Bicket AK, Mihailovic A, E J-Y, Nguyen A, Mukherjee MR, Friedman DS, Ramulu PY. Gait in Elderly Glaucoma: Impact of Lighting Conditions, Changes in Lighting, and Fear of Falling. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2020;9(13):23.Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the impact of lighting changes on gait in elderly patients with glaucoma and evaluate whether associations are mediated by fear of falling (FOF). Methods: Gait initiation and parameters measured with the GAITRite Electronic Walkway were captured in normal indoor light, then in dim light, and again in normal light (normal post dim [NPD]). Participants' right and left eye visual fields (VFs) were merged into integrated VF (IVF) sensitivities. FOF was evaluated using a Rasch-analyzed questionnaire. Multivariable regression models evaluated whether IVF sensitivity was associated with lighting-dependent gait changes and if this relationship was mediated by FOF. Results: In 213 participants (mean age = 71.4 years), gait initiation in dim light took longer with more VF damage ( = 0.02). Greater VF damage was associated with slower gait in dim ( < 0.001) and NPD ( = 0.003) lighting, as well as shorter strides ( = 0.02), broader stance ( = 0.003), and more variable stride velocity and length in all lighting (all < 0.03). When moving from normal to dim lighting, those with more VF damage slowed gait and cadence, shortened stride length, and lengthened double support time (all < 0.001). Velocity, cadence, and double support time did not return to baseline in NPD lighting (all < 0.05). Fear of falling did not appear to mediate the relationship between IVF sensitivity and lighting-dependent gait changes. Conclusions: Patients with more VF damage demonstrate gait degradation in extreme or changing lighting, which is not mediated by FOF. Translational Relevance: Quantitative spatiotemporal gait evaluation reveals lighting-associated impairment, supporting patient-reported difficulty with nonideal lighting and equipping providers to advise patients about limitations.
McKay TB, Guo X, Hutcheon AEK, Karamichos D, Ciolino JB. Methods for Investigating Corneal Cell Interactions and Extracellular Vesicles In Vitro. Curr Protoc Cell Biol 2020;89(1):e114.Abstract
Science and medicine have become increasingly "human-centric" over the years. A growing shift away from the use of animals in basic research has led to the development of sophisticated in vitro models of various tissues utilizing human-derived cells to study physiology and disease. The human cornea has likewise been modeled in vitro using primary cells derived from corneas obtained from cadavers or post-transplantation. By utilizing a cell's intrinsic ability to maintain its tissue phenotype in a pre-designed microenvironment containing the required growth factors, physiological temperature, and humidity, tissue-engineered corneas can be grown and maintained in culture for relatively long periods of time on the scale of weeks to months. Due to its transparency and avascularity, the cornea is an optimal tissue for studies of extracellular matrix and cell-cell interactions, toxicology and permeability of drugs, and underlying mechanisms of scarring and tissue regeneration. This paper describes methods for the cultivation of corneal keratocytes, fibroblasts, epithelial, and endothelial cells for in vitro applications. We also provide detailed, step-by-step protocols for assembling and culturing 3D constructs of the corneal stroma, epithelial- and endothelial-stromal co-cultures and isolation of extracellular vesicles. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Isolating and culturing human corneal keratocytes and fibroblasts Basic Protocol 2: Isolating and culturing human corneal epithelial cells Basic Protocol 3: Isolating and culturing human corneal endothelial cells Basic Protocol 4: 3D corneal stromal construct assembly Basic Protocol 5: 3D corneal epithelial-stromal construct assembly Basic Protocol 6: 3D corneal endothelial-stromal construct assembly Basic Protocol 7: Isolating extracellular vesicles from corneal cell conditioned medium Support Protocol: Cryopreserving human corneal fibroblasts, corneal epithelial cells, and corneal endothelial cells.
