Orts-Vila P, Amparo F, Rodríguez-Prats JL, Tañá-Rivero P. Alport Syndrome and Femtosecond Laser-assisted Cataract Surgery. J Ophthalmic Vis Res 2020;15(2):264-269.Abstract
We report the surgical management of a patient with bilateral anterior lenticonus due to Alport syndrome using femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) and the Optiwave Refractive Analysis (ORA) system. A 38-year-old man with Alport syndrome presented to our department with visual loss due to anterior lenticonus in both eyes. Adjustments during bilateral FLACS were performed with the software's calipers to manually delineate the anterior capsulotomy. Multifocal toric intraocular lenses (IOLs) were selected and placed in the posterior chamber with the aid of intraoperative aberrometry. The intended postoperative positioning parameters for the IOL as well as the planned visual acuity and refraction were achieved. The implementation of FLACS and intraoperative wavefront aberrometry is a safe and useful surgical approach for the management of cataract in challenging cases such as patients with anterior lenticonus due to Alport syndrome.
Lu X, Kugadas A, Smith-Page K, Lamb J, Lin T, Ru Y, Morley SC, Fichorova R, Mittal SK, Chauhan SK, Littleton S, Saban D, Gadjeva M. Neutrophil L-Plastin Controls Ocular Paucibacteriality and Susceptibility to Keratitis. Front Immunol 2020;11:547.Abstract
Why ocular mucosa is paucibacterial is unknown. Many different mechanisms have been suggested but the comprehensive experimental studies are sparse. We found that a deficiency in L-plastin (LCP1), an actin bundling protein, resulted in an ocular commensal overgrowth, characterized with increased presence of conjunctival spp. The commensal overgrowth correlated with susceptibility to -induced keratitis. L-plastin knock-out (KO) mice displayed elevated bacterial burden in the -infected corneas, altered inflammatory responses, and compromised bactericidal activity. Mice with ablation of LPL under the LysM Cre ( ) and S100A8 Cre ( ) promoters had a similar phenotype to the LPL KOs mice. In contrast, infected mice did not display elevated susceptibility to infection, implicating the myeloid L-plastin-sufficient cells (e.g., macrophages and neutrophils) in maintaining ocular homeostasis. Mechanistically, the elevated commensal burden and the susceptibility to infection were linked to defects in neutrophil frequencies at steady state and during infection and compromised bactericidal activities upon priming. Macrophage exposure to commensal organisms primed neutrophil responses to , augmenting PMN bactericidal capacity in an L-plastin dependent manner. Cumulatively, our data highlight the importance of neutrophils in controlling ocular paucibacteriality, reveal molecular and cellular events involved in the process, and suggest a link between commensal exposure and resistance to infection.
Agrawal R, Testi I, Mahajan S, Yuen YS, Agarwal A, Rousselot A, Raje D, Gunasekeran DV, Kon OM, Barisani-Asenbauer T, Kempen JH, Gupta A, Jabs DA, Smith JR, Bodaghi B, Zierhut M, DeSmet M, McCluskey P, Agarwal M, Agarwal M, Aggarwal K, Agrawal M, Al-Dhibi H, Androudi S, Asyari F, Balasundaram MB, Murthy KB, Baglivo E, Banker A, Bansal R, Basu S, Behera D, Biswas J, Carreño E, Caspers L, Chee SP, Chhabra R, Cimino L, Del Rio LEC, Cunningham ET, Curi ALL, Das D, Denisova E, Denniston AK, Errera M-H, Fonollosa A, George A, Goldstein DA, Crosier YG, Gurbaxani A, Invernizzi A, Isa HM, Md Islam S, Jones N, Katoch D, Khairallah M, Khosla A, Kramer M, Kumar A, Kumar A, Distia Nora RL, Lee R, Lowder C, Luthra S, Mahendradas P, Makhoul D, Mazumdar S, Mehta S, Miserocchi E, Mochizuki M, Mohamed OS, Muccioli C, Munk MR, Murthy S, Narain S, Nascimento H, Neri P, Nguyen M, Okada AA, Ozdal P, Palestine A, Pichi F, Rathinam SR, Schlaen A, Sehgal S, Sen NH, Sharma A, Sharma K, Shoughy SS, Singh N, Singh R, Soheilian M, Sridharan S, Thorne JE, Tappeiner C, Teoh S, Tognon MS, Tugal-Tutkun I, Tyagi M, Uy H, Santos DVV, Valentincic NV, Westcott M, Yanai R, Alvarez BY, Zahedur R, Nguyen QD, Pavesio C, Gupta V. The Collaborative Ocular Tuberculosis Study (COTS) Consensus (CON) Group Meeting Proceedings. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2020;:1-11.Abstract
