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Yeung V, Sriram S, Tran JA, Guo X, Hutcheon AEK, Zieske JD, Karamichos D, Ciolino JB. FAK Inhibition Attenuates Corneal Fibroblast Differentiation In Vitro. Biomolecules 2021;11(11)Abstract
Corneal fibrosis (or scarring) occurs in response to ocular trauma or infection, and by reducing corneal transparency, it can lead to visual impairment and blindness. Studies highlight important roles for transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and -β3 as modulators in corneal wound healing and fibrosis, leading to increased extracellular matrix (ECM) components and expression of α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), a myofibroblast marker. In this study, human corneal fibroblasts (hCF) were cultured as a monolayer culture (2D) or on poly-transwell membranes to generate corneal stromal constructs (3D) that were treated with TGF-β1, TGF-β3, or TGF-β1 + FAK inhibitor (FAKi). Results show that hCF 3D constructs treated with TGF-β1 or TGF-β3 impart distinct effects on genes involved in wound healing and fibrosis-ITGAV, ITGB1, SRC and ACTA2. Notably, in the 3D construct model, TGF-β1 enhanced αSMA and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) protein expression, whereas TGF-β3 did not. In addition, in both the hCF 2D cell and 3D construct models, we found that TGF-β1 + FAKi attenuated TGF-β1-mediated myofibroblast differentiation, as shown by abrogated αSMA expression. This study concludes that FAK signaling is important for the onset of TGF-β1-mediated myofibroblast differentiation, and FAK inhibition may provide a novel beneficial therapeutic avenue to reduce corneal scarring.
Roldan AM, Zebardast N, Pistilli M, Khachatryan N, Payal A, Begum H, Artornsombudh P, Pujari SS, Rosenbaum JT, Sen NH, Suhler EB, Thorne JE, Bhatt NP, Foster SC, Jabs DA, Levy-Clarke GA, Nussenblatt RB, Buchanich JM, Kempen JH, for Group SITED (SITE) CSR. Corneal Endothelial Transplantation in Uveitis: Incidence and Risk Factors. Am J Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
PURPOSE: To estimate the incidence of corneal endothelial transplantation and identify risk factors among patients with non-infectious ocular inflammation. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Adult patients attending United States tertiary uveitis care facilities diagnosed with non-infectious ocular inflammation were identified from the Systemic Immunosuppressive Therapy for Eye Diseases Cohort Study. Time-to-event analysis was used to estimate the incidence of corneal endothelial transplantation (CET), including penetrating keratoplasty, Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty, or Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty procedures. The incidence of CET was calculated; potential risk factors for CET were also evaluated using Cox regression, accounting for correlation between eyes of the same patient. RESULTS: Overall, 14,264 eyes met eligibility criteria for this analysis with a median follow-up 1.8 eye-years. The Kaplan-Meier estimated incidence of CET within 10 years was 1.10% (95% CI, 0.68%-1.53%). Risk factors for CET included age >60 years vs. <40 years (aHR 16.5; 95% CI,4.70-57.9), anterior uveitis and scleritis vs. other types (aHR 2.97; 95% CI, 1.46-6.05 and aHR 4.14; 95% CI,1.28-13.4, respectively), topical corticosteroid treatment (aHR 2.84; 95% CI, 1.32-6.13), cataract surgery (aHR 4.44; 95% CI, 1.73-11.4), tube shunt surgery (aHR 11.9; 95% CI, 5.30-26.8), band keratopathy (aHR 5.12; 95% CI, 2.34-11.2), and hypotony (aHR 7.38; 95% CI, 3.14-17.4). Duration of uveitis, trabeculectomy, PAS, and ocular hypertension had no significant association after multivariate adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ocular inflammation, CET occurred infrequently. Tube shunt surgery, hypotony, band keratopathy, cataract surgery, and anterior segment inflammation were associated with increased risk of undergoing corneal endothelial transplantation; these factors likely are associated with endothelial cell damage.