Tsubota K, Pflugfelder SC, Liu Z, Baudouin C, Kim HM, Messmer EM, Kruse F, Liang L, Carreno-Galeano JT, Rolando M, Yokoi N, Kinoshita S, Dana R. Defining Dry Eye from a Clinical Perspective. Int J Mol Sci 2020;21(23)Abstract
Over the past decades, the number of patients with dry eye disease (DED) has increased dramatically. The incidence of DED is higher in Asia than in Europe and North America, suggesting the involvement of cultural or racial factors in DED etiology. Although many definitions of DED have been used, discrepancies exist between the various definitions of dry eye disease (DED) used across the globe. This article presents a clinical consensus on the definition of DED, as formulated in four meetings with global DED experts. The proposed new definition is as follows: "Dry eye is a multifactorial disease characterized by a persistently unstable and/or deficient tear film (TF) causing discomfort and/or visual impairment, accompanied by variable degrees of ocular surface epitheliopathy, inflammation and neurosensory abnormalities." The key criteria for the diagnosis of DED are unstable TF, inflammation, ocular discomfort and visual impairment. This definition also recommends the assessment of ocular surface epitheliopathy and neurosensory abnormalities in each patient with suspected DED. It is easily applicable in clinical practice and should help practitioners diagnose DED consistently. This consensus definition of DED should also help to guide research and clinical trials that, to date, have been hampered by the lack of an established surrogate endpoint.
Wang J, Wang X, Gao Y, Lin Z, Chen J, Gigantelli J, Shapiro JI, Xie Z, Pierre SV. Stress Signal Regulation by Na/K-ATPase As a New Approach to Promote Physiological Revascularization in a Mouse Model of Ischemic Retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2020;61(14):9.Abstract
Purpose: The identification of target pathways to block excessive angiogenesis while simultaneously restoring physiological vasculature is an unmet goal in the therapeutic management of ischemic retinopathies. pNaKtide, a cell-permeable peptide that we have designed by mapping the site of α1 Na/K-ATPase (NKA)/Src binding, blocks the formation of α1 NKA/Src/reactive oxygen species (ROS) amplification loops and restores physiological ROS signaling in a number of oxidative disease models. The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of the NKA/Src/ROS amplification loop and the effect of pNaKtide in experimental ischemic retinopathy. Methods: Human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) and retinal pigment epithelium (ARPE-19) cells were used to evaluate the effect of pNaKtide on viability, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Retinal toxicity and distribution were assessed in those cells and in the mouse. Subsequently, the role and molecular mechanism of NKA/Src in ROS stress signaling were evaluated biochemically in the retinas of mice exposed to the well-established protocol of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Finally, pNaKtide efficacy was assessed in this model. Results: The results suggest a key role of α1 NKA in the regulation of ROS stress and the Nrf2 pathway in mouse OIR retinas. Inhibition of α1 NKA/Src by pNaKtide reduced pathologic ROS signaling and restored normal expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Unlike anti-VEGF agents, pNaKtide did promote retinal revascularization while inhibiting neovascularization and inflammation. Conclusions: Targeting α1 NKA represents a novel strategy to develop therapeutics that not only inhibit neovascularization but also promote physiological revascularization in ischemic eye diseases.
Gaier ED, Yonekawa Y. Persistent vasa hyaloidea propria/retinae in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. J AAPOS 2020;Abstract
The vasa hyaloidea propria, a component of the fetal hyaloidal vasculature, is characterized by multiple persistent fetal vasculatures branching into the vitreous. We present a 4-month-old girl with stage 4 familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, with multiple ectopic retinal vessels extending into the vitreous, confirmed with fluorescein angiography, which was consistent with persistent vasa hyaloidea propia/retinae making contact with the retina. The patient underwent vitreoretinal surgery to address the retinal detachment, during which the patent stalks of the persistent vasa hyaloidea propia/retinae were transected.
Dee EC, Mitchell WG, D'Amico AV. Enabling hope. Lancet Oncol 2020;21(12):e549.