An international, expert led consensus initiative was set up by the Collaborative Ocular Tuberculosis Study (COTS) group to develop systematic, evidence, and experience-based recommendations for the treatment of ocular TB using a modified Delphi technique process. In the first round of Delphi, the group identified clinical scenarios pertinent to ocular TB based on five clinical phenotypes (anterior uveitis, intermediate uveitis, choroiditis, retinal vasculitis, and panuveitis). Using an interactive online questionnaires, guided by background knowledge from published literature, 486 consensus statements for initiating ATT were generated and deliberated amongst 81 global uveitis experts. The median score of five was considered reaching consensus for initiating ATT. The median score of four was tabled for deliberation through Delphi round 2 in a face-to-face meeting. This report describes the methodology adopted and followed through the consensus process, which help elucidate the guidelines for initiating ATT in patients with choroidal TB.
Geffrey AL, Geenen KR, Abati E, Greenstein SH, VanderVeen DK, Levy RL, Davidson SL, McGarrey MP, Thiele EA, Aronow ME. Juvenile cataract in association with tuberous sclerosis complex. Ophthalmic Genet 2020;41(4):345-349.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by benign hamartomas occurring in multiple organ systems including the brain, kidneys, heart, lungs, liver, skin, and the eyes. Typical retinal findings associated with TSC include astrocytic hamartoma and achromic patch. While rare cases of cataract occurring in the setting of TSC have been reported, this is the first analysis of a large series of individuals with TSC that aims to quantify the frequency of this finding and to describe its clinical and genetic associations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of 244 patients from the Herscot Center for Tuberous Sclerosis Complex at the Massachusetts General Hospital who underwent complete ophthalmic examination. We describe the clinical and genetic findings in five individuals with TSC and juvenile cataract. RESULTS: Four of five cases (80%) were unilateral. The cataract was described as having an anterior subcapsular component in 3 of 5 cases (60%). Three individuals (60%) underwent lensectomy with intraocular lens (IOL) implant and two individuals (40%) were observed. Genetic testing revealed a known disease-causing mutation in in 100% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Recent evidence suggests that mTOR signaling may play a role in cataract formation which could explain the relatively high incidence of juvenile cataract in this population. Juvenile cataract is a potentially under-recognized ocular manifestation of TSC.
Vujosevic S, Aldington SJ, Silva P, Hernández C, Scanlon P, Peto T, Simó R. Screening for diabetic retinopathy: new perspectives and challenges. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2020;8(4):337-347.Abstract
Although the prevalence of all stages of diabetic retinopathy has been declining since 1980 in populations with improved diabetes control, the crude prevalence of visual impairment and blindness caused by diabetic retinopathy worldwide increased between 1990 and 2015, largely because of the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Screening for diabetic retinopathy is essential to detect referable cases that need timely full ophthalmic examination and treatment to avoid permanent visual loss. In the past few years, personalised screening intervals that take into account several risk factors have been proposed, with good cost-effectiveness ratios. However, resources for nationwide screening programmes are scarce in many countries. New technologies, such as scanning confocal ophthalmology with ultrawide field imaging and handheld mobile devices, teleophthalmology for remote grading, and artificial intelligence for automated detection and classification of diabetic retinopathy, are changing screening strategies and improving cost-effectiveness. Additionally, emerging evidence suggests that retinal imaging could be useful for identifying individuals at risk of cardiovascular disease or cognitive impairment, which could expand the role of diabetic retinopathy screening beyond the prevention of sight-threatening disease.
