacy and safety of intravitreal aflibercept in 2457 patients with treatment-naive eyes with nAMD) analyzed a subgroup of participants treated for nAMD in 1 eye who had untreated fellow eyes without neovascularization at baseline. All participants in the VIEW studies were included in 1 of 4 groups: ranibizumab, 0.5 mg, every 4 weeks; aflibercept, 2 mg, every 4 weeks; aflibercept, 0.5 mg, every 4 weeks; or aflibercept, 2 mg, every 8 weeks after 3 injections at 4-week intervals. Data collection in the VIEW studies occurred from July 2007 to August 2011; the data analysis presented in this report took place from April 2016 to November 2018. Interventions: Patients received no treatment in the fellow eyes unless after conversion to nAMD, when any treatment approved by heath authorities was given per the investigators' discretion. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of conversion to nAMD in patients with untreated fellow eyes that had not had clinical signs of neovascularization at baseline. Results: A total of 1561 participants were included in this analysis. At 96 weeks, 375 patients (24.0%) experienced cases of conversion to neovascular disease in the fellow eye, including 107 of the 399 individuals who received ranibizumab, 0.5 mg, every 4 weeks; 93 of the 387 individuals who received aflibercept, 2 mg, every 4 weeks; 84 of the 387 individuals who received aflibercept, 0.5 mg, every 4 weeks; and 91 of the 388 individuals who received aflibercept, 2 mg, every 8 weeks after 3 doses at 4-week intervals. The rates were 18.1, 16.2, 14.7, and 16.0 per 100 patient-years at risk at week 96, respectively. On multivariate analysis, fellow eye conversion was associated with increasing patient age (per 10 years) at baseline (hazard ratio [HR], 1.20 [95% CI, 1.05-1.36]), female sex (HR, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.06-1.63]), intraretinal fluid in the study eye at baseline (HR, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.02-1.61]), and increasing choroidal neovascularization lesion size (per 10 mm2) in the study eye at baseline (HR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.06-1.57]). Rates of fellow eye conversion were similar with either of the treatments. Conclusions and Relevance: In this secondary analysis of randomized clinical trial data, patients with active nAMD in 1 eye appeared to have a high risk for fellow eye conversion. Such patients should be monitored closely.
Shukla S, Mittal SK, Foulsham W, Elbasiony E, Singhania D, Sahu SK, Chauhan SK. Therapeutic efficacy of different routes of mesenchymal stem cell administration in corneal injury. Ocul Surf 2019;Abstract
PURPOSE: Corneal injuries are associated with significant impairment in vision. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to limit inflammation and promote tissue repair at the ocular surface. Here, we evaluate the efficacies of different modes of MSC delivery (topical, subconjunctival, intraperitoneal [IP] and intravenous [IV]) to promote tissue repair and restore corneal transparency in a murine model of corneal injury. METHODS: MSCs were purified from the bone marrow of C57BL/6 J mice and expanded using plastic adherence in vitro. Corneal injury was created using an Algerbrush, and 0.5 × 10 MSCs/mouse were administered via topical, subconjunctival, IP or IV routes. Qdot-labeled MSCs were employed to determine the effect of route of administration on corneal and conjunctival MSC frequencies. Corneal opacity scores were calculated using ImageJ. Expression of inflammatory cytokines was quantified by qPCR, and infiltration of CD45 cells was evaluated by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Subconjunctival or IV administration results in increased frequencies of MSCs in ocular surface tissues following corneal injury, relative to topical or intraperitoneal delivery. Subconjunctival or IV administration reduces: (i) corneal opacity, (ii) tissue fibrosis as quantified by α-Sma expression, (iii) the expression of inflammatory cytokines (Il-1β and Tnf-α) and (iv) CD45 inflammatory cell infiltration relative to untreated injured control animals. Administration via subconjunctival or IV routes was observed to accelerate corneal repair by restoring tissue architecture and epithelial integrity. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that subconjunctival or IV delivery of MSCs have superior therapeutic efficacy compared to topical or IP delivery following corneal injury.