Chen XH, Amorim JA, Moustafa GA, Lee J-J, Yu Z, Ishihara K, Iesato Y, Barbisan P, Ueta T, Togka KA, Lu L, Sinclair DA, Vavvas DG. Neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of action of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) in a photoreceptor degenerative model of retinal detachment. Aging (Albany NY) 2020;12Abstract
Currently, no pharmacotherapy has been proven effective in treating photoreceptor degeneration in patients. Discovering readily available and safe neuroprotectants is therefore highly sought after. Here, we investigated nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), in a retinal detachment (RD) induced photoreceptor degeneration. NMN administration after RD resulted in a significant reduction of TUNEL photoreceptors, CD11b macrophages, and GFAP labeled glial activation; a normalization of protein carbonyl content (PCC), and a preservation of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness. NMN administration significantly increased NAD levels, SIRT1 protein expression, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Delayed NMN administration still exerted protective effects after RD. Mechanistic studies using 661W cells revealed a SIRT1/HO-1 signaling as a downstream effector of NMN-mediated protection under oxidative stress and LPS stimulation. In conclusion, NMN administration exerts neuroprotective effects on photoreceptors after RD and oxidative injury, suggesting a therapeutic avenue to treating photoreceptor degeneration.
Antoszyk AN, Glassman AR, Beaulieu WT, Jampol LM, Jhaveri CD, Punjabi OS, Salehi-Had H, Wells JA, Maguire MG, Stockdale CR, Martin DF, Sun JK, Sun JK. Effect of Intravitreous Aflibercept vs Vitrectomy With Panretinal Photocoagulation on Visual Acuity in Patients With Vitreous Hemorrhage From Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2020;324(23):2383-2395.Abstract
Importance: Vitreous hemorrhage from proliferative diabetic retinopathy can cause loss of vision. The best management approach is unknown. Objective: To compare initial treatment with intravitreous aflibercept vs vitrectomy with panretinal photocoagulation for vitreous hemorrhage from proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized clinical trial at 39 DRCR Retina Network sites in the US and Canada including 205 adults with vison loss due to vitreous hemorrhage from proliferative diabetic retinopathy who were enrolled from November 2016 to December 2017. The final follow-up visit was completed in January 2020. Interventions: Random assignment of eyes (1 per participant) to aflibercept (100 participants) or vitrectomy with panretinal photocoagulation (105 participants). Participants whose eyes were assigned to aflibercept initially received 4 monthly injections. Both groups could receive aflibercept or vitrectomy during follow-up based on protocol criteria. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was mean visual acuity letter score (range, 0-100; higher scores indicate better vision) over 24 weeks (area under the curve); the study was powered to detect a difference of 8 letters. Secondary outcomes included mean visual acuity at 4 weeks and 2 years. Results: Among 205 participants (205 eyes) who were randomized (mean [SD] age, 57 [11] years; 115 [56%] men; mean visual acuity letter score, 34.5 [Snellen equivalent, 20/200]), 95% (195 of 205) completed the 24-week visit and 90% (177 of 196, excluding 9 deaths) completed the 2-year visit. The mean visual acuity letter score over 24 weeks was 59.3 (Snellen equivalent, 20/63) (95% CI, 54.9 to 63.7) in the aflibercept group vs 63.0 (Snellen equivalent, 20/63) (95% CI, 58.6 to 67.3) in the vitrectomy group (adjusted difference, -5.0 [95% CI, -10.2 to 0.3], P = .06). Among 23 secondary outcomes, 15 showed no significant difference. The mean visual acuity letter score was 52.6 (Snellen equivalent, 20/100) in the aflibercept group vs 62.3 (Snellen equivalent, 20/63) in the vitrectomy group at 4 weeks (adjusted difference, -11.2 [95% CI, -18.5 to -3.9], P = .003) and 73.7 (Snellen equivalent, 20/40) vs 71.0 (Snellen equivalent, 20/40) at 2 years (adjusted difference, 2.7 [95% CI, -3.1 to 8.4], P = .36). Over 2 years, 33 eyes (33%) assigned to aflibercept received vitrectomy and 34 eyes (32%) assigned to vitrectomy received subsequent aflibercept. Conclusions and Relevance: Among participants whose eyes had vitreous hemorrhage from proliferative diabetic retinopathy, there was no statistically significant difference in the primary outcome of mean visual acuity letter score over 24 weeks following initial treatment with intravitreous aflibercept vs vitrectomy with panretinal photocoagulation. However, the study may have been underpowered, considering the range of the 95% CI, to detect a clinically important benefit in favor of initial vitrectomy with panretinal photocoagulation. Trial Registration: Identifier: NCT02858076.