Furutani E, Shah AS, Zhao Y, Andorsky D, Dedeoglu F, Geddis A, Zhou Y, Libermann TA, Myers KC, Shimamura A. Inflammatory manifestations in patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome: A novel phenotype. Am J Med Genet A 2020;182(7):1754-1760.Abstract
Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by exocrine pancreatic dysfunction, bone marrow failure, and leukemia predisposition. Approximately 90% of cases are due to biallelic mutations in the Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond (SBDS) gene. Additional phenotypic features variably associated with SDS include skeletal, neurologic, hepatic, cardiac, endocrine, and dental abnormalities. We report five subjects with SDS who developed a range of inflammatory manifestations. Three patients developed inflammatory eye conditions. Single cases of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis, and scleroderma were also noted. Clinical presentation and treatment responses are described. Proteomic analysis revealed increased inflammatory signatures in SDS subjects as compared to controls. Treatment of inflammatory manifestations in patients with SDS may be complicated by potential myelosuppressive toxicities of anti-rheumatic medications. Further research is needed to better understand the potential link between inflammatory disorders and SDS to inform effective treatment strategies.
Almeida LM, Lebreton F, Gaca A, Bispo PM, Saavedra JT, Calumby RN, Grillo LM, Nascimento TG, Filsner PH, Moreno AM, Gilmore MS. Transferable Resistance Gene in Enterococcus faecalis from Swine in Brazil. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2020;64(6)Abstract
OptrA is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-F protein that confers resistance to oxazolidinones and phenicols and can be either plasmid-encoded or chromosomally encoded. Here, we isolated 13 strains possessing a linezolid MIC of ≥4 mg/liter from nursery pigs in swine herds located across Brazil. Genome sequence comparison showed that these strains possess in different genetic contexts occurring in 5 different sequence type backgrounds. The gene invariably occurred in association with an regulator and a gene encoding a hypothetical protein. In some contexts, this genetic island was able to excise and form a covalently closed circle within the cell; this circle appeared to occur in high abundance and to be transmissible by coresident plasmids.
Foulsham W, Mittal SK, Taketani Y, Chen Y, Nakao T, Chauhan SK, Dana R. Aged Mice Exhibit Severe Exacerbations of Dry Eye Disease with an Amplified Memory Th17 Cell Response. Am J Pathol 2020;190(7):1474-1482.Abstract
The prevalence as well as the severity of dry eye disease increase with age. Memory T helper 17 (Th17) cells (CD4IL-17ACD44) drive the chronic and relapsing course of dry eye disease. Here, we investigated the contribution of memory Th17 cells to age-related dry eye disease, and evaluated memory Th17 cell depletion with anti-IL-15 antibody as a strategy to abrogate the severe exacerbations of dry eye disease observed in aged mice. After initial exposure to desiccating stress, aged mice maintained higher frequencies of memory Th17 cells in the draining lymph nodes relative to young mice. Upon secondary exposure to desiccating stress, aged mice developed more severe corneal epitheliopathy than young mice, which is associated with increased local frequencies of Th17 cells (CD4IL-17A). Treatment with anti-IL-15 antibody decreased the enlarged memory Th17 pool in aged mice to frequencies comparable with young mice. Furthermore, anti-IL-15-treated mice showed significantly reduced conjunctival infiltration of Th17 cells and lower corneal fluorescein staining scores compared with saline-treated control mice. Our data suggest that age-related increases in the memory Th17 compartment predispose aged mice toward the development of severe corneal epithelial disease after exposure to a dry environment. Selectively targeting memory Th17 cells may be a viable therapeutic approach in the treatment of age-related dry eye disease.