Wang J, Xu D, Zhu T, Zhou Y, Chen X, Wang F, Zhang J, Tian H, Gao F, Zhang J, Jin C, Xu J, Lu L, Liu Q, Xu G-T. Identification of two novel RHO mutations in Chinese retinitis pigmentosa patients. Exp Eye Res 2019;188:107726.Abstract
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of genetically heterogeneous retinal diseases with more than 80 identified causative genes to date. Mutations in the RHO (rhodopsin, OMIM, 180380) are the most common cause of autosomal dominant RP (adRP) worldwide. RHO is also one of the few RP genes that can cause autosomal recessive RP (arRP). To explore the frequency of RP mutations in Chinese populations, panel-based NGS (next-generation sequencing) screening and Sanger sequencing validation were performed for RP patients from 72 unrelated Chinese families. Here we reported the identified mutations only in the RHO gene. Our results showed that 4 mutations in RHO were detected in 5 (6.94%) of the 72 RP families, including two known missense mutations, c.158C > G (p.P53R) and c.551A > C (p.Q184P), and two novel mutations, c.34delC (p.P12NA) and c.82C > T (p.Q28X). The c.34delC (p.P12NA) mutation was detected in heterozygous state in one patient with intermediate RP phenotype. The c.82C > T (p.Q28X) mutation was found in a homozygous state in one proband with advanced RP phenotype at the age of 32. Clinical examination of the heterozygous carriers of c.82C > T (p.Q28X) in that family showed that the father at the age of 60s experienced no symptoms of RP and normal fundus examinations but displayed reduced electroretinography (ERG) and abnormal visual field. The sister and brother at the age of 30s showed no typical aspects of RP phenotypes. Our results not only expand the mutation spectrum of the RHO gene, but also suggest that the 2 null mutations might play minor dominant effects, leading to less severe and slower retinal degeneration in heterozygous state and more severe phenotype in homozygous state.
AbuSamra DB, Mauris J, Argüeso P. Galectin-3 initiates epithelial-stromal paracrine signaling to shape the proteolytic microenvironment during corneal repair. Sci Signal 2019;12(590)Abstract
Paracrine interactions between epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts occur during tissue repair, development, and cancer. Crucial to these processes is the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that modify the microenvironment. Here, we demonstrated that the carbohydrate-binding protein galectin-3 stimulated microenvironment remodeling in the cornea by promoting the paracrine action of secreted interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Through live cell imaging in vitro, we observed rapid activation of the promoter in clusters of cultured human epithelial cells after direct heterotypic contact with single primary human fibroblasts. Soluble recombinant galectin-3 and endogenous galectin-3 of epithelial origin both stimulated MMP9 activity through the induction of IL-1β secretion by fibroblasts. In vivo, mechanical disruption of the basement membrane in wounded corneas prompted an increase in the abundance of IL-1β in the stroma and increased the amount of gelatinase activity in the epithelium. Moreover, corneas of galectin-3-deficient mice failed to stimulate IL-1β after wounding. This mechanism of paracrine control has broad importance for our understanding of how the proteolytic microenvironment is modified in epithelial-stromal interactions.