Bennett CR, Bauer CM, Bex PJ, Bottari D, Merabet LB. Visual search performance in cerebral visual impairment is associated with altered alpha band oscillations. Neuropsychologia 2021;161:108011.Abstract
Individuals with cerebral visual impairment (CVI) often present with deficits related to visuospatial processing. However, the neurophysiological basis underlying these higher order perceptual dysfunctions have not been clearly identified. We assessed visual search performance using a novel virtual reality based task paired with eye tracking to simulate the exploration of a naturalistic scene (a virtual toy box). This was combined with electroencephalography (EEG) recordings and an analysis pipeline focusing on time frequency decomposition of alpha oscillatory activity. We found that individuals with CVI showed an overall impairment in visual search performance (as indexed by decreased success rate, as well as increased reaction time, visual search area, and gaze error) compared to controls with neurotypical development. Analysis of captured EEG activity following stimulus onset revealed that in the CVI group, there was a distinct lack of strong and well defined posterior alpha desynchronization; an important signal involved in the coordination of neural activity related to visual processing. Finally, an exploratory analysis revealed that in CVI, the magnitude of alpha desynchronization was associated with impaired visual search performance as well as decreased volume of specific thalamic nuclei implicated in visual processing. These results suggest that impairments in visuospatial processing related to visual search in CVI are associated with alterations in alpha band oscillations as well as early neurological injury at the level of visual thalamic nuclei.
E J-Y, Mihailovic A, Schrack JA, Garzon C, Li T, Friedman DS, West SK, Gitlin LN, Ramulu PY. Longitudinal changes in daily patterns of objectively measured physical activity after falls in older adults with varying degrees of glaucoma. EClinicalMedicine 2021;40:101097.Abstract
Background: Visually impaired older adults have a greater risk of falling, making them particularly susceptible to fall-related health consequences and restricted physical activity. Unclear however, is the relationship between having falls and longitudinal changes in daily patterns of objectively measured physical activity in older adults with visual impairments. Methods: We created a three-year prospective cohort study (Falls in Glaucoma Study) of older adults with primary or suspected glaucoma at the Johns Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute from 2013 to 2015. Cumulative incidence of falls was determined through self-reported fall calendars over 12 months. Participants were then classified into one of three groups: multiple fallers (≥2 falls), single fallers (1 fall), and non-fallers (0). Daily physical activity was measured over 1 week using a waist-bound accelerometer during baseline and three-year follow-ups. Activity fragmentation was defined as the reciprocal of the mean activity bout length, with higher fragmentation reflecting shorter, more fractured bouts of continuous activity. Multivariate linear mixed-effects models were used to assess three-year longitudinal changes in: 1) activity fragmentation, and 2) accumulation of activity across six three-hour intervals from 5 AM to 11 PM. Findings: In adjusted models accounting for visual field damage and other factors, multiple fallers demonstrated greater annual declines (per year) in daily active bouts (-1.79 bouts/day, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.35, -0.22), daily active minutes (-17.15 min/day, 95% CI: -26.35, -7.94), and increased fragmentation (1%, 95% CI: 0, 2%) over the three-year follow-up period as compared to non-fallers; no such changes were seen when comparing single fallers and non-fallers. In time-of-day analyses, multiple fallers experienced greater annual declines in average hourly steps over all periods of the day, though the rate of decline was only significant between 5 PM and 8 PM (-27.07 steps/hour, 95% CI: -51.15, -2.99) compared to non-fallers. Interpretation: In an older population with visual impairment, multiple falls over 12 months were associated with more transient and fragmented activity over a subsequent three-year period, and activity declines during evening hours, compared to non-fallers. These findings suggest that multiple fallers with visual impairment may be at high risk for a decline in physical capacity and endurance, warranting clinical interventions. Funding: The research was supported in part by National Institutes of Health Grant EY022976.