Wladis EJ, Aakalu VK, Foster JA, Freitag SK, Sobel RK, Tao JP, Yen MT. Intense Pulsed Light for Meibomian Gland Disease: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2020;127(9):1227-1233.Abstract
PURPOSE: To review the literature on the efficacy of intense pulsed light (IPL) on the eyelids in the management of meibomian gland disease (MGD) and meibomian gland-related ocular surface disease. METHODS: A literature search was last conducted on May 15, 2019, in the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases for English-language original research that assessed the effect of IPL on MGD in adult patients. Thirty-three articles were identified, and 12 studies were determined to be relevant to the criteria outlined for assessment. The panel methodologist (V.K.A.) assigned a level of evidence rating to each study; 4 studies were rated level II, and 8 studies were rated level III. Five studies had potential conflicts of interest and design limitations that affected interpretation of results. RESULTS: All studies documented improvement in clinically meaningful metrics, including tear breakup time (TBUT), corneal staining and eyelid margin measurements, meibum quality, meibomian gland expressability, ocular surface disease index (OSDI), and standard patient evaluation of eye dryness (SPEED) questionnaire scores. Side effects were relatively uncommon but included discomfort, cutaneous erythema, blistering, eyelash loss, and floaters; these were uniformly self-limited. CONCLUSIONS: Although methodological limitations and potential conflicts of interest in some studies raised concern, the existing body of literature demonstrates improvements in the signs and symptoms of MGD after IPL therapy.
Bothun ED, Wilson EM, VanderVeen DK, Plager DA, Freedman SF, Trivedi RH, Traboulsi EI, Anderson JS, Loh AR, Yen KG, Weil NC, Morrison D, Lambert SR. Outcomes of Bilateral Cataracts Removed in Infants 1 to 7 Months of Age Using the Toddler Aphakia and Pseudophakia Treatment Study Registry. Ophthalmology 2020;127(4):501-510.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate outcomes of bilateral cataract surgery in infants 1 to 7 months of age performed by Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) investigators during IATS recruitment and to compare them with IATS unilateral outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective case series review at 10 IATS sites. PARTICIPANTS: The Toddler Aphakia and Pseudophakia Study (TAPS) is a registry of children treated by surgeons who participated in the IATS. METHODS: Children underwent bilateral cataract surgery with or without intraocular lens (IOL) placement during IATS enrollment years 2004 through 2010. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual acuity (VA), strabismus, adverse events (AEs), and reoperations. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-eight eyes (96 children) were identified with a median age of 2.5 months (range, 1-7 months) at the time of cataract surgery. Forty-two eyes (24%) received primary IOL implantation. Median VA of the better-seeing eye at final study visit closest to 5 years of age with optotype VA testing was 0.35 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR; optotype equivalent, 20/45; range, 0.00-1.18 logMAR) in both aphakic and pseudophakic children. Corrected VA was excellent (<20/40) in 29% of better-seeing eyes, 15% of worse-seeing eyes. One percent showed poor acuity (≥20/200) in the better-seeing eye, 12% in the worse-seeing eye. Younger age at surgery and smaller (<9.5 mm) corneal diameter at surgery conferred an increased risk for glaucoma or glaucoma suspect designation (younger age: odds ratio [OR], 1.44; P = 0.037; and smaller cornea: OR, 3.95; P = 0.045). Adverse events also were associated with these 2 variables on multivariate analysis (younger age: OR, 1.36; P = 0.023; and smaller cornea: OR, 4.78; P = 0.057). Visual axis opacification was more common in pseudophakic (32%) than aphakic (8%) eyes (P = 0.009). Unplanned intraocular reoperation occurred in 28% of first enrolled eyes (including glaucoma surgery in 10%). CONCLUSIONS: Visual acuity after bilateral cataract surgery in infants younger than 7 months is good, despite frequent systemic and ocular comorbidities. Although aphakia management did not affect VA outcome or AE incidence, IOL placement increased the risk of visual axis opacification. Adverse events and glaucoma correlated with a younger age at surgery and glaucoma correlated with the presence of microcornea.