Koulisis N, Moysidis SN, Yonekawa Y, Dai YL, Burkemper B, Wood EH, Lertjirachai I, Todorich B, Khundkar TZ, Chu Z, Wang RK, Williams GA, Drenser KA, Capone A, Trese MT, Nudleman E. Correlating Changes in the Macular Microvasculature and Capillary Network to Peripheral Vascular Pathologic Features in Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy. Ophthalmol Retina 2019;3(7):597-606.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the macular microvasculature in patients with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) using OCT angiography (OCTA) and to assess for peripheral vascular changes using widefield fluorescein angiography (WFA). DESIGN: Multicenter, retrospective, comparative, observational case series. PARTICIPANTS: We identified 411 patients with FEVR, examined between September 2014 and June 2018. Fifty-seven patients with FEVR and 60 healthy controls had OCTA images of sufficient quality for analysis. METHODS: Custom software was used to assess for layer-specific, quantitative changes in vascular density and morphologic features on OCTA by way of vessel density (VD), skeletal density (SD), fractal dimension (FD), vessel diameter index (VDI), and foveal avascular zone (FAZ). Widefield fluorescein angiography images were reviewed for peripheral vascular changes including capillary dropout, late-phase angiographic posterior and peripheral vascular leakage (LAPPEL), vascular dragging, venous-venous shunts, and arteriovenous shunts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Macular microvascular parameters on OCTA and peripheral angiographic findings on WFA. RESULTS: OCT angiography analysis of 117 patients (187 eyes; 92 FEVR patients and 95 control participants) demonstrated significantly reduced VD, SD, and FD and greater VDI in patients with FEVR compared with controls in the nonsegmented retina, superficial retinal layer (SRL), and deep retinal layer (DRL). The FAZ was larger compared with that in control eyes in the DRL (P < 0.0001), but not the SRL (P = 0.52). Subanalysis by FEVR stage showed the same microvascular changes compared with controls for all parameters. Widefield fluorescein angiography analysis of 95 eyes (53 patients) with FEVR demonstrated capillary nonperfusion in all eyes: 47 eyes (49.5%) showed LAPPEL, 32 eyes (33.7%) showed vascular dragging, 30 eyes (31.6%) had venous-venous shunts, and 33 eyes (34.7%) had arteriovenous shunts. Decreasing macular VD on OCTA correlated with increasing peripheral capillary nonperfusion on WFA. Decreasing fractal dimension on OCTA correlated with increasing LAPPEL severity on WFA. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with FEVR demonstrated abnormalities in the macular microvasculature and capillary network, in addition to the peripheral retina. The macular microvascular parameters on OCTA may serve as biomarkers of changes in the retinal periphery on WFA.
Chen X, Sullivan BD, Rahimi Darabad R, Liu S, Kam WR, Sullivan DA. Are BALB/c Mice Relevant Models for Understanding Sex-Related Differences in Gene Expression in the Human Meibomian Gland?. Cornea 2019;38(12):1554-1562.Abstract
BACKGROUND: A compelling feature of dry eye disease is that it occurs predominantly in women. We hypothesize that this female prevalence is linked to sex-related differences in the meibomian gland (MG). This gland plays a critical role in maintaining the tear film, and its dysfunction is a major cause of dry eye disease. To understand the factors that underlie MG sexual dimorphism and promote dry eye in women, we seek to identify an optimal model for the human MG. Our goal was to determine whether a murine MG is such a model. Toward that end, we examined whether sex differences in MG gene expression are the same in BALB/c mice and humans. METHODS: Eyelid tissues were collected from humans (n = 5-7/sex) and BALB/c mice (n = 9/sex). MGs were isolated and processed for the evaluation of gene expression by using microarrays and bioinformatics software. RESULTS: Our analysis of the 500 most highly expressed genes from human and mouse MGs showed that only 24.4% were the same. Our comparison of 100 genes with the greatest sex-associated differences in human and mouse MGs demonstrated that none were the same. Sex also exerted a significant impact on numerous ontologies, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, and chromosomes, but these effects were primarily species-specific. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that BALB/c mice are not optimal models for understanding sex-related differences in gene expression of the human MG.