Crespo-Treviño RR, Salinas-Sánchez AK, Amparo F, Garza-Leon M. Comparative of meibomian gland morphology in patients with evaporative dry eye disease versus non-dry eye disease. Sci Rep 2021;11(1):20729.Abstract
Many recent studies have showed that morphological changes are one of the key signs of meibomian gland disease (MGD). These changes can be seen even before symptom onset, potentially underestimating the prevalence of MGD; however, until now, there is no conclusive information about the impact of meibomian gland (MG) morphology in tear film physiology and disease. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of anatomical and morphological MG alterations between patients with evaporative dry eye disease (DED) and healthy controls. Retrospective chart review of seventy-five patients with evaporative DED and healthy individuals who had dry eye assessments included Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, meibum quality, meibum expressibility, lid margin abnormality, ocular staining, non-invasive tear film break-up time, and meibography. We did not find significant differences in MG alterations in the upper lid between healthy and DED subjects. Patients with evaporative DED presented MG alterations in the lower lid more frequently than healthy subjects (54.8 vs. 30.3%; p = 0.03). The presence of shortened glands was the only MG alteration that was more prevalent in the lower lid in dry-eye patients than in healthy subjects (p < 0.05). Subjects with evaporative DED presented more alterations in the lower lid than healthy subjects.
Wolff D, Radojcic V, Lafyatis R, Cinar R, Rosenstein RK, Cowen EW, Cheng G-S, Sheshadri A, Bergeron A, Williams KM, Todd JL, Teshima T, Cuvelier GDE, Holler E, McCurdy SR, Jenq RR, Hanash AM, Jacobsohn D, Santomasso BD, Jain S, Ogawa Y, Steven P, Luo ZK, Dietrich-Ntoukas T, Saban D, Bilic E, Penack O, Griffith LM, Cowden M, Martin PJ, Greinix HT, Sarantopoulos S, Socie G, Blazar BR, Pidala J, Kitko CL, Couriel DR, Cutler C, Schultz KR, Pavletic SZ, Lee SJ, Paczesny S. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project on Criteria for Clinical Trials in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease: IV. The 2020 Highly morbid forms report. Transplant Cell Ther 2021;27(10):817-835.Abstract
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) can be associated with significant morbidity, in part because of nonreversible fibrosis, which impacts physical functioning (eye, skin, lung manifestations) and mortality (lung, gastrointestinal manifestations). Progress in preventing severe morbidity and mortality associated with chronic GVHD is limited by a complex and incompletely understood disease biology and a lack of prognostic biomarkers. Likewise, treatment advances for highly morbid manifestations remain hindered by the absence of effective organ-specific approaches targeting "irreversible" fibrotic sequelae and difficulties in conducting clinical trials in a heterogeneous disease with small patient numbers. The purpose of this document is to identify current gaps, to outline a roadmap of research goals for highly morbid forms of chronic GVHD including advanced skin sclerosis, fasciitis, lung, ocular and gastrointestinal involvement, and to propose strategies for effective trial design. The working group made the following recommendations: (1) Phenotype chronic GVHD clinically and biologically in future cohorts, to describe the incidence, prognostic factors, mechanisms of organ damage, and clinical evolution of highly morbid conditions including long-term effects in children; (2) Conduct longitudinal multicenter studies with common definitions and research sample collections; (3) Develop new approaches for early identification and treatment of highly morbid forms of chronic GVHD, especially biologically targeted treatments, with a special focus on fibrotic changes; and (4) Establish primary endpoints for clinical trials addressing each highly morbid manifestation in relationship to the time point of intervention (early versus late). Alternative endpoints, such as lack of progression and improvement in physical functioning or quality of life, may be suitable for clinical trials in patients with highly morbid manifestations. Finally, new approaches for objective response assessment and exploration of novel trial designs for small populations are required.
Moos WH, Faller DV, Glavas IP, Harpp DN, Kamperi N, Kanara I, Kodukula K, Mavrakis AN, Pernokas J, Pernokas M, Pinkert CA, Powers WR, Steliou K, Tamvakopoulos C, Vavvas DG, Zamboni RJ, Sampani K. Pathogenic mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities. Biochem Pharmacol 2021;193:114809.Abstract
Herein we trace links between biochemical pathways, pathogenesis, and metabolic diseases to set the stage for new therapeutic advances. Cellular and acellular microorganisms including bacteria and viruses are primary pathogenic drivers that cause disease. Missing from this statement are subcellular compartments, importantly mitochondria, which can be pathogenic by themselves, also serving as key metabolic disease intermediaries. The breakdown of food molecules provides chemical energy to power cellular processes, with mitochondria as powerhouses and ATP as the principal energy carrying molecule. Most animal cell ATP is produced by mitochondrial synthase; its central role in metabolism has been known for >80 years. Metabolic disorders involving many organ systems are prevalent in all age groups. Progressive pathogenic mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of genetic mitochondrial diseases, the most common phenotypic expression of inherited metabolic disorders. Confluent genetic, metabolic, and mitochondrial axes surface in diabetes, heart failure, neurodegenerative disease, and even in the ongoing coronavirus pandemic.