Aminkhani A, Sharifi S, Ekhtiyari S. Achillea filipendulina Lam.: Chemical Constituents and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oil of Stem, Leaf, and Flower. Chem Biodivers 2020;17(5):e2000133.Abstract
In this study, we extracted the essential oils of the stem, leaf, and flower of Achillea filipendulina, analyzed them, and studied their antibacterial properties. Of 16, 53, and 35 compounds identified in the stem, leaf, and flowers, respectively, only five are present in all three segments of the plant. The essential oil of the stem was mainly composed of neryl acetate, spathulenol, carvacrol, santolina alcohol, and trans-caryophyllene oxide. However, the main identified components of leaf were 1,8-cineole, camphor, ascaridole, trans-isoascaridole, and piperitone oxide and the main components of the flower oil were ascaridole, trans-isoascaridole, 1,8-cineole, p-cymene, and camphor. The extracted oil from different segments demonstrated varying antibacterial properties against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, demonstrated by disk, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration methods. These suggest that the application of all segments of aerial parts of A. filipendulina may have a better therapeutic effect in fighting pathogenic systems.
Liu WW, Werner A, Chen TC. Repair of Tube Erosion by Modifying the Tube Extender. J Glaucoma 2020;29(7):604-606.Abstract
We describe here a case report of a novel technique for tube erosion repair, which modifies and utilizes the commercially available tube extender (Model TE). The modification of the tube extender makes the commercially available tube extender more compact and is useful in cases where conjunctival mobility and space are limited. This debulking of the tube extender may reduce the risk of future tube exposure and dellen formation.
Corral-Serrano JC, Lamers IJC, van Reeuwijk J, Duijkers L, Hoogendoorn ADM, Yildirim A, Argyrou N, Ruigrok RAA, Letteboer SJF, Butcher R, van Essen MD, Sakami S, van Beersum SEC, Palczewski K, Cheetham ME, Liu Q, Boldt K, Wolfrum U, Ueffing M, Garanto A, Roepman R, Collin RWJ. PCARE and WASF3 regulate ciliary F-actin assembly that is required for the initiation of photoreceptor outer segment disk formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020;117(18):9922-9931.Abstract
The outer segments (OS) of rod and cone photoreceptor cells are specialized sensory cilia that contain hundreds of opsin-loaded stacked membrane disks that enable phototransduction. The biogenesis of these disks is initiated at the OS base, but the driving force has been debated. Here, we studied the function of the protein encoded by the photoreceptor-specific gene , which is mutated in inherited retinal dystrophy (RP54). We demonstrate that C2orf71/PCARE (photoreceptor cilium actin regulator) can interact with the Arp2/3 complex activator WASF3, and efficiently recruits it to the primary cilium. Ectopic coexpression of PCARE and WASF3 in ciliated cells results in the remarkable expansion of the ciliary tip. This process was disrupted by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based down-regulation of an actin regulator, by pharmacological inhibition of actin polymerization, and by the expression of PCARE harboring a retinal dystrophy-associated missense mutation. Using human retinal organoids and mouse retina, we observed that a similar actin dynamics-driven process is operational at the base of the photoreceptor OS where the PCARE module and actin colocalize, but which is abrogated in mice. The observation that several proteins involved in retinal ciliopathies are translocated to these expansions renders it a potential common denominator in the pathomechanisms of these hereditary disorders. Together, our work suggests that PCARE is an actin-associated protein that interacts with WASF3 to regulate the actin-driven expansion of the ciliary membrane at the initiation of new outer segment disk formation.