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Inomata T, Mashaghi A, Di Zazzo A, Lee S-M, Chiang H, Dana R. Kinetics of Angiogenic Responses in Corneal Transplantation. Cornea 2017;36(4):491-496.Abstract

PURPOSE: To delineate and compare the kinetics of corneal angiogenesis after high-risk (HR) versus low-risk (LR) corneal transplantation. METHODS: In mice, intrastromal sutures were placed in the recipient graft bed 2 weeks before allogeneic transplantation to induce angiogenesis and amplify the risk of graft rejection. Control (LR) graft recipients did not undergo suture placement, and thus the host bed remained avascular at the time of transplantation. Graft hemangiogenesis and opacity scores were evaluated for 8 weeks by slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure CD31 (blood vessels) and LYVE-1 (lymphatic vessels) cells. RESULTS: Biphasic kinetics were observed for hemangiogenesis in both HR and LR transplant recipients using clinical and immunohistochemical assessments. The biphasic kinetics were composed of a rise-fall (phase 1) followed by a second rise (phase 2) in the degree of vessels. Compared with LR recipients, HR recipients showed higher hemangiogenesis (whole cornea and graft) throughout 8 weeks. Analyzing grafts revealed sustained presence of lymphatic vessels in HR recipients; however, lymphatic neovessels regressed in LR recipients 2 weeks posttransplantation. In contrast to HR host beds, the LR host bed microenvironment cannot sustain the growth of lymphatic neovessels in allografts, whereas it can sustain continued hemangiogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: The sustained presence of lymphatic vessels in HR host beds can facilitate host immunity against allografts and is likely associated with ongoing higher risk of rejection of these grafts in the long term, suggesting that therapeutic interventions targeting inflammation and lymphatic vessels need to be sustained long term in the HR corneal transplant setting.

Jakobiec FA, Qureshi S, Zakka FR, Tu Y, Lee NG. Eyelid Eccrine Cyst: An Exceptional Lesion Among Dominant Apocrine Cysts. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017;33(5):e128-e131.Abstract
A 71-year-old woman developed a small bluish lesion beneath the cilia of the left lower eyelid. Excision and microscopic examination disclosed a cyst with an intimately associated eccrine sweat gland. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the cyst's epithelium was strongly CK5/6, CK14, CK7 weakly positive, and gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 and smooth muscle actin negative. This is the first immunohistochemically proven eccrine cyst of the eyelid skin. Apocrine cysts develop only at the eyelid margin where the glands of Moll are located. They immunostain positively for cytoplasmic gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 in the adlumenal cells and smooth muscle actin in an outer myoepithelial (abluminal) layer.
Haruta M, Arai M, Sueda J, Hirose T, Yamakawa R. Patching retinal breaks with Seprafilm for treating retinal detachments in humans: 9 years of follow-up. Eye (Lond) 2017;31(5):776-780.Abstract
PurposeTo describe the long-term surgical outcomes of four patients treated for retinal detachment using Seprafilm as a novel technique.MethodsRetinal breaks in four eyes were covered with Seprafilm using a transvitreal approach after cataract surgery, pars plana vitrectomy, fluid-air exchange, and laser photocoagulation. Neither long-standing gas nor silicone oil was used. The patients were not instructed to maintain a specific head positioning postoperatively.ResultsSuccessful retinal reattachment was achieved with a single surgery in all four eyes, and none developed proliferative vitreoretinopathy. The mean best-corrected visual acuity preoperatively and 9 years postoperatively were 20/97 and 20/33, respectively. The intraocular pressure increased several days postoperatively that lasted no longer than 2 weeks. Visual field defects either in the inferonasal or inferotemporal quadrant were detected postoperatively. The mean electroretinogram a- and b-wave amplitude ratios of the operated eyes to the fellow eyes were 0.68 and 0.64 preoperatively and 0.87 and 0.92 postoperatively, respectively. The mean corneal endothelial cell density was 2365 cells/mm(2) preoperatively and 2592 cells/mm(2) postoperatively.ConclusionCovering retinal breaks with Seprafilm may promote retinal reattachment without gas tamponade and postoperative head positioning. The visual outcomes 9 years postoperatively showed no apparent adverse effects of intraocular application of Seprafilm.
Gupta MP, Talcott KE, Kim DY, Agarwal S, Mukai S. Retinal findings and a novel TINF2 mutation in Revesz syndrome: Clinical and molecular correlations with pediatric retinal vasculopathies. Ophthalmic Genet 2017;:1-10.Abstract