Maguire MG, Liu D, Bressler SB, Friedman SM, Melia M, Stockdale CR, Glassman AR, Sun JK, Sun JK. Lapses in Care Among Patients Assigned to Ranibizumab for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy: A Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Ophthalmol 2021;139(12):1266-1273.Abstract
Importance: The follow-up schedule for individuals with eyes treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) requires that patients return frequently for monitoring and repeated treatment. The likelihood that a patient will comply should be a consideration in choosing a treatment approach. Objective: To describe completion of scheduled examinations among participants assigned to intravitreous injections of ranibizumab for PDR in a multicenter randomized clinical trial. Design, Setting, and Participants: This post hoc analysis evaluates data from a randomized clinical trial conducted at 55 US sites among 305 adults with proliferative diabetic retinopathy enrolled between February and December 2012. Both eyes were enrolled for 89 participants (1 eye to each study group), with a total of 394 study eyes. The final 2-year visit was completed in January 2015. Data were analyzed from April 2019 to July 2021. Interventions: Ranibizumab injections for PDR or macular edema. Main Outcomes and Measures: A long lapse in care of 8 or more weeks past a scheduled examination, dropout from follow-up, visual acuity at 5 years. Results: Among 170 participants, the median age was 51 years, and 44.7% were female. Through 5 years of follow-up, 94 of 170 participants (55.3%) had 1 or more long lapse in care. Median time to the first long lapse was 210 weeks, and 69 of 94 participants (73.4%) returned for examination after the first long lapse. Fifty of 170 participants (29.4%) dropped out of follow-up by 5 years. Among the 120 participants who completed the 5-year examination, median change from baseline in visual acuity was -2 letters for participants who had 1 or more long lapse compared with +5 letters for those without a long lapse (P = .02). After multivariable adjustment, the odds ratio (95% CI) for baseline associations with 1 or more long lapse was 1.21 (1.03-1.43) for each 5-letter decrement in visual acuity score, 2.19 (1.09-4.38) for neovascularization of the disc and elsewhere, and 3.48 (1.38-8.78) for no prior laser treatment for diabetic macular edema. Conclusions and Relevance: Over 5 years, approximately half of the participants assigned to ranibizumab for PDR had a long lapse in care despite substantial effort by the DRCR Retina Network to facilitate timely completion of examinations. The likelihood of a long lapse in care during long-term follow-up needs to be considered when choosing treatment for PDR. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01489189.
Hellström A, Pivodic A, Gränse L, Lundgren P, Sjöbom U, Nilsson AK, Söderling H, Hård A-L, Smith LEH, Löfqvist CA. Association of Docosahexaenoic Acid and Arachidonic Acid Serum Levels With Retinopathy of Prematurity in Preterm Infants. JAMA Netw Open 2021;4(10):e2128771.Abstract
Importance: Supplementing preterm infants with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) has been inconsistent in reducing the severity and incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Furthermore, few studies have measured the long-term serum lipid levels after supplementation. Objective: To assess whether ROP severity is associated with serum levels of LC-PUFA, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA), during the first 28 postnatal days. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed the Mega Donna Mega study, a randomized clinical trial that provided enteral fatty acid supplementation at 3 neonatal intensive care units in Sweden. Infants included in this cohort study were born at a gestational age of less than 28 weeks between December 20, 2016, and August 6, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Severity of ROP was classified as no ROP, mild or moderate ROP (stage 1-2), or severe ROP (stage 3 and type 1). Serum phospholipid fatty acids were measured through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ordinal logistic regression, with a description of unadjusted odds ratio (OR) as well as gestational age- and birth weight-adjusted ORs and 95% CIs, was used. Areas under the curve were used to calculate mean daily levels of fatty acids during postnatal days 1 to 28. Blood samples were obtained at the postnatal ages of 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. Results: A total of 175 infants were included in analysis. Of these infants, 99 were boys (56.6%); the median (IQR) gestational age was 25 weeks 5 days (24 weeks 3 days to 26 weeks 6 days), and the median (IQR) birth weight was 785 (650-945) grams. A higher DHA proportion was seen in infants with no ROP compared with those with mild or moderate ROP or severe ROP (OR per 0.5-molar percentage increase, 0.49 [95% CI, 0.36-0.68]; gestational age- and birth weight-adjusted OR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.46-0.93]). The corresponding adjusted OR for AA levels per 1-molar percentage increase was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.66-1.05). The association between DHA levels and ROP severity appeared only in infants with sufficient AA levels, suggesting that a mean daily minimum level of 7.8 to 8.3 molar percentage of AA was necessary for a detectable association between DHA level and less severe ROP. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that higher mean daily serum levels of DHA during the first 28 postnatal days were associated with less severe ROP even after adjustment for known risk factors, but only in infants with sufficiently high AA levels. Further studies are needed to identify LC-PUFA supplementation strategies that may prevent ROP and other morbidities.