Tellefsen S, Badian RA, Utheim TP, Utheim ØA, Stojanovic A, Tashbayev B, Raeder S, Dartt DA, Chen X. Sex and age differences in symptoms and signs of dry eye disease in a Norwegian cohort of patients. Ocul Surf 2020;Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate sex and age differences in symptoms and signs in a Norwegian clinic-based cohort of patients with dry eye disease (DED). METHODS: Visitors at the Norwegian Dry Eye Clinic were examined using Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire score, tear osmolarity, tear break-up time (TFBUT), ocular surface staining, corneal sensitivity, Schirmer I test, and meibum expressibility (ME) and quality (MQ). A diagnosis of DED was made by an ophthalmologist based on symptoms and signs, and only DED patients were enrolled in the study: 1823 patients (338 males; mean age 51.2 ± 16.2 years; 1485 females; mean age 52.5 ± 16.0 years). The patients were divided into age subgroups: 20-39 years, 40-59 years and ≥60 years. Sex differences in the aforementioned tests were analyzed. Values were reported as mean ± standard deviation (SD), and intergroup comparisons were performed using Mann-Whitney U test. Multiple regression was used to analyze sex and age influences on symptoms and signs. RESULTS: When patients of all ages were analyzed, females had increased osmolarity, shorter TFBUT, reduced MQ and ME and higher corneal sensitivity. OSDI, Schirmer I test, ocular surface staining and corneal staining were not significantly different between the sexes. Only with TFBUT and ME were the sex difference present in all age subgroups. Multiple regression showed that all parameters were influenced by either sex or age, but only TFBUT and ME were influenced by both sex and age. (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Sex and age differences in dry eye were most consistent in TFBUT and ME, that indicate differences in meibomian gland functionality. Sex and age subgroup stratification is important in future studies investigating DED in other populations.
Truong-Le M, Chwalisz B. Antibody Testing in Atypical Optic Neuritis. Semin Ophthalmol 2020;:1-9.Abstract
Optic neuritis (ON) is a common manifestation of central nervous system demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The last two decades have seen increasing recognition of atypical optic neuritis syndromes, driven in large part by characterization of demyelinating diseases associated with antibodies to aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). Given their increased importance in the workup of ON, familiarity with serological tests for ON has become essential for ophthalmologists. This review will discuss technological aspects, performance, and clinical implications of serological tests for atypical ON.
Douglas VP, Douglas KA, Cestari DM. Optic nerve sheath meningioma. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2020;31(6):455-461.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Optic nerve sheath meningiomas (ONSMs) are rare benign tumors of the anterior visual pathway which present with slowly progressive and painless vision loss and account for approximately 2% of all orbital tumors. This article provides an overview as well as an update on the ONSMs with regards to cause, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management in adults and pediatric population. RECENT FINDINGS: The clinical presentation and prognosis of ONSMs can vary and largely depend on the location of tumor as well as the histologic type. Overall, the diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, examination, and neuroimaging findings. Nevertheless, delays in diagnosis or misdiagnosis are not uncommon and can result in higher morbidity rates. Recent advances in diagnostic as well as more effective and less-invasive treatment options are discussed in this review. SUMMARY: ONSMs are a rare cause of slowly progressive and inexorable visual loss. Although ONSM diagnosis depends on the characteristic clinical and radiologic findings, prompt diagnosis, and appropriate management is critical for favorable visual outcomes. Thus, current focus is optimizing diagnostic as well-treatment methods for patients with ONSMs.