Mittal SK, Foulsham W, Shukla S, Elbasiony E, Omoto M, Chauhan SK. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Modulate Corneal Alloimmunity via Secretion of Hepatocyte Growth Factor. Stem Cells Transl Med 2019;8(10):1030-1040.Abstract
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that participate in tissue repair and possess considerable immunomodulatory potential. MSCs have been shown to promote allograft survival, yet the mechanisms behind this phenomenon have not been fully defined. Here, we investigate the capacity of MSCs to suppress the allogeneic immune response by secreting the pleiotropic molecule hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Using an in vivo mouse model of corneal transplantation, we report that MSCs promote graft survival in an HGF-dependent manner. Moreover, our data indicate that topically administered recombinant HGF (a) suppresses antigen-presenting cell maturation in draining lymphoid tissue, (b) limits T-helper type-1 cell generation, (c) decreases inflammatory cell infiltration into grafted tissue, and (d) is itself sufficient to promote transplant survival. These findings have potential translational implications for the development of HGF-based therapeutics. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2019;8:1030-1040.
Mathys H, Davila-Velderrain J, Peng Z, Gao F, Mohammadi S, Young JZ, Menon M, He L, Abdurrob F, Jiang X, Martorell AJ, Ransohoff RM, Hafler BP, Bennett DA, Kellis M, Tsai L-H. Author Correction: Single-cell transcriptomic analysis of Alzheimer's disease. Nature 2019;571(7763):E1.Abstract
Change history: In this Article, the Acknowledgements section should have included that the work was supported in part by the Cure Alzheimer's Fund (CAF), and the final NIH grant acknowledged should have been 'U01MH119509' instead of 'RF1AG054012'. In Supplementary Table 2, the column labels 'early.pathology.mean' and 'late.pathology.mean' were reversed in each worksheet (that is, columns Y and Z). These errors have been corrected online.
Whitman MC, Miyake N, Nguyen EH, Bell JL, Matos Ruiz PM, Chan W-M, Di Gioia SA, Mukherjee N, Barry BJ, Bosley TM, Khan AO, Engle EC. Decreased ACKR3 (CXCR7) function causes oculomotor synkinesis in mice and humans. Hum Mol Genet 2019;28(18):3113-3125.Abstract
Oculomotor synkinesis is the involuntary movement of the eyes or eyelids with a voluntary attempt at a different movement. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 regulate oculomotor nerve development; mice with loss of either molecule have oculomotor synkinesis. In a consanguineous family with congenital ptosis and elevation of the ptotic eyelid with ipsilateral abduction, we identified a co-segregating homozygous missense variant (c.772G>A) in ACKR3, which encodes an atypical chemokine receptor that binds CXCL12 and functions as a scavenger receptor, regulating levels of CXCL12 available for CXCR4 signaling. The mutant protein (p.V258M) is expressed and traffics to the cell surface but has a lower binding affinity for CXCL12. Mice with loss of Ackr3 have variable phenotypes that include misrouting of the oculomotor and abducens nerves. All embryos show oculomotor nerve misrouting, ranging from complete misprojection in the midbrain, to aberrant peripheral branching, to a thin nerve, which aberrantly innervates the lateral rectus (as seen in Duane syndrome). The abducens nerve phenotype ranges from complete absence, to aberrant projections within the orbit, to a normal trajectory. Loss of ACKR3 in the midbrain leads to downregulation of CXCR4 protein, consistent with reports that excess CXCL12 causes ligand-induced degradation of CXCR4. Correspondingly, excess CXCL12 applied to ex vivo oculomotor slices causes axon misrouting, similar to inhibition of CXCR4. Thus, ACKR3, through its regulation of CXCL12 levels, is an important regulator of axon guidance in the oculomotor system; complete loss causes oculomotor synkinesis in mice, while reduced function causes oculomotor synkinesis in humans.