Jung J-H, Kurukuti NM, Peli E. Photographic Depiction of the Field of View with Spectacles-mounted Low Vision Aids. Optom Vis Sci 2021;98(10):1210-1226.Abstract
SIGNIFICANCE: Photographic depiction helps to illustrate the primary and secondary field of view effects of low vision devices along with their utility to clinicians, patients, and caretakers. This technique may also be helpful for designers and researchers in improving the design and fitting of low vision devices. PURPOSE: The field of view through spectacles-mounted low vision devices has typically been evaluated using perimetry. However, the perimetric field diagram is different from the retinal image and often fails to represent the important aspects of the field of view and visual parameters. We developed a photographic depiction method to record and veridically show the field of view effects of these devices. METHODS: We used a 3D-printed holder to place spectacles-mounted devices at the same distance from the empirically determined reference point of the field of view in a camera lens (f = 16 mm) as they would be from an eye, when in use. The field of view effects of a bioptic telescope, a minifier (reverse telescope), and peripheral prisms were captured using a conventional camera, representing retinal images. The human eye pupil size (adjusting the F number: f/2.8 to f/8 and f/22 in the camera lens) and fitting parameters (pantoscopic tilt and back vertex distance) varied. RESULTS: Real-world indoor and outdoor walking and driving scenarios were depicted as retinal images illustrating the field of view through low vision devices, distinguishing optical and obscuration scotomas, and demonstrating secondary effects (spatial distortions, viewpoint changes, diplopia, spurious reflection, and multiplexing effects) not illustrated by perimetric field diagrams. CONCLUSIONS: Photographic depiction illustrates the primary and secondary field of view effects of the low vision devices. These images highlight the benefit and possible trade-offs of the low vision devices and may be beneficial in education and training.
Prakalapakorn GS, Weinert MC, Stinnett SS. Photographic assessment of eyelid position using a simple measurement tool paired with cell phone photography in a pediatric population. J AAPOS 2021;Abstract
PURPOSE: This proof-of-concept study evaluates the ability to assess eyelid measurements and the reproducibility of eyelid measurements using a simple measurement tool paired with digital cell phone photography in children. METHODS: Seventy consecutive patients and their siblings, 2-19 years of age, were prospectively enrolled. Participants underwent clinical examination and cell phone photography with a simple measurement tool. An ophthalmologist and nonophthalmologist assessed photographs for interpalpebral fissure distance (IPFD), margin reflex distance-1 (MRD1), and levator function (LF). Clinical examinations and photographs were repeated on the same day in a random sample (n = 20). The agreement of grading photographs compared to clinical examination was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. Intra-grader repeatability of the clinical examination, repeatability of photographic technique, and interobserver reproducibility of photographic assessment was evaluated with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). RESULTS: Of photographs acquired, both graders considered quality good/fair in 100% to assess IPFD and MRD1, and 70% to assess LF. The mean difference (limits of agreement) in mm between clinical examination and photographic assessment was 1.1 (-1.5 to 3.8) for IPFD, 0.7 (-1.8 to 3.1) for MRD1, and 1.1 (-3.5 to 5.7) for LF. Intraobserver repeatability on clinical examination was excellent for IPFD (ICC = 0.81), MRD1 (ICC = 0.88), and LF (ICC = 0.94). Repeatability of photographic technique was fair for IPFD (ICC = 0.44) and good for MRD1 (ICC = 0.74) and LF (ICC = 0.77). Interobserver photographic assessment repeatability was excellent for IPFD (ICC = 0.94), MRD1 (ICC = 0.96), and LF (ICC = 0.92). CONCLUSIONS: Photographic assessment of eyelid measurements in children is possible, highly reproducible between graders, and enables documentation for future comparison.