Panayi AC, Wu M, Liu Q, Haug V, Yu Z. The Rising Interest in Canthoplasty: An Analysis of Online Search Trends. J Craniofac Surg 2020;Abstract
Canthoplasty as a cosmetic procedure appears to be on the rise in the West. Online search query data offers a powerful tool for analyzing population trends, including changes in patient interest in surgical procedures. Cosmetic surgeons can utilize the internet to increase patient education and interest, as well as to provide information and address misinformation. In this study we sought to verify the increase in cosmetic canthoplasty, for the first time, through analysis of Internet search data, and to establish trends in the interest of Internet users for cosmetic canthoplasty. These trends were subsequently compared with trends in literature publication to establish whether there is a correlation between patient and surgeon interest in the procedure.
Tisdale AK, Chwalisz BK. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of coronavirus disease 19. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2020;31(6):489-494.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a summary of the neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), documented in the literature thus far. RECENT FINDINGS: A small but growing literature documents cases of new onset neuro-ophthalmic disease, in the setting of COVID-19 infection. Patients with COVID-19 have experienced acute onset vision loss, optic neuritis, cranial neuropathies, and Miller Fisher syndrome. In addition, COVID-19 increases the risk of cerebrovascular diseases that can impact the visual system. SUMMARY: The literature on COVID-19 continues to evolve. Although COVID-19 primarily impacts the respiratory system, there are several reports of new onset neuro-ophthalmic conditions in COVID-infected patients. When patients present with new onset neuro-ophthalmic issues, COVID-19 should be kept on the differential. Testing for COVID-19 should be considered, especially when fever or respiratory symptoms are also present. When screening general patients for COVID-19-associated symptoms, frontline physicians can consider including questions about diplopia, eye pain, pain with extraocular movements, decreased vision, gait issues, and other neurologic symptoms. The presence of these symptoms may increase the overall probability of viral infection, especially when fever or respiratory symptoms are present. More research is needed to establish a causal relationship between COVID-19 and neuro-ophthalmic disease, and better understand pathogenesis.
Sobrin L, Yu Y, Susarla G, Chan W, Xia T, Kempen JH, Hubbard RA, VanderBeek BL. Risk of Noninfectious Uveitis with Female Hormonal Therapy in a Large Healthcare Claims Database. Ophthalmology 2020;127(11):1558-1566.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine if female hormonal therapy (FHT) increases the incidence of noninfectious uveitis. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Women exposed to FHT and matched women unexposed to FHT enrolled in a national insurance plan. METHODS: Estimation of noninfectious uveitis incidence used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. To account for differences between the exposed and unexposed cohorts, a propensity score for being prescribed FHT was created using logistic regression, and inverse probability of treatment weighting was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of noninfectious uveitis. For the primary outcome, incident noninfectious uveitis was defined as a new diagnosis code for noninfectious uveitis followed by a second instance of a noninfectious uveitis code within 120 days. For the alternative outcome definition, a corticosteroid prescription or code for an ocular corticosteroid injection within 120 days of the uveitis diagnosis code was used instead of the second uveitis diagnosis code. RESULTS: There were 217 653 women exposed to FHT and 928 408 women not unexposed to FHT. For the primary outcome, the hazard ratio (HR) for incident noninfectious uveitis was not significantly different between the FHT and unexposed cohorts (HR, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.17; P = 0.87). With the alternative outcome definition, the FHT cohort was more likely to develop uveitis (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.04-1.41; P = 0.01). When examined by anatomic subtype, for anterior uveitis there was a greater likelihood of incident uveitis in the exposed cohort (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.05-1.45; P = 0.01) for the alternative outcome definition but not for the primary outcome. With age stratification, women exposed to FHT aged ≥45 years at the time of FHT prescription were more likely to develop uveitis (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.03-1.47; P = 0.03) for the alternative outcome definition. A similar HR (1.22) was seen for women aged ≤44 years at the time of prescription, but this association did not meet statistical significance (P = 0.20). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to FHT increases the rate of incident noninfectious uveitis when uveitis is defined on the basis of both diagnostic codes and documentation of corticosteroid treatment. However, the risk is modest and FHT is likely safe with regard to noninfectious uveitis risk in the majority of patients exposed to these drugs.