BACKGROUND: Revesz syndrome is a telomere disorder in the dyskeratosis congenita (DKC) spectrum characterized by exudative retinopathy, bone marrow failure, neuroradiographic abnormalities, and integumentary findings. MATERIALS/METHODS: We report the ophthalmologic findings, documented by examinations under anesthesia with clinical photography and fluorescein angiography, as well as the systemic manifestations and genetic and molecular testing, in identical twins with Revesz syndrome, and compare and contrast these features to those of other pediatric retinal vasculopathies. RESULTS: Both twins exhibited widespread avascularity and anomalous vasculature of the retinal periphery, retinal telangiectasias, and exudation. One twin developed a combination exudative/tractional/rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, while the other exhibited a focal collection of buds of retinal neovascularization. Both twins developed bone marrow failure and were found to have cerebellar hypoplasia and widespread cerebral calcifications. Telomere testing in lymphocytes and granulocytes revealed telomere length less than the 1st percentile for age, and gene sequencing revealed a novel mutation in the TINF2 gene, resulting in the T284P TIN2 protein variant. CONCLUSIONS: We report ophthalmic findings in twins with Revesz syndrome due to a previously unreported mutation in TINF2 and propose that phenotypic and molecular overlaps between DKC spectrum disorders and pediatric retinal vasculopathies may reflect a shared pathophysiologic basis.

Gradstein L, Hansen RM, Cox GF, Altschwager P, Fulton AB. Progressive retinal degeneration in a girl with Knobloch syndrome who presented with signs of ocular albinism. Doc Ophthalmol 2017;134(2):135-140.Abstract

PURPOSE: We report for the first time electroretinographic (ERG) evidence of progressive retinal abnormalities in a girl who presented in infancy with ocular features of albinism and gradually developed choroidal sclerosis and patchy retinal atrophy leading to a diagnosis of Knobloch syndrome (KS, OMIM 267750, COL18A1). METHODS: At age 2 months, nystagmus and esotropia prompted ophthalmic evaluation. The appearance of choroidal sclerosis and atrophic retinal patches led to further evaluation at age 8 years. Genetics consultation was obtained in infancy and again at age 8 years as retinal findings evolved. Full field ERG responses in both scotopic and photopic conditions were recorded at both ages and compared to those in healthy control subjects. RESULTS: At age 2 months ERG response parameters were within normal limits for age and tyrosinase (TYR) gene sequencing revealed one novel mutation, p.S466F, and the temperature-sensitive polymorphism, p.R402Q, suggesting the diagnosis of oculocutaneous albinism type 1 (OCA1). At age 8 years, there was significant attenuation of both scotopic and photopic ERG responses. Genetic re-analysis led to the identification of a homozygous mutation, c.3213dupC, in the COL18A1 gene, thus confirming the diagnosis of Knobloch syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Our patient with Knobloch syndrome developed abnormal ERG responses similar to those found in col18a1 knockout mice. Thus, we have documented progressive attenuation of the scotopic and photopic responses in KS.

Bovee CE, Pasquale LR. Evolving Surgical Interventions in the Treatment of Glaucoma. Semin Ophthalmol 2017;32(1):91-95.Abstract

Interventions in the treatment of mild to moderate glaucoma have evolved to include a group of procedures collectively named "Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgery (MIGS)." These procedures are less invasive than traditional filtering surgery and setons and offer the benefit of an improved side-effect profile. A review of current published literature has shown that these procedures offer lower intraocular pressure, decrease reliance on topical medications, have no negative effect on refractive outcomes, and can be safely done following failed tube surgery.

Cruzat A, Qazi Y, Hamrah P. In Vivo Confocal Microscopy of Corneal Nerves in Health and Disease. Ocul Surf 2017;15(1):15-47.Abstract

In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) is becoming an indispensable tool for studying corneal physiology and disease. Enabling the dissection of corneal architecture at a cellular level, this technique offers fast and noninvasive in vivo imaging of the cornea with images comparable to those of ex vivo histochemical techniques. Corneal nerves bear substantial relevance to clinicians and scientists alike, given their pivotal roles in regulation of corneal sensation, maintenance of epithelial integrity, as well as proliferation and promotion of wound healing. Thus, IVCM offers a unique method to study corneal nerve alterations in a myriad of conditions, such as ocular and systemic diseases and following corneal surgery, without altering the tissue microenvironment. Of particular interest has been the correlation of corneal subbasal nerves to their function, which has been studied in normal eyes, contact lens wearers, and patients with keratoconus, infectious keratitis, corneal dystrophies, and neurotrophic keratopathy. Longitudinal studies have applied IVCM to investigate the effects of corneal surgery on nerves, demonstrating their regenerative capacity. IVCM is increasingly important in the diagnosis and management of systemic conditions such as peripheral diabetic neuropathy and, more recently, in ocular diseases. In this review, we outline the principles and applications of IVCM in the study of corneal nerves in various ocular and systemic diseases.