Wang T, Zhou P, Xie X, Tomita Y, Cho S, Tsirukis D, Lam E, Luo HR, Sun Y. Myeloid lineage contributes to pathological choroidal neovascularization formation via SOCS3. EBioMedicine 2021;73:103632.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Pathological neovascularization in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly. Increasing evidence shows that cells of myeloid lineage play important roles in controlling pathological endothelium formation. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) pathway has been linked to neovascularization. METHODS: We utilised a laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) mouse model to investigate the neovascular aspect of human AMD. In several cell lineage reporter mice, bone marrow chimeric mice and Socs3 loss-of-function (knockout) and gain-of-function (overexpression) mice, immunohistochemistry, confocal, and choroidal explant co-culture with bone marrow-derived macrophage medium were used to study the mechanisms underlying pathological CNV formation via myeloid SOCS3. FINDINGS: SOCS3 was significantly induced in myeloid lineage cells, which were recruited into the CNV lesion area. Myeloid Socs3 overexpression inhibited laser-induced CNV, reduced myeloid lineage-derived macrophage/microglia recruitment onsite, and attenuated pro-inflammatory factor expression. Moreover, SOCS3 in myeloid regulated vascular sprouting ex vivo in choroid explants and SOCS3 agonist reduced in vivo CNV. INTERPRETATION: These findings suggest that myeloid lineage cells contributed to pathological CNV formation regulated by SOCS3. FUNDING: This project was funded by NIH/NEI (R01EY030140, R01EY029238), BrightFocus Foundation, American Health Assistance Foundation (AHAF), and Boston Children's Hospital Ophthalmology Foundation for YS and the National Institutes of Health/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (U01HL098166) for PZ.
Kolomeyer NN, Katz LJ, Hark LA, Wahl M, Gajwani P, Aziz K, Myers JS, Friedman DS. Lessons Learned From 2 Large Community-based Glaucoma Screening Studies. J Glaucoma 2021;30(10):875-877.Abstract
Community-based screening programs have had limited success in preventing vision loss from glaucoma due to overall low prevalence of glaucoma, screening limitations, and barriers to follow-up appointments. This editorial highlights lessons learned from 2 large prospective trials: the Philadelphia Telemedicine Glaucoma Detection and Follow-up Study and the Screening To Prevent Glaucoma Study. While some lessons are specific to ophthalmology, many lessons are applicable to screening for asymptomatic diseases in underserved, vulnerable communities.
Shi L, Yuan T, Fan S, Zheng J, Diao Y, Qin G, Liu D, Zhu G, Qin K, Liu H, Zhang H, Yang A, Meng F, Zhang J. Comparison of cognitive performance between patients with Parkinson's disease and dystonia using an intraoperative recognition memory test. Sci Rep 2021;11(1):20724.Abstract
Neuroscientific studies on the function of the basal ganglia often examine the behavioral performance of patients with movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and dystonia (DT), while simultaneously examining the underlying electrophysiological activity during deep brain stimulation surgery. Nevertheless, to date, there have been no studies comparing the cognitive performance of PD and DT patients during surgery. In this study, we assessed the memory function of PD and DT patients with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We also tested their cognitive performance during the surgery using a continuous recognition memory test. The results of the MoCA and MMSE failed to reveal significant differences between the PD and DT patients. Additionally, no significant difference was detected by the intraoperative memory test between the PD and DT patients. The intraoperative memory test scores were highly correlated with the MMSE scores and MoCA scores. Our data suggest that DT patients perform similarly to PD patients in cognitive tests during surgery, and intraoperative memory tests can be used as a quick memory assessment tool during surgery.

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