Dehghan S, Seto J, Liu EB, Ismail AM, Madupu R, Heim A, Jones MS, Dyer DW, Chodosh J, Seto D. A Zoonotic Adenoviral Human Pathogen Emerged through Genomic Recombination among Human and Nonhuman Simian Hosts. J Virol 2019;93(18)Abstract
Genomics analysis of a historically intriguing and predicted emergent human adenovirus (HAdV) pathogen, which caused pneumonia and death, provides insight into a novel molecular evolution pathway involving "ping-pong" zoonosis and anthroponosis. The genome of this promiscuous pathogen is embedded with evidence of unprecedented multiple, multidirectional, stable, and reciprocal cross-species infections of hosts from three species (human, chimpanzee, and bonobo). This recombinant genome, typed as HAdV-B76, is identical to two recently reported simian AdV (SAdV) genomes isolated from chimpanzees and bonobos. Additionally, the presence of a critical adenoviral replication element found in HAdV genomes, in addition to genes that are highly similar to counterparts in other HAdVs, reinforces its potential as a human pathogen. Reservoirs in nonhuman hosts may explain periods of apparent absence and then reemergence of human adenoviral pathogens, as well as present pathways for the genesis of those thought to be newly emergent. The nature of the HAdV-D76 genome has implications for the use of SAdVs as gene delivery vectors in human gene therapy and vaccines, selected to avoid preexisting and potentially fatal host immune responses to HAdV. An emergent adenoviral human pathogen, HAdV-B76, associated with a fatality in 1965, shows a remarkable degree of genome identity with two recently isolated simian adenoviruses that contain cross-species genome recombination events from three hosts: human, chimpanzee, and bonobo. Zoonosis (nonhuman-to-human transmission) and anthroponosis (human to nonhuman transmission) may play significant roles in the emergence of human adenoviral pathogens.
Wirta DL, Torkildsen GL, Moreira HR, Lonsdale JD, Ciolino JB, Jentsch G, Beckert M, Ousler GW, Steven P, Krösser S. A Clinical Phase II Study to Assess Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of Waterfree Cyclosporine Formulation for Treatment of Dry Eye Disease. Ophthalmology 2019;126(6):792-800.Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of waterfree cyclosporine formulation (CyclASol) at 2 concentrations (0.1% and 0.05% of cyclosporine [CsA]) to vehicle when applied twice daily for 16 weeks in patients with dry eye disease (DED). An open-label Restasis (Allergan, Irvine, CA) arm was included to allow a direct comparison with an approved therapy. DESIGN: An exploratory phase II, multicenter, randomized, vehicle-controlled clinical trial, double-masked between CyclASol and vehicle with an open-label comparator. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred and seven eligible patients with a history of dry eye disease were randomized 1:1:1:1 to 1 of 4 treatment arms (CyclASol 0.05%, n = 51; CyclASol 0.1%, n = 51; vehicle, n = 52, and Restasis, n = 53). METHODS: After a 2-week run-in period with twice-daily dosing of Systane Balance (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX), patients were randomized to the respective treatment arm and dosed twice daily for 16 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The study was set up to explore efficacy on a number of sign and symptom end points including total and subregion corneal fluorescein staining, conjunctival staining, visual analog scale (VAS) for dry eye symptoms VAS severity, and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire. RESULTS: CyclASol showed a consistent reduction in corneal and conjunctival staining compared with both vehicle and Restasis over the 16-week treatment period, with an early onset of effect (at day 14). A mixed-effects model-based approach demonstrated that the CyclASol drug effect was statistically significant over vehicle (total corneal staining P < 0.1, central corneal staining P < 0.001, conjunctival staining P < 0.01). This model-based analysis suggests a significant CyclASol effect for OSDI as symptom parameter (P < 0.01). The numbers of ocular adverse events were low in all treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: CyclASol showed efficacy, safety, and tolerability at 2 concentrations in moderate-to-severe DED. In a direct head-to-head against open-label Restasis, CyclASol was found to have an earlier onset of action, as early as after 2 weeks of treatment, in relieving the signs of DED, as measured by corneal and conjunctival staining. The central region of the cornea, an important area for visual function in dry eye sufferers, was shown to have the most benefit from treatment. Excellent safety, tolerability, and comfort profile supports this new CsA formulation as having a positive benefit-to-risk ratio.