Arafat SN, Robert M-C, Abud T, Spurr-Michaud S, Amparo F, Dohlman CH, Dana R, Gipson IK. Elevated Neutrophil Elastase in Tears of Ocular Graft-Versus-Host Disease Patients. Am J Ophthalmol 2017;176:46-52.Abstract

PURPOSE: To investigate the levels of neutrophil elastase (NE), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in tear washes of patients with ocular graft-vs-host disease (oGVHD). DESIGN: Case-control study. METHODS: Based on established criteria, oGVHD patients (n = 14; 28 eyes) and age-/sex-matched healthy controls (n = 14; 28 eyes) were enrolled. Tear washes were collected and analyzed for NE using a single-analyte enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). MMPs (1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 12), MPO, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 were analyzed using multianalyte bead-based ELISA assays. Total MMP activity was measured using a fluorimetric assay. Correlation studies were performed between NE, MMP-8, MMP-9, and MPO within study groups. RESULTS: NE, MMP-8, MMP-9, and MPO levels were elevated in oGVHD tears when compared with controls (P < .0001). NE was the most elevated analyte. MMP activity was higher and TIMP-1 levels were lower in oGVHD than in control (P < .0001). In oGVHD, NE significantly correlated with MMP-8 (r = 0.92), MMP-9 (r = 0.90), and MPO (r = 0.79) (P < .0001). MMP-8 correlated with MMP-9 (r = 0.96, P < .0001), and MPO (r = 0.60, P = .001). MMP-9 correlated with MPO (r = 0.55, P = .002). In controls, NE, MMP-9, and MPO significantly correlated with each other (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: The marked increase in NE in oGVHD tears that correlated strongly with elevated MMP-8, MMP-9, and MPO suggests a common neutrophilic source and provides evidence of neutrophil activity on the ocular surface of oGVHD patients.

Benowitz LI, He Z, Goldberg JL. Reaching the brain: Advances in optic nerve regeneration. Exp Neurol 2017;287(Pt 3):365-373.Abstract

The optic nerve has been widely used to investigate factors that regulate axon regeneration in the mammalian CNS. Although retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the projection neurons of the eye, show little capacity to regenerate their axons following optic nerve damage, studies spanning the 20(th) century showed that some RGCs can regenerate axons through a segment of peripheral nerve grafted to the optic nerve. More recently, some degree of regeneration has been achieved through the optic nerve itself by factors associated with intraocular inflammation (oncomodulin) or by altering levels of particular transcription factors (Klf-4, -9, c-myc), cell-intrinsic suppressors of axon growth (PTEN, SOCS3), receptors to cell-extrinsic inhibitors of axon growth (Nogo receptor, LAR, PTP-σ) or the intracellular signaling pathway activated by these receptors (RhoA). Other regulators of regeneration and cell survival continue to be identified in this system at a rapid pace. Combinatorial treatments that include two or more of these factors enable some retinal ganglion cells to regenerate axons from the eye through the entire length of the optic nerve and across the optic chiasm. In some cases, regenerating axons have been shown to innervate the appropriate central target areas and elicit postsynaptic responses. Many discoveries made in this system have been found to enhance axon regeneration after spinal cord injury. Thus, progress in optic nerve regeneration holds promise not only for visual restoration but also for improving outcome after injury to other parts of the mature CNS.

Cousins CC, Kang JH, Bovee C, Wang J, Greenstein SH, Turalba A, Shen LQ, Brauner S, Boumenna T, Blum S, Levkovitch-Verbin H, Ritch R, Wiggs JL, Knepper PA, Pasquale LR. Nailfold capillary morphology in exfoliation syndrome. Eye (Lond) 2017;31(5):698-707.Abstract
PurposeThe purpose of the study was to investigate nailfold microvascular morphology in exfoliation syndrome with or without glaucoma (XFS/XFG) compared with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and control subjects using nailfold capillary videomicroscopy.Patients and methodsWe used a JH-1004 capillaroscope to perform nailfold capillary videomicroscopy on the fourth and fifth digit of the non-dominant hand. We enrolled 56 XFS/XFG patients, 87 POAG patients, and 75 control subjects. Masked observers graded the videos for hemorrhages, avascular zones ≥200 microns (μm), and degree of microvascular tortuosity on a four-point subjective scale. Multivariable odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals and P-for trends for assessing the relation between morphological changes and POAG or XFS/XFG were obtained from logistic regression analyses. We also assessed this relation with XFS/XFG compared with POAG in multivariable models.ResultsAfter adjusting for multiple covariates, nailfold hemorrhages, avascular zones ≥200 μm, and higher degree of vascular tortuosity were more common in XFS/XFG vs controls (P-for trend ≤0.0001) and in POAG vs controls (P-for trend ≤0.01). For each 100 capillaries, the number of hemorrhages was similar (P-for trend=0.91) between XFS/XFG and POAG patients; however, there were more avascular zones per 100 capillaries with borderline significance (P-for trend=0.04) in the XFS/XFG group. XFS/XFG patients had more tortuosity than POAG patients; specifically, having a tortuosity score ≥1.5 was associated with a 4.4-fold increased odds of XFS/XFG (95% confidence interval: 1.5-13.3) relative to a tortuosity score <1.0 (P-for trend=0.005).ConclusionA high degree of nailfold capillary tortuosity is a distinct non-ocular feature associated with XFS/XFG compared with either POAG or controls.
Barham R, Rami HE, Sun JK, Silva PS. Evidence-Based Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema. Semin Ophthalmol 2017;32(1):56-66.Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that affects 415 million people worldwide. Despite treatment advances, diabetic eye disease remains a leading cause of vision loss worldwide. Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a common cause of vision loss in diabetic patients. The pathophysiology is complex and involves multiple pathways that ultimately lead to central retinal thickening and, if untreated, visual loss. First-line treatment of DME has evolved from focal/grid laser established by the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) to intravitreous pharmacologic therapy. Landmark prospective clinical trials examining the effect of intravitreous injections of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors in the treatment of DME have demonstrated improved visual outcomes over focal grid laser. This review focuses on the scientific evidence treatment of DME, disease pathophysiology, clinical disease course, current treatment standards, and emerging novel therapeutic approaches.

Alkharashi M, Fulton AB. Available Evidence on Leber Congenital Amaurosis and Gene Therapy. Semin Ophthalmol 2017;32(1):14-21.Abstract

Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a group of severe inherited retinal dystrophies that lead to early childhood blindness. In the last decade, interest in LCA has increased as advances in genetics have been applied to better identify, classify, and treat LCA. To date, 23 LCA genes have been identified. Gene replacement in the RPE65 form of LCA represents a major advance in treatment, although limitations have been recognized. In this article, we review the clinical and genetic features of LCA and evaluate the evidence available for gene therapy in RPE65 disease.

Jakobiec FA, Tu Y, Zakka FR, Tong AKF. Dermatofibroma of the eyelid with monster cells. Surv Ophthalmol 2017;62(4):533-540.Abstract
Dermatofibromas are most frequently encountered in women on the lower extremities, often after minor trauma. A recurrent lesion of the right lower eyelid developed in a 64-year-old woman. It harbored "monster cells" that were large, with either multiple nuclei or a single, large, convoluted, and hyperchromatic nucleus. The presence of these cells does not signify a malignant transformation. The background cells were either histiocytoid (many were adipophilin positive), spindled cells, or dendritiform cells without mitoses. Factor XIIIa, CD68, and CD163 immunostaining was positive, and a subpopulation of CD1a(+) Langerhans cells was intermixed. Facial and eyelid dermatofibromas are more likely to recur and deserve wider, tumor-free surgical margins. Their microscopic differential diagnosis includes a cellular scar, peripheral nerve tumor, atypical fibrous xanthoma, and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.
Gilbert AL, Hunter DG. Duane syndrome with prominent oculo-auricular phenomenon. J AAPOS 2017;21(2):165-167.Abstract

Duane syndrome is a congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder involving absent or anomalous innervation of the lateral and medial rectus muscles that is sometimes associated with other manifestations of dysinnervation. We describe a patient with right esotropic Duane syndrome with a long-standing retroauricular tugging sensation in right gaze who was noted to have prominent ipsilateral oculo-auricular phenomenon, representing either abnormal enhancement of existing innervation or an uncommon dysinnervation. After successful strabismus surgery the tugging sensation improved but the phenomenon could still be elicited.

Charles NC, Jakobiec FA, Patel P. Periorbital Dermoid Cyst With Unique Trichilemmal Differentiation. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017;33(5):e116-e118.Abstract
The authors describe a 4-year-old girl presenting with a 2-year history of a superomedial eyelid "bump" that appeared cystic on MRI. The clinical diagnosis was dermoid cyst, possibly of conjunctival origin. Following excision, histology showed a cyst that contained keratin and lanugo hairs in its lumen with sebaceous glands and chronic inflammation in its fibrous wall. An unanticipated finding was the presence of a trichilemmal (pilar) variety of epithelial lining that stained positively for calretinin, an immunostain that identifies trichilemmal epithelium. To the authors' knowledge this is the first case of a dermoid cyst with trichilemmal lining. This study was conducted in compliance with the rules and regulations of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and in conformity with the Oslo declaration